Quiver Quantitative

Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - AIRT

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.
General Business Risks
The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and other possible pandemics and similar outbreaks could result in material adverse effects on our business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

The outbreak of the COVID-19 virus in the United States and elsewhere created considerable instability and disruption in the U.S. and world economies. Substantial uncertainty still surrounds COVID-19 and its potential effects, as well as the extent and effectiveness of any responses taken on a national and local level. Measures taken to limit the impact of COVID-19, including shelter-in-place orders, social distancing measures and other restrictions on travel, congregation and business operations resulted in significant negative impacts in the United States and world economies and in relation to our business. However, measures taken to limit the impact of COVID-19, including shelter-in-place orders, social distancing measures and other restrictions on travel, congregation and business operations have already resulted in significant negative impacts in the United States and world economies and in relation to our business. The long-term impact of COVID-19 on the U.S. and world economies remains uncertain and the duration and scope of the world-wide economic downturn cannot currently be predicted. The extent to which our financial condition, results of operations and overall value will continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic will largely depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including the scope, severity and duration of the pandemic, the actions taken to contain the pandemic or mitigate its impact, and the direct and indirect economic effects of the pandemic, containment and the effectiveness of vaccine measures, among others.

As a result of measures taken to limit the impact of COVID-19, self-quarantines or actual viral health issues, we initially experienced a substantial number of disruptions, and experienced a reduction in demand for commercial aircraft, jet engines and parts which negatively affected our sales and materially and adversely affected the financial performance and value of our inventory.9As a result of measures taken to limit the impact of COVID-19, self-quarantines or actual viral health issues, we initially experienced a substantial number of disruptions, and have experienced and continue to experience a reduction in demand for commercial aircraft, jet engines and parts which have negatively affected our sales and could materially and adversely affect the financial performance and value of our inventory. All of the markets in which our businesses are located were subject to some level of restrictions on business operations. Even as travel advisories and restrictions are modified or lifted, demand for air travel could remain weak or not recover to pre-pandemic levels for a significant length of time, which may be a function of continued concerns over safety, unwillingness to travel, and decreased consumer spending due to economic conditions, including job losses. Even after travel advisories and restrictions are modified or lifted, demand for air travel may remain weak for a significant length of time, which may be a function of continued concerns over safety, unwillingness to travel, and decreased consumer spending due to economic conditions, including job losses. We cannot predict if and when the demand for our commercial aircraft, jet engines and parts will return to pre-outbreak levels of volume and pricing. The market and economic challenges created by the COVID-19 pandemic, and measures implemented to prevent its spread, adversely affected, and could continue to adversely affect our returns and profitability. The market and economic challenges created by the COVID-19 pandemic, and measures implemented to prevent its spread, have adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect our returns and profitability. As a result, the COVID-19 pandemic presents material uncertainty and risk with respect to our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if in the future there is an outbreak of another highly infectious or contagious disease or other health concern, our company may be subject to similar risks as posed by COVID-19.

Market fluctuations may affect our operations.

Market fluctuations may affect our ability to obtain necessary funds for the operation of our businesses from current lenders or new borrowings.Additionally, market fluctuations may affect our ability to obtain necessary funds for the operation of our businesses from current lenders or new borrowings. In addition, we may be unable to obtain financing on satisfactory terms, or at all. Third-party reports relating to market studies or demographics we obtained prior to the COVID-19 virus outbreak may no longer be accurate or complete. The occurrence of any of the foregoing events or any other related matters could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and the overall value of our assets.

Labor inflation could impact our profitability.

The Company operates in industries that are heavily impacted by the workforce’s labor rates. Significant examples include mechanics and pilots, both of which expose the Company to the possibility of material increases in labor costs. Significant examples include mechanics and pilots, both of which are exposed to the possibility of material increases in labor costs.

We could experience significant increases in operating costs and reduced profitability due to competition for skilled management and staff employees in our operating businesses.

We compete with many other organizations for skilled management and staff employees, including organizations that operate in different market sectors than us. Costs to recruit and retain adequate personnel could adversely affect results of operations.

