Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - LOOP

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Item 1A. Risk Factors of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Risk Factors” of this Annual Report.

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Overview

Loop is a technology company whose mission is to accelerate the world’s shift towards sustainable PET plastic and polyester fiber and away from the dependence on fossil fuels. Loop owns patented and proprietary technology that depolymerizes no and low-value waste PET plastic and polyester fiber (“Infinite Loop Technology”), including plastic bottles and packaging, carpets and textiles of any color, transparency or condition and even ocean plastics that have been degraded by the sun and salt, to its base building blocks (monomers). The monomers are filtered, purified and polymerized to create virgin-quality Loop branded PET resin suitable for use in food-grade packaging and polyester fiber, thus enabling our customers to meet their sustainability objectives. Loop is contributing to the global movement towards a circular economy by reducing and recovering plastic waste for a sustainable future.

We also intend to leverage the Infinite Loop Technology to expand into specialty chemicals and polymers through a unique product offering of lower carbon footprint rDMT, rMEG and specialty polymers. Loop intends to produce and sell rDMT, rMEG and other specialty polymers directly to chemical companies as a simple drop-in supplement and circular alternative. We believe this expanded product portfolio will enable the Infinite Loop Technology to reach new markets and cater to a broader range of customers across multiple industries including electronics, automotive, textile, cosmetics and packaging and other applications. This recent expansion in Loop’s product offering is non-reliant on green premiums or carbon and plastic credits, and we believe it addresses a global shortage in supply of DMT and high demand for low carbon MEG, and lowers capital intensity for commercial projects with the removal of polymerization equipment.

The Company is presently in the planning stages of pursuing the construction of Infinite Loop commercial scale facilities. Loop is currently engaged in discussions to secure financing for its investments in the various planned manufacturing facilities and the sequencing of the manufacturing facilities will be determined in conjunction with the outcome of the Company’s financing discussions and discussions with our partners.

Background

Industry Background

We believe Loop’s depolymerization technology offers a complementary solution to mechanical recycling by enabling the use of a wider variety of PET feedstock, including complex and degraded plastics as well as polyester fiber, to produce virgin quality rPET with no degradation through continued recycling.

Mechanically recycled PET plastic is produced principally through the conversion of bales of PET bottles. The materials have been collected and transported to a materials recovery facility, where they are sorted from other materials, baled, and sent to specific PET recycling facilities. The bales are broken and sorted to remove any non-PET materials. The PET is then ground and put through a separation process which separates the PET from the bottle cap and label materials. Clean PET flake is then further processed depending on its intended end market. It may become more highly refined PET pellets for new bottles or extruded into PET sheet for clamshells, trays, and cups. Recycled PET is also spun into fiber for carpet, clothing, fiber fill, or other materials.

We believe mechanically recycled PET faces a number of challenges in meeting the quality specifications and growing volume requirements implied by commitments from major brands, mainly due to the cost and variety of acceptable PET feedstock. Some mechanical recycling processes involve remelting the PET flake which reduces the quality of the rPET output each time it is recycled relative to the specifications of virgin PET produced from fossil fuels. Each time PET plastic is mechanically recycled, its quality and clarity are reduced. Therefore, mechanically recycled PET may need to be mixed with virgin PET from fossil fuels to maintain quality. Lower quality mechanically recycled PET is often downcycled to alternate uses such as polyester fibers which may be dyed and used in carpets or clothing. Additionally, mechanically recycled PET manufactured for use in clear bottles or food containers requires predominantly clear and clean PET flakes separated from waste bales, and cannot accommodate colored or opaque PET flakes, lower quality fiber feedstock, or materially contaminated feedstock, which may be cheaper.

Depolymerization is a process in which plastics are broken down into their constituent molecules through chemical reactions, rather than being physically melted down and reprocessed as in mechanical recycling. This approach, which we utilize, has several advantages over mechanical recycling, which can have limitations due to the complexity and diversity of plastics.

One of the main limitations of mechanical recycling is that it is difficult to recycle plastics that have been contaminated or degraded. For example, if a plastic container has been exposed to heat or sunlight, it may become brittle and prone to breaking during the recycling process. Another limitation of mechanical recycling is that it is difficult to recycle certain types of plastics, such as multi-layered or composite plastics. These plastics are often used in food packaging or other products that require specialized properties like barrier protection or insulation. Depolymerization, however, can break down these degraded or complex plastics into their constituent molecules, which can then be purified and used to create new products. Chemical recycling, however, can break down these degraded or complex plastics into their constituent molecules, which can then be purified and used to create new products.

Loop’s depolymerization technology has the potential to create a closed-loop system for plastic waste, whereby plastics can be recycled an infinite number of times without degrading the quality of the material. This is because the constituent molecules can be broken down and reassembled without losing their original properties, which can reduce the need for new plastics to be produced.

We believe Loop’s depolymerization technology offers a promising solution to the limitations of mechanical recycling by enabling the recirculation of more diverse and complex plastics, reducing waste and pollution, and creating a closed-loop system for plastic waste.

Our depolymerization technology breaks down waste PET into DMT and MEG. The monomers are purified and then recombined into virgin quality PET plastic and polyester fiber. We use low value PET plastic and polyester fiber waste as feedstock. Our technology can process PET plastic bottles and packaging of any color, transparency or condition, carpet, clothing and other polyester textiles that may contain colors, dyes, or additives, and even PET plastics that have been recovered from the ocean and degraded by exposure to sun and salt. We believe that our ability to use many materials that mechanical recyclers cannot process is an important advantage of Loop PET resin and further expands the range of PET waste streams that may be recycled. This also means we are creating a new market for materials that have persistently been leaking out of the waste management system and into shared rivers, oceans and natural areas.

Currently, the DMT market is largely dominated by few key players, leaving limited options for customers and high market concentration. Additionally, the market is experiencing a global shortage of DMT, amplifying market challenges and creating a pressing need for alternative sources. The introduction of Loop’s rDMT has the potential to shift the market dynamic by offering a sustainable alternative to traditional DMT produced from fossil fuels.

In parallel, low-carbon MEG is in high demand and customers are increasingly seeking alternative solutions, but market options are limited and costly. As sustainability concerns intensify and regulatory pressures mount, the demand for low carbon MEG solutions is expected to continue to grow. Loop’s rMEG has the potential to address a gap in the market and help fulfill customers’ needs by offering a lower carbon footprint recycled alternative to the current market options for MEG.

Strategic partnership with Ester Industries Ltd. (“Ester”)

On May 1, 2024 Loop entered into an agreement with Ester, one of India's leading manufacturers of polyester films and specialty polymers, to form a 50/50 India joint venture (“India JV”). The purpose of the India JV is to build and operate an Infinite Loop manufacturing facility in India which will produce a unique product offering of lower carbon footprint rDMT, rMEG and specialty polymers, using the Infinite Loop Technology.

Loop and Ester have a well-established working relationship, with Ester producing Loop PET using monomers produced at Loop’s Terrebonne Facility for global brand companies over the last four years. The India JV intends to leverage the complementary skill set of each partner by combining Loop's innovative technology and well-established global customer relationships with Ester's nearly 40 years of specialized polymer production, operational proficiency, and local expertise, including sourcing of PET plastic and polyester fiber waste feedstocks.

The Infinite Loop India facility is expected to produce 70,000 tonnes of rDMT and 23,000 tonnes of rMEG annually and Ester will toll convert the rDMT and rMEG into various grades of specialty polymers, offering chemical companies a simple drop-in supplement and circular alternative.

The rDMT and rMEG product offerings expected to be manufactured at the Infinite Loop India facility represent a strategic product expansion in a low-cost manufacturing environment which we believe complements Loop's existing PET plastic and polyester fiber manufacturing business and will fuel growth by addressing the large and growing demand in the market. We believe this expansion will enable the Infinite Loop Technology to reach new markets and cater to a broader range of customers across multiple industries including electronics, automotive, textile, cosmetics and packaging.

The India facility will leverage the Infinite Loop Technology and existing engineering package which should accelerate the lead-time towards groundbreaking, expected to occur by end of 2024. Feedstock sourcing for the facility, in which there is abundant supply from textile waste in India, is well advanced and the partners have engaged an external firm to source and secure the land for the facility. Construction is expected to be completed by the end of 2026, with commercial operations commencing in early 2027.

We believe the India JV offers attractive projected economic returns without the need for substantial sustainability-linked premium pricing. Loop and Ester anticipate that initial funding required to finance the India JV for the purposes of construction, development and operationalization of the project along with initial working capital requirements for the business is expected to be $165 million. Ester and Loop will each contribute 50% of the initial equity capital of the India JV.

Subject to the terms of the relevant governing documents, Ester will be the exclusive producer of specialty polymers for the India JV, and Loop will be the exclusive seller and marketing agent of the India JV’s products. Ester and Loop will work in collaboration on all financing activities for the India JV pursuant to the terms of the agreement.

Loop and Ester will also enter into (i) a technology license agreement with Loop (the “Loop Technology License Agreement”), (ii) a service agreement with Ester, and (iii) a sales and marketing agreement with Loop, each on terms to be mutually agreed upon by the parties. Pursuant to the Loop Technology License Agreement, the India JV will be granted an exclusive, subject to certain exceptions, license to exploit the Infinite Loop Technology in India at a royalty rate to be set forth in the Loop Technology License Agreement.

Strategic Partnership with SK Geo Centric (“SKGC”)

In June 2021, Loop and SKGC concluded a definitive agreement for SKGC to become a strategic investor in Loop, with SKGC acquiring a 10% stake in Loop at $12.00 per share for a total of $56.5 million. The transaction, which closed in July 2021, also included warrants for SKGC to purchase Loop common stock at $15.00 and $20.00 per share. Concurrent with the strategic investment, Loop and SKGC entered into a memorandum of understanding (“MOU”) to form a joint venture with exclusivity to build sustainable PET plastic and polyester fiber manufacturing facilities throughout Asia.