Legacy technology systems require a unique technical skillset which is becoming scarcer. Legacy technology systems require a unique technical skillset which is becoming scarcer.

The Company deploys legacy technology systems in several significant business units. As technology continues to rapidly change, the available pool of individuals technically trained in and able to repair or perform maintenance on these legacy systems shrinks. As technology continues to rapidly change, the available pool of individuals technically trained in these legacy systems shrinks. As this scarcity increases, the Company’s ability to efficiently and quickly repair its legacy systems becomes increasingly difficult, which could have a significant impact on the Company’s day-to-day operations.

Our business may be adversely affected by information technology disruptions.

Our business may be impacted by information technology disruptions, including information technology attacks. Cybersecurity attacks, in particular, are evolving and include, but are not limited to, malicious software, attempts to gain unauthorized access to data, and other electronic security breaches that could lead to disruptions in systems, unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information and corruption of data (our own or that of third parties). Although we have adopted certain measures to mitigate potential risks to our systems from information technology-related disruptions, given the unpredictability of the timing, nature and scope of such disruptions, we could potentially be subject to production downtimes, operational delays, other detrimental impacts on our operations or ability to provide products and services to our customers, the
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compromising of confidential or otherwise protected information, misappropriation, destruction or corruption of data, security breaches, other manipulation or improper use of our systems or networks, financial losses from remedial actions, loss of business or potential liability, and/or damage to our reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

The failure of our information technology systems could adversely impact our reputation and financial performance.

We operate in businesses that are dependent on information systems and technology. Our information systems and technology may not continue to be able to accommodate our growth, and/or the cost of maintaining such systems may increase from its current level. Either scenario could have a material adverse effect on us. We rely on third-party service providers to manage certain aspects of our business, including for certain information systems and technology, data processing systems, and the secure processing, storage and transmission of information. Any interruption or deterioration in the performance of these third parties or failures of their information systems and technology could impair the quality of our operations and could adversely affect our business and reputation.

We may not be able to insure certain risks adequately or economically.

We cannot be certain that we will be able to insure all risks that we desire to insure economically or that all of our insurers or reinsurers will be financially viable if we make a claim. If an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits should occur, or if we are required to pay a deductible for an insured loss, results of operations could be adversely affected.

Legal liability may harm our business.

Many aspects of our businesses involve substantial risks of liability, and, in the normal course of business, we have been named as a defendant or co-defendant in lawsuits involving primarily claims for damages. The risks associated with potential legal liabilities often may be difficult to assess or quantify and their existence and magnitude often remain unknown for substantial periods of time. The expansion of our businesses, including expansions into new products or markets, impose greater risks of liability. In addition, unauthorized or illegal acts of our employees could result in substantial liability. Substantial legal liability could have a material adverse financial effect or cause us significant reputational harm, which in turn could seriously harm our businesses and our prospects. Although our current assessment is that there is no pending litigation that could have a significant adverse impact, if our assessment proves to be in error, then the outcome of such litigation could have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.

Our business might suffer if we were to lose the services of certain key employees.

Our business operations depend upon our key employees, including our executive officers. Loss of any of these employees, particularly our Chief Executive Officer, could have a material adverse effect on our business as our key employees have knowledge of our industry and customers that would be difficult to replace.

Risks Related to Our Segment Operations

The operating results of our four segments may fluctuate, particularly our commercial jet engine and parts segment.

The operating results of our four segments have varied from period to period and comparisons to results for preceding periods may not be meaningful.The operating results of our five segments have varied from period to period and comparisons to results for preceding periods may not be meaningful. Due to a number of factors, including the risks described in this section, our operating results may fluctuate. These fluctuations may also be caused by, among other things:
a.the economic health of the economy and the aviation industry in general;
b.the timing and number of purchases and sales of engines or aircraft;
c.the timing and amount of maintenance reserve revenues recorded resulting from the termination of long term leases, for which significant amounts of maintenance reserves may have accumulated;
d.the termination or announced termination of production of particular aircraft and engine types;
e.the retirement or announced retirement of particular aircraft models by aircraft operators;
f.the operating history of any particular engine, aircraft or engine or aircraft model;
g.the length of our operating leases; and
h.the timing of necessary overhauls of engines and aircraft.

These risks may reduce our commercial jet engines and parts segment's engine utilization rates, lease margins, maintenance reserve revenues and proceeds from engine sales, and result in higher legal, technical, maintenance, storage and insurance costs related to repossession and the cost of engines being off-lease. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, the availability of engines for lease or sale periodically experiences cycles of oversupply and undersupply of given engine models and generally. The incidence of an oversupply of engines may produce substantial decreases in engine lease rates and the appraised and resale value of engines and may increase the time and costs incurred to lease or sell engines. We anticipate that supply fluctuations from period to period will continue in the future. As a result, comparisons to results from preceding periods may not be meaningful and results of prior periods should not be relied upon as an indication of our future performance.

Our Air Cargo Segment is dependent on a significant customer.

Our Air Cargo business is significantly dependent on a contractual relationship with FedEx Corporation (“FedEx”), the loss of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position. In the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021, 37% of our consolidated operating revenues, and 99% of the operating revenues for our overnight air cargo segment, arose from services we provided to FedEx. While FedEx has been our customer since 1980 under similar terms, our current agreements may be terminated by FedEx upon 90 days’ written notice and FedEx may at any time terminate the lease of
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any particular aircraft thereunder upon 10 days’ written notice. In addition, FedEx may terminate the dry-lease agreement with MAC or CSA upon written notice if 60% or more of MAC or CSA’s revenue (excluding revenues arising from reimbursement payments under the dry-lease agreement) is derived from the services performed by it pursuant to the respective dry-lease agreement, FedEx becomes its only customer, or either MAC or CSA employs less than six employees. As of the date of issuance of this report, FedEx would be permitted to terminate each of the dry-lease agreements under this provision. The loss of these contracts with FedEx would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.

Our dry-lease agreements with FedEx subject us to operating risks.

Our dry-lease agreements with FedEx provide for the lease of specified aircraft by us in return for the payment of monthly rent with respect to each aircraft leased. The dry-lease agreements provide for the reimbursement by FedEx of our costs, without mark up, incurred in connection with the operation of the leased aircraft for the following: fuel, landing fees, third-party maintenance, parts and certain other direct operating costs. Under the dry-lease agreements, certain operational costs incurred by us in operating the aircraft are not reimbursed by FedEx at cost, and such operational costs are borne solely by us.

Because of our dependence on FedEx, we are subject to the risks that may affect FedEx’s operations.

Because of our dependence on FedEx, we are subject to the risks that may affect FedEx’s operations. These risks are discussed in FedEx’s periodic reports filed with the SEC including its Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2020. These risks include but are not limited to the following:

a.The negative effect of the COVID-19 pandemic;
b.Economic conditions and anti-trade measures/trade policies and relations in the global markets in which it operates;
c.Dependence on its strong reputation and value of its brand;
d.Potential disruption to operations resulting from a significant data breach or other disruption to FedEx’s technology infrastructure;
e.The failure to efficiently integrate the business and operations of FedEx Express and TNT Express;
f.The price and availability of fuel;
g.FedEx's ability to manage capital and its assets, including aircraft, to match shifting and future shipping volumes;
h.Changes in international trade policies and relations could significantly reduce the volume of goods transported globally;
i.Intense competition from other providers of transportation and business services;
j.Changes in governmental regulations that may affect its business;
k.FedEx's ability to operate, integrate, leverage and grow acquired businesses;
l.Adverse changes in regulations and interpretations and challenges to its tax positions;
m.Failure to attract and maintain employee talent or maintain company culture and its ability to maintain good relationships with its employees and prevent attempts by labor organizations to organize groups of its employees;
n.Disruptions or modifications in service by the United States Postal Service, a significant customer and vendor of FedEx;
o.The continued classification of owner-operators in its ground delivery business as independent contractors rather than as employees;
p.The impact of proposed pilot flight and duty time regulations;
q.The impact of the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union;
r.The impact of terrorist activities including the imposition of stricter governmental security requirements;
s.Regulatory actions affecting global aviation rights or a failure to obtain or maintain aviation rights in important international markets;
t.Global climate change or legal, regulatory or market responses to such change;
u.Adverse weather or localized natural or man-made disasters in key locations, including its Memphis, Tennessee super-hub;
v.Constraints, volatility or disruption in the capital markets and any failure to maintain credit ratings and to meet credit agreement covenants; and
w.Widespread outbreak of an illness or other communicable disease or any other public health crisis.