In July 2021, in connection with the closing of the transaction, Loop entered into an Investor Rights Agreement with SK global chemical Co., Ltd. (the “Purchaser”) and Daniel Solomita (the “Investor Rights Agreement”), which provides for, among other things, customary resale shelf registration rights for the Purchaser that require Loop to file with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 covering the resale of the Loop common stock held by the Purchaser within 90 days after the second anniversary of the closing of the transaction. Loop intends to file such registration statement following the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

SKGC is a global chemical company and member of the SK Group, one of South Korea’s largest conglomerates. SKGC is a general energy and chemical leader in the global market and is growing into a technology-based global chemical company through continuous research and development efforts. SKGC aims to achieve its “Green for Better Life” vision by establishing a plastics based circular economy through collaboration with various partners and stakeholders, such as Loop.

Asia represents approximately 60% of the world’s population and 70% of global PET consumption and is the main hub for the polyester fiber supply chain for textiles. The Asian market represents a prime opportunity for Loop’s growth and commercialization of its technology. SKGC is well established with a deep understanding of the Asian market, and vast expertise in building and operating large-scale petrochemical facilities, making them a uniquely well-suited partner for Loop in helping to ensure the successful commercialization of Loop’s technology in this market.

On April 27, 2023, Loop and SKGC entered into a joint venture agreement (the “JV Agreement”) to deploy Loop’s depolymerization technology in the Asian market through multiple commercial manufacturing facilities. Pursuant to the JV Agreement, Loop and SKGC agreed to form a new company (the “JV Company”), which will be headquartered in Singapore. SKGC will contribute 51% and Loop will contribute 49% of the initial equity capital of the JV Company. The JV Agreement outlines that the JV Company will have exclusive rights to commercialize Loop’s technology to produce rPET in the Asian market and Loop will receive an annual royalty fee for each of the commercial plants. The JV Agreement outlines that the JV Company will have exclusive rights to commercialize Loop’s technology in the Asian market and Loop will receive an annual royalty fee for each of the commercial plants.

The planned Infinite Loop commercial manufacturing facility in Ulsan, South Korea, is expected to have an annual capacity to supply up to 70,000 metric tons per year of Loop PET resin for packaging and polyester fiber applications, and was planned to break ground in the first half of 2024. The timing of the facility is currently under review by the partners while they evaluate opportunities to reduce capital costs and carry out discussions with the Korean government for subsidies related to the facility. Loop and SKGC are also evaluating the opportunity to build a monomer facility in order to capitalize on the large and growing market and attractive economics for DMT and MEG, including lower capital investment requirements for such a facility.

In addition to Infinite Loop Ulsan, the two partners have outlined plans which target a minimum of three additional commercial manufacturing facilities to be constructed throughout Asia by 2030. Loop and SKGC have partnered with SK ecoengineering, a subsidiary of the SK Group that brings considerable experience and proficiency as an EPC contractor, for the engineering and construction of the manufacturing facilities.

The planned facility in Asia will be part of SKGC’s Ulsan Advanced Recycling Cluster (“Ulsan ARC”) in South Korea. Daniel Solomita, Loop’s Founder and CEO, participated in the groundbreaking ceremony of the Ulsan ARC which took place on November 15, 2023 in South Korea. Mr. Solomita presented the Company’s sustainable plastics technology and its Infinite Loop manufacturing model at the event, which included attendees ranging from central and local government officials, industry officials, environmental institutions, academic experts, customers and media.

Infinite Loop Europe

We announced on September 10, 2020 a strategic partnership with SUEZ Group (“Suez”), with the objective to build the first Infinite Loop manufacturing facility in Europe. On June 16, 2022, Loop, together with Suez and SKGC, announced that the three companies will become equal participants in the strategic partnership.

The expanded partnership intends to combine SKGC’s petrochemical manufacturing experience with Suez's resource management expertise and Loop’s breakthrough proprietary technology to supply up to 70,000 M/T of virgin quality, 100% recycled PET plastic and polyester fiber to the European market. The planned Infinite Loop facility will offer a solution to consumer goods companies which have committed to goals for significantly increased use of recycled content in their products and/or packaging and help to meet the growing demand for recycled PET resin and polyester fiber.

On February 16, 2023, the three companies announced that the Chemesis industrial platform in Saint-Avold, located in the Grand Est region of France, has been selected as the site for their planned manufacturing facility in Europe. We are working with our partners Suez and SKGC on acquiring the project site, alignment of various levels of government support and additional steps for the project which include advancing permitting, site specific engineering, customer offtake contracts, feedstock and financing. In the quarter ended February 29, 2024, the company recorded expenses of $0.50 million in relation to preliminary project costs.

Memorandum of Understanding (“MOU”) with Reed Management SAS (“Reed”)

On January 16, 2024, Loop announced that it had signed a non-binding MOU with Reed, a newly-formed European investment firm focused on high impact and technology-enabled infrastructure. Pursuant to the MOU, Loop and Reed intend to form a strategic long-term partnership through the establishment of a 50/50 joint venture to commercialize Loop’s technology in Europe and for Reed to provide financing which would be utilized to fund the global commercialization of the Infinite Loop™ Technology (the “Proposed Transaction”). Since the signing of the MOU, Reed has invested significant resources in undertaking and completing extensive operational, technical, ESG, and legal due diligence. Loop and Reed continue to negotiate binding agreements with respect to the Proposed Transaction, and each party continues to work towards obtaining financing to fulfill its funding obligations with respect to the Proposed Transaction. The Company understands from Reed that its funding negotiations are progressing well and that it now expects to obtain its required funding via a transformative transaction, which by its nature has been a more extensive process than previously contemplated and which would also require regulatory approval. While entry into binding agreements would remain subject to the satisfaction of certain closing conditions, Loop and Reed are hopeful that they will enter into such binding agreements imminently, and close the Proposed Transaction by the end of the second quarter of the fiscal year ending February 28, 2025.

Loop Branded PET Resin Compliant for Pharmaceutical Industry Packaging Applications

On December 13, 2023, Loop announced that its Loop™ branded PET resin has been tested and is compliant for use in packaging applications in the pharmaceutical industry. The rigorous requirements and standards outlined by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP <661.1>, Plastic Materials of Construction) and the European Pharmacopeia (Ph.Eur. 3.1.15, Polyethylene Terephthalate for Containers for Preparations not for Parenteral Uses) ensure that materials used in pharmaceutical packaging maintain the highest levels of integrity and do not compromise the safety and efficacy of the enclosed products. Test results executed by a worldwide leader in laboratory testing services confirm that Loop's PET resin has successfully met these requirements, opening new possibilities for sustainable packaging solutions in the pharmaceutical industry.

The pharmaceutical industry is increasingly recognizing the importance of adopting sustainable practices and materials to reduce its environmental impact. Loop's 100% recycled virgin quality PET can help support pharmaceutical companies with a sustainable packaging alternative and address the growing demand for environmentally responsible choices in the industry.

Supply Agreements with Global Consumer Brands

In the past years, we have seen major consumer brands make significant commitments to close the loop on their plastic use by transitioning their packaging to recyclable materials like PET, and by incorporating more recycled content into their packaging. We believe Loop PET resin provides the ideal solution for these brands because it is recyclable and is made from 100% recycled PET waste and polyester fiber, while being virgin-quality and suitable for use in food-grade packaging, packaging applications in the pharmaceutical industry, and polyester fiber.

Due to the commitments by large global consumer brands to incorporate more recycled content into their product packaging, the regulatory requirements for minimum recycled content in packaging imposed by governments, the virgin-quality of Loop branded PET resin and its marketability to enhance the sustainability credentials of consumer brands that incorporate it, we believe we will be able to sell Loop branded PET resin at a premium price relative to virgin and mechanically recycled PET resin.

We currently have agreements with some of the world’s leading brands to be supplied from our planned commercial facilities, including:

We also have a signed letter of intent with On AG, a sportswear brand and subsidiary of On Holding AG, to secure volumes of Loop PET resin from the planned Asian Infinite Loop manufacturing facility in Ulsan, South Korea, which Loop is planning to construct with its strategic partner SKGC.

We are pursuing amended supply agreements with existing customers and new agreements with additional customers that are located in North America, Europe, and Asia to sell the production volumes of our planned Infinite Loop commercial facilities.

Product activations with evian, L’Occitane, On AG, and Garnier

Loop has collaborated with multiple customers in recent and upcoming launches for products and product packaging incorporating Loop PET manufactured from monomers produced at Loop’s small-scale production facility in Terrebonne, Québec (the “Terrebonne Facility”).

In 2021, Loop, in partnership with iconic global beverage brand evian, unveiled a new “evian Loop” prototype virgin-quality water bottle made from 100% recycled content. The monomers used to produce the evian Loop bottles were made at the Terrebonne Facility. Evian began selling water bottles made from Loop PET in South Korea in October 2022. The waste plastic used to produce these bottles includes polyester fibers from carpets and clothing which are considered unrecyclable and destined for landfill and other natural environments. This initiative reflects evian’s commitment to its stated goal for circularity and 100% recycled content by 2025.

On October 11, 2022, Loop and L’OCCITANE, a global manufacturer and retailer of sustainable beauty and wellness products, unveiled a new bottle for the brand’s Almond Shower Oil that was manufactured with 100% recycled Loop™ PET resin produced using monomers from Loop’s Terrebonne Facility. Loop has partnered with L’OCCITANE to help meet the brand’s sustainability goal of using 100% recycled PET in its bottles by 2025. In partnership with the brand, a pilot project was executed where the bottle (excluding cap and label) was produced using 100% recycled Loop™ PET resin and was successfully carried out on L’OCCITANE production lines. This initiative marks a significant step forward in the partnership between the two companies and sets the pathway to implement Loop’s technology across other products in the brand’s assortment. As part of this partnership with L’OCCITANE, Loop’s branding is featured prominently on the front of the packaging, with additional details speaking to Loop’s technology on the back label.

On April 19, 2023, Loop and Garnier, one of the world’s largest mass market beauty brands, launched the brand’s first Micellar Cleansing Water All-In-1 bottle made of Loop PET produced using monomers from Loop’s Terrebonne Facility (excluding cap and label). The Loop logo, featured on the front of this packaging innovation, serves as an anchor to highlight Loop’s technology, the quality of materials and the bottle’s recyclability. The inclusion of Loop branding on the packaging strongly supports Garnier’s sustainability goals by promoting the infinitely recyclable potential of the product and brings awareness to PET plastic circularity. This packaging innovation will first be distributed in Garnier’s largest market, the US and the brand’s home market of France.