A material reduction in the aircraft we fly for FedEx could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Under our agreements with FedEx, we are not guaranteed a number of aircraft or routes we are to fly and FedEx may reduce the number of aircraft we lease and operate upon 10 days’ written notice. Our compensation under these agreements, including our administrative fees, depends on the number of aircraft leased to us by FedEx. Any material permanent reduction in the aircraft we operate could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations. A temporary reduction in any period could materially adversely affect our results of operations for that period.

Sales of deicing equipment can be affected by weather conditions.

Our deicing equipment is used to deice commercial and military aircraft. The extent of deicing activity depends on the severity of winter weather. Mild winter weather conditions permit airports to use fewer deicing units, since less time is required to deice aircraft in mild weather conditions. As a result, airports may be able to extend the useful lives of their existing units, reducing the demand for new units.

We are affected by the risks faced by commercial aircraft operators and MRO companies because they are our customers.We are affected by the risks faced by commercial aircraft operators and maintenance, repair and overhaul companies (“MROs”) because they are our customers.

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Commercial aircraft operators are engaged in economically sensitive, highly cyclical and competitive businesses. We are a supplier to commercial aircraft operators and MROs. As a result, we are indirectly affected by all of the risks facing commercial aircraft operators and MROs, with such risks being largely beyond our control. Our results of operations depend, in part, on the financial strength of our customers and our customers’ ability to compete effectively in the marketplace and manage their risks.

Our engine values and lease rates, which are dependent on the status of the types of aircraft on which engines are installed, and other factors, could decline.

The value of a particular model of engine depends heavily on the types of aircraft on which it may be installed and the available supply of such engines. Values of engines generally tend to be relatively stable so long as there is sufficient demand for the host aircraft. However, the value of an engine may begin to decline rapidly once the host aircraft begins to be retired from service and/or used for spare parts in significant numbers. Certain types of engines may be used in significant numbers by commercial aircraft operators that are currently experiencing financial difficulties. If such operators were to go into liquidation or similar proceedings, the resulting over-supply of engines from these operators could have an adverse effect on the demand for the affected engine types and the values of such engines.

Upon termination of a lease, we may be unable to enter into new leases or sell the airframe, engine or its parts on acceptable terms.

We directly or indirectly own the engines or aircraft that we lease to customers and bear the risk of not recovering our entire investment through leasing and selling the engines or aircraft. Upon termination of a lease, we seek to enter a new lease or to sell or part-out the engine or aircraft. We also selectively sell engines on an opportunistic basis. We cannot give assurance that we will be able to find, in a timely manner, a lessee or a buyer for our engines or aircraft coming off-lease or for their associated parts. If we do find a lessee, we may not be able to obtain satisfactory lease rates and terms (including maintenance and redelivery conditions), and we cannot guarantee that the creditworthiness of any future lessee will be equal to or better than that of the existing lessees of our engines. Because the terms of engine leases may be less than 12 months, we may frequently need to remarket engines. We face the risk that we may not be able to keep our engines on lease consistently.

Failures by lessees to meet their maintenance and recordkeeping obligations under our leases could adversely affect the value of our leased engines and aircraft which could affect our ability to re-lease the engines and aircraft in a timely manner following termination of the leases.Failures by lessees to meet their maintenance and recordkeeping obligations under our leases could adversely affect the value of our leased engines and aircraft and therefore our ability to re-lease the engines and aircraft in a timely manner following termination of the leases.