We also entered into an agreement in May 2022 with On AG, the Swiss sportswear brand, to supply Loop PET to be utilized in polyester fiber by the brand, pursuant to which Loop PET resin was delivered in the year ended February 28, 2023.

Loop and On AG collaborated to launch the Cloudeasy Cyclon shoe which was unveiled on May 21st, 2024. The upper of the Cloudeasy shoe is crafted with 100% recycled and infinitely recyclable yarn, using the Infinite Loop Technology. On AG is the first footwear company to launch a shoe using the Infinite Loop Technology which enables fiber-to-fiber recycling. The Cloudeasy Cyclon shoe is part of On AG’s monthly subscription service Cyclon where customers receive, wear, and then return Cylon products, which are then recycled.

Loop continues to pursue opportunities for new activations and marketing campaigns with additional consumer goods brand companies.

Terrebonne Facility

As part of our plan for the commercialization of future Infinite Loop manufacturing facilities, we enhanced our Terrebonne, Québec pilot plant to become a small-scale PET depolymerization production facility, incorporating all key pieces of depolymerization equipment that will be used in the full-scale commercial facilities. In addition to our research and development activities, this facility is used to deliver initial production volumes to support co-branded market launch campaigns with partners and customers and will also be used to showcase the Infinite Loop end-to-end technology and train operational teams in advance of the commissioning of the planned Infinite Loop full-scale commercial facilities.

We believe that the Terrebonne Facility has achieved its primary purpose of demonstrating that Loop’s breakthrough depolymerization technology is scalable and producing commercial quantities of virgin quality PET resin and polyester fiber for global brands.

In the year ended February 29, 2024, Loop reported revenues of $0.15 million from the sale of Loop™ PET resin produced from monomers manufactured at the Terrebonne Facility to several global consumer brands, including those with whom Loop is collaborating on product launches. In addition to supplying customers with initial volumes of Loop PET, the Terrebonne Facility continues to support our customers and partners with research and development and analytical capabilities.

Market Opportunity

The estimated global annual market demand for PET plastic and polyester fiber was approximately $182 billion in 2023, and the DMT and MEG specialty chemicals global market size is estimated at $28 billion and forecasted to grow at a 3.7% CAGR through 2033. We believe plastic pollution and climate change continue to be the most persistently covered environmental issues by media and local and global environmental non-governmental organizations. Some of the main concerns associated with PET are the greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions associated with its production from non-renewable hydrocarbons and the length of time it persists in landfills and the natural environment. There is an increasing demand for action to address the global plastic crisis, as evidenced by the March 2022 endorsement by 175 nations of a historic resolution at the UN Environmental Assembly to end plastic pollution and forge an international legally binding agreement by the end of 2024. In the last few years, governments in North America, Europe and Asia have been enacting and proposing laws and regulations mandating the use of minimum recycled content in packaging, which underlies the strength of this issue in the marketplace. Consumer brands are seeking a solution to their plastic challenge, and they are taking action. In recent years we have seen major brands make significant commitments to close the loop on their plastic packaging by transitioning their packaging to recyclable materials and by incorporating more recycled content into their packaging.

Global consumer packaged goods companies (“CPG companies”), apparel manufacturers, and retail brands have announced significant public commitments and targets to make the transition to a circular plastic economy, for example:

There is a growing regulatory and policy environment to encourage a reduction in the production of virgin fossil fuel-based plastic and for minimum recycled content in packaging imposed by various governments:

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North America:

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Canada has announced a goal of zero-plastic waste by 2030 and is targeting for all plastic packaging to contain 50% recycled content by 2030.

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California law requires that plastic bottles contain at least 25% post-consumer resin by 2025, and at least 50% by 2030.

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Europe:

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Asia:

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South Korea continues to target reduction of plastic waste by 20%, an increase in recycling rates from 54% to 70% by 2025, and utilization of 30% renewable plastic by 2030.

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India has mandated consumer brands to include at least 30% recycled plastic in their packaging by 2025.

The growing regulatory environment combined with global consumer goods companies, apparel manufacturers, and retail brand commitments for 2025 and 2030 are expected to further increase the demand for rPET.

Closed-loop circularity and keeping materials within their own cycle (bottle-to-bottle and fiber-to-fiber) is gaining increasing attention as the focus on sustainability intensifies. Governments and regulators have considered or enacted heightened standards for recycled materials that discourage downcycling of bottles into polyester fiber. Additionally, it is becoming increasingly difficult to secure inventory of post-consumer bottles due to the increased demand from the bottle industry as they strive to achieve their own sustainability goals. A fiber-to-fiber recycling strategy addresses these problems and allows fashion brands and companies to secure volume and support the increasing demand of recycled polyester fiber in the textile industry.

We believe the commercialization plans of Loop PET resin and polyester fiber may provide the ideal solution for global brands because Loop PET resin and polyester fiber contains 100% recycled PET and polyester fiber content. The Loop PET resin and polyester fiber is virgin-quality and is suitable for use in food-grade packaging. That means CPG companies will be able to market packaging made from a 100% recycled Loop branded PET resin and polyester fiber.

Commercialization Strategy

Our objective is to achieve global expansion of the Infinite Loop Technology through a mix of fully owned manufacturing facilities, strategic partnerships, and licensing agreements. We believe that industrial companies, some of which today may not be in the business of manufacturing DMT, MEG, PET resin, polyester fiber or other specialty polymers, will view involvement with Infinite Loop projects as a significant growth opportunity, which may offer attractive economic returns either as Loop manufacturing partners or as licensees of the technology.

The Infinite Loop Technology is the key pillar of our commercialization blueprint. We believe our technology is at the forefront of the global transition away from fossil fuels and petrochemicals and into the circular economy, where PET plastic and polyester fiber are produced by recycling waste plastic rather than depleting finite resources. The Infinite Loop Technology allows for waste PET plastic and polyester fiber to be broken down into its base building blocks, monomers DMT and MEG, using Loop’s patented technology. Once the monomers are purified, they can be sold directly to chemical companies, used in the production of specialty polymers, or repolymerized into PET plastic or polyester fiber using INVISTA know how, which Loop licenses, and Chemtex Global Corporation’s engineering. The INVISTA polymerization process and the associated designs are historically proven in the commercial production of PET resin and polyester fiber.

We have completed our basic design package for the Infinite Loop full-scale manufacturing facilities. The engineering philosophy we have adopted is “design one, build many.” This approach allows for the basic design package to be used as the base engineering platform for all future geographical expansion. We believe this approach allows for quick execution, speed to market, and lends itself well to modular construction. The basic design package has a capacity of up to 70,000 M/T of rDMT and 23,000 M/T of rMEG, or 70,000 M/T of PET resin output per year. The basic design package has a capacity of up to 70,000 M/T of PET resin output per year. Permitting, site and regulatory considerations may impact plant capacity.

On May 1, 2024, we announced our strategic partnership with Ester to build and operate an Infinite Loop manufacturing facility in India which will produce a unique product offering of lower carbon footprint rDMT, rMEG and specialty polymers, using the Infinite Loop Technology. Loop has a well-established working relationship with Ester, which has nearly 40 years of specialized polymer production, operational proficiency, and local expertise, including sourcing of PET plastic and polyester fiber waste feedstocks. The rDMT and rMEG product offerings expected to be manufactured at the Infinite Loop India facility represent a strategic product expansion in a low-cost manufacturing environment which we believe complements Loop's existing PET plastic and polyester fiber manufacturing business and will fuel growth by addressing the large and growing demand in the market. We believe this expansion will enable the Infinite Loop Technology to reach new markets and cater to a broader range of customers across multiple industries including electronics, automotive, textile, cosmetics and packaging.

The India facility will leverage the Infinite Loop Technology and existing engineering package which should accelerate the lead-time towards groundbreaking, expected to occur by end of 2024. Feedstock sourcing for the facility, in which there is abundant supply from textile waste in India, is well advanced and the partners have engaged an external firm to source and secure the land for the facility. Construction is expected to be completed by the end of 2026, with commercial operations commencing in early 2027. Loop will receive an annual technology license fee from the Infinite Loop manufacturing facility in India.

We are also focused on our planned joint venture projects with SKGC in Asia and Europe to build and operate Infinite Loop manufacturing facilities producing and selling Loop PET resin and polyester fiber. These projects leverage SKGC’s engineering and operational infrastructure. In addition, the joint venture projects will provide Loop with an annual technology licensing fee. SKGC is committed to commercializing Loop’s technology as the underpinning of its sustainable plastics strategy. Loop is working collaboratively with SKGC to put in place a financing plan for the rollout of large-scale manufacturing in Asia and Europe, including the planned Asian manufacturing facility in Ulsan, South Korea.

The planned Infinite Loop commercial manufacturing facility in Ulsan, South Korea, is expected to have an annual capacity to supply up to 70,000 metric tons per year of Loop PET resin for packaging and polyester fiber applications, and was planned to break ground in the first half of 2024. The timing of the facility is currently under review by the partners while they evaluate opportunities to reduce capital costs and carry out discussions with the Korean government for subsidies related to the facility. Loop and SKGC are also evaluating the opportunity to build a monomer facility in order to capitalize on the large and growing market and attractive economics for DMT and MEG, including lower capital investment requirements for such a facility.

The global expansion plan for our technology will allow our customers, mostly comprised of CPG brand companies, apparel companies, and chemical companies, to integrate Loop PET resin, polyester fiber, rDMT and rMEG into their products and packaging. As countries around the globe continue to increase sustainability targets and recycled content mandates, our customers are increasing the use of sustainably produced materials into their products.

Our market strategy is to assist global consumer goods brands in meeting their public sustainability commitments by offering co-branded packaging or polyester fibers that are made with Loop 100% recycled, virgin-quality MEG, DMT, PET or polyester fibers. We believe that Loop recycled PET resin and polyester fiber could command premium pricing over virgin, petroleum-based PET resin and provide attractive economic returns. We are targeting multi-year take or pay offtake agreements for planned Infinite Loop production. Factors under consideration in determining project economics include the feasibility design engineering and cost estimate work, timing and permitting of a facility, customer offtake demand, commitment terms, and feedstock sources, quality, availability, PET bale index pricing, logistics, and ramp up, among others.

The Company’s ability to move to the next stage of its strategic development and construct manufacturing plants is dependent on, among other factors, whether the Company can obtain the necessary financing through a combination of the issuance of debt, equity, and/or joint ventures, and/or government incentive programs and/or customers.

Recent developments

Strategic partnership with Ester

On May 1, 2024, Loop entered into an agreement with Ester, one of India's leading manufacturers of polyester films and specialty polymers, to form a 50/50 India joint venture ("India JV"). The purpose of the India JV is to build and operate an Infinite Loop manufacturing facility in India which will produce a unique product offering of lower carbon footprint rDMT, rMEG and specialty polymers, using the Infinite Loop Technology.

Loop and Ester have a well-established working relationship, with Ester producing Loop PET using monomers produced at Loop’s Terrebonne Facility for global brand companies over the last four years. The India JV intends to leverage the complementary skill set of each partner by combining Loop's innovative technology and well-established global customer relationships with Ester's nearly 40 years of specialized polymer production, operational proficiency, and local expertise, including sourcing of PET plastic and polyester fiber waste feedstocks.

The Infinite Loop India facility is expected to produce 70,000 tonnes of rDMT and 23,000 tonnes of rMEG annually and Ester will toll convert the rDMT and rMEG into various grades of specialty polymers, offering chemical companies a simple drop-in supplement and circular alternative.

The rDMT and rMEG product offerings expected to be manufactured at the Infinite Loop India facility represent a strategic product expansion in a low-cost manufacturing environment which we believe complements Loop's existing PET plastic and polyester fiber manufacturing business and will fuel growth by addressing the large and growing demand in the market. We believe this expansion will enable the Infinite Loop Technology to reach new markets and cater to a broader range of customers across multiple industries including the electronics, automotive, textile, cosmetics and packaging industries.

The India facility will leverage the Infinite Loop Technology and existing engineering package which should accelerate the lead-time towards groundbreaking, expected to occur by end of this year. Feedstock sourcing for the facility, in which there is abundant supply from textile waste in India, is well advanced and the partners have engaged an external firm to source and secure the land for the facility. Construction is expected to be completed by the end of 2026, with commercial operations commencing in early 2027.

We believe the India JV offers attractive projected economic returns without the need for substantial sustainability-linked premium pricing. Loop and Ester anticipate that initial funding required to finance the India JV for the purposes of construction, development and operationalization of the project along with initial working capital requirements for the business is expected to be $165 million. Ester and Loop will each contribute 50% of the initial equity capital of the India JV.

Subject to the terms of the relevant governing documents, Ester will be the exclusive producer of specialty polymers for the India JV, and Loop will be the exclusive seller and marketing agent of the India JV’s products. Ester and Loop will work in collaboration on all financing activities for the India JV pursuant to the terms of the agreement.

Loop and Ester will also enter into (i) a technology license agreement with Loop (the “Loop Technology License Agreement”), (ii) a service agreement with Ester, and (iii) a sales and marketing agreement with Loop, each on terms to be mutually agreed upon by the parties. Pursuant to the Loop Technology License Agreement, the India JV will be granted an exclusive, subject to certain exceptions, license to exploit the Infinite Loop Technology in India at a royalty rate to be set forth in the Loop Technology License Agreement.

Cloudeasy Cyclon shoe launch with On

Loop and On collaborated to launch the Cloudeasy Cyclon shoe which was unveiled on May 21st, 2024. The upper of the Cloudeasy shoe is crafted with 100% recycled and infinitely recyclable yarn, using the Infinite Loop Technology. On is the first footwear company to launch a shoe using the Infinite Loop Technology which enables fiber-to-fiber recycling. The Cloudeasy Cyclon shoe is part of On’s monthly subscription service Cyclon where customers receive, wear, and then return Cylon products, which are then recycled.

Proprietary Technology and Intellectual Property

We believe the power of our technology lies in its ability to use post-industrial and post-consumer waste PET plastic and polyester fiber feedstocks, which could end up in landfills, rivers, oceans and natural areas, to create Loop PET resin. We believe our technology can deliver high-purity profitable virgin-quality, 100% recycled PET resin suitable for use in food-grade packaging and polyester fiber.

Our Generation II technology (“GEN II”) is a methanolysis-based depolymerization technology that uses temperatures below 90 °C to depolymerize waste PET and polyester fiber. The low temperature offers several key advantages which the Company believes will improve its ability to commercialize the GEN II technology, including;

We believe that GEN II requires less energy and fewer resource inputs than conventional PET production processes. We also believe it is an environmentally sustainable method for producing virgin-quality food-grade PET plastic by decoupling PET manufacturing from the fossil fuel industry.

To independently validate that our GEN II technology can produce DMT and MEG monomers at mini-pilot and pilot scale, we commissioned Kemitek, a College Centre for Technology Transfer specialized in the fields of green chemistry and chemical process scale-up. Kemitek’s findings allowed them to confirm that our technology produces monomers that meet our purity specifications for the production of PET resin and polyester fiber. The complete Kemitek report was filed with the SEC by the Company on December 14, 2020.

Additionally, Loop’s strategic partners, Suez and Danone, among others, collectively engaged an independent, globally recognized third-party engineering firm to execute a thorough due diligence and technology validation report. We believe the final report, which was communicated in May 2022, validated and reinforced the quality, effectiveness, and scalability of our technology. Our technology was further validated in March 2023, when Loop and SKGC announced the successful completion of the technical due diligence conducted by SKGC. Key parameters of Loop’s technology that were validated through SKGC’s comprehensive due diligence include the production yields, operational stability, quality of the output monomers and overall performance of Loop’s Terrebonne Facility. The technical due diligence validated that the PET resin and polyester fiber produced using Loop’s technology is of virgin quality. Our Gen II technology was most recently validated by independent advisors hired by Reed concurrent with their due diligence review performed in the context of Reed’s investment through our European partnership.

To protect our technology and intellectual property rights, we rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, trade secrets, confidentiality agreements and provisions as well as other contractual provisions to protect our proprietary rights, which are primarily our patents, brand names, product designs and marks.

The GEN II technology portfolio currently consists of four patent families:

Loop owns registrations for its trademarks in Cambodia, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, Vietnam, and the U.S. Loop also has pending applications in Canada, China, South Korea, and the U.S.

Government Regulation and Approvals

As we seek to further develop and commercialize our technology, we will be subject to extensive and frequently developing federal, state, provincial and local laws and regulations. Compliance with current and future regulations, including food packaging regulations, could increase our operational costs.

Our operations require various governmental permits and approvals. We are in the process of obtaining all necessary permits and approvals for the operation of our business; however, any of these permits or approvals may be subject to denial, revocation or modification under various circumstances. Failure to obtain or comply with the conditions of permits and approvals or to have the necessary approvals in place may adversely affect our operations and may subject us to penalties. See “Risk Factors” below for additional information.

We believe that if we are successful in addressing food packaging regulations in various countries and economic regions, that the regulatory environment may provide Loop PET resin a competitive advantage relative to mechanically recycled alternative resins and virgin PET.

Loop’s PET resin was subjected to independent testing by an external and certified laboratory, which confirmed the PET complies with FDA Regulation 21 CFR § 177.1630 on August 26, 2021, as well as EU Commission Regulation No 10/2011 on July 27, 2021. These results attest that Loop’s PET is safe for use in food-contact applications, including but not limited to bottled water, carbonated drinks and food trays. Demonstration of compliance with food-contact requirements follows the No Objection Letter (“NOL”) from the FDA previously granted to Loop in March 2021. The NOL confirms that Loop’s monomers can produce rPET of a purity suitable for food-contact use, provided it meets the applicable requirements of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Demonstration of compliance with food-contact requirements follows the No Objection Letter (“NOL”) from the FDA previously granted to Loop in March 2021. The NOL confirms Loop’s monomers can produce rPET of a purity suitable for food-contact use, provided it meets the applicable requirements of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The monomers used in the PET resin submitted for testing were produced at the Terrebonne Facility. The monomers used in the PET resin submitted for testing were produced at Loop’s small-scale production facility in Terrebonne, Québec (the “Terrebonne Facility”).

We have received from the European Chemicals Agency a confirmation of registration for our MEG on November 17, 2020, and for our DMT on December 7, 2020. The registration under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (“REACH”) Regulation (EC 1907/2006) confirms that our monomers are of a purity equal to what is currently recognized within Europe and entitles us to manufacture/import the monomers into Europe. It should be noted that MEG and DMT are on the positive list for plastic materials, which means that the two monomers can be used as food contact materials.

On August 31, 2021, Loop also received a NOL from Health Canada, which states that the PET produced by Loop’s recycling process is suitable for use in the manufacture of water bottles and articles for contact with all food types under all conditions of use.

On December 13, 2023, Loop announced that its Loop branded PET resin has been tested and is compliant for use in packaging applications in the pharmaceutical industry. The rigorous requirements and standards outlined by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP <661.1>, Plastic Materials of Construction) and the European Pharmacopeia (Ph.Eur. 3.1.15, Polyethylene Terephthalate for Containers for Preparations not for Parenteral Uses) ensure that materials used in pharmaceutical packaging maintain the highest levels of integrity and do not compromise the safety and efficacy of the enclosed products. Test results executed by a worldwide leader in laboratory testing services confirm that Loop's PET resin has successfully met these requirements, opening new possibilities for sustainable packaging solutions in the pharmaceutical industry.

Additional Information

Human Capital

Our employees are essential to our success, and we are committed to providing a safe, productive, discrimination-free and harassment-free work environment. All employees are responsible for compliance with our Code of Ethics as well as our health and safety, and anti-harassment policies. These policies and practices help us foster a workplace environment that promotes inclusion and diversity.

To attract and retain highly capable and innovative employees, we have developed competitive compensation packages and benefits programs. Our compensation packages include market-competitive pay, healthcare benefits, paid time off and family leave and flexible work schedules. We also offer equity awards with multi-year vesting provisions to incentivize and reward certain employees for long-term corporate performance and promote retention throughout the vesting period. We also offer equity awards with multi-year vesting provisions to incentivize and reward our employees for long-term corporate performance and promote retention throughout the vesting period.

As of February 29, 2024, we had 56 employees of which 21 work in research and development, 22 in engineering and operations, and 13 in administrative functions.

Corporate History

We were originally incorporated under the name Radikal Phones Inc. in Nevada in March 2010. Loop Holdings,