The value and income producing potential of an engine or aircraft depends heavily on it being maintained in accordance with an approved maintenance system and complying with all applicable governmental directives and manufacturer requirements. In addition, for an engine or aircraft to be available for service, all records, logs, licenses and documentation relating to maintenance and operations of the engine or aircraft must be maintained in accordance with governmental and manufacturer specifications. Under our leases, our lessees are primarily responsible for maintaining our aircraft and engines and complying with all governmental requirements applicable to the lessee and the aircraft and engines, including operational, maintenance, government agency oversight, registration requirements and airworthiness directives. However, over time, certain lessees have experienced, and may experience in the future, difficulties in meeting their maintenance and recordkeeping obligations as specified by the terms of our leases. Failure by our lessees to maintain our assets in accordance with requirements could negatively affect the value and desirability of our assets and expose us to increased maintenance costs that may not be sufficiently covered by supplemental maintenance rents paid by such lessees.

Our ability to determine the condition of the engines or aircraft and whether the lessees are properly maintaining our assets is generally limited to the lessees’ reporting of monthly usage and any maintenance performed, confirmed by periodic inspections performed by us and third-parties. A lessee’s failure to meet its maintenance or recordkeeping obligations under a lease could result in:
a.a grounding of the related engine or aircraft;
b.a repossession that would likely cause us to incur additional and potentially substantial expenditures in restoring the engine or aircraft to an acceptable maintenance condition;
c.a need to incur additional costs and devote resources to recreate the records prior to the sale or lease of the engine or aircraft;
d.a decline in the market value of the aircraft or engine resulting in lower revenues upon a subsequent lease or sale;
e.loss of lease revenue while we perform refurbishments or repairs and recreate records; and
f.a lower lease rate and/or shorter lease term under a new lease entered into by us following repossession of the engine or aircraft.
Any of these events may adversely affect the value of the engine, unless and until remedied, and reduce our revenues and increase our expenses. If an engine is damaged during a lease and we are unable to recover from the lessee or though insurance, we may incur a loss.

We may experience losses and delays in connection with repossession of engines or aircraft when a lessee defaults.

We may not be able to repossess an engine or aircraft when the lessee defaults, and even if we are able to repossess the engine or aircraft, we may have to expend significant funds in the repossession, remarketing and leasing of the asset. When a lessee defaults and such default is not cured in a timely manner, we typically seek to terminate the lease and repossess the engine or aircraft. If a defaulting lessee contests the termination and repossession or is under court protection, enforcement of our rights under the lease may be difficult, expensive and time-consuming. We may not realize any practical benefits from our legal rights and we may need to obtain consents to export the engine or aircraft. As a result, the relevant asset may be off-lease or not producing revenue for a prolonged period of time. In addition, we will incur direct costs associated with repossessing our engine or aircraft, including, but not limited to, legal and similar costs, the direct costs of transporting, storing and insuring the engine or aircraft, and costs associated with necessary maintenance and recordkeeping to make the asset available for lease or
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sale. During this time, we will realize no revenue from the leased engine or aircraft, and we will continue to be obligated to pay any debt financing associated with the asset. If an engine is installed on an airframe, the airframe may be owned by an aircraft lessor or other third party. Our ability to recover engines installed on airframes may depend on the cooperation of the airframe owner.

Our commercial jet engine and parts segment and its customers operate in a highly regulated industry and changes in laws or regulations may adversely affect our ability to lease or sell our engines or aircraft.

Certain of the laws and regulations applicable to our business, include:

Licenses and consents. A number of our leases require specific governmental or regulatory licenses, consents or approvals. These include consents for certain payments under the leases and for the export, import or re-export of our engines or aircraft. Consents needed in connection with future leasing or sale of our engines or aircraft may not be received timely or have economically feasible terms. Any of these events could adversely affect our ability to lease or sell engines or aircraft.

Export/import regulations. The U.S. Department of Commerce (the “Commerce Department”) regulates exports. We are subject to the Commerce Department’s and the U.S. Department of State’s regulations with respect to the lease and sale of engines and aircraft to foreign entities and the export of related parts. These Departments may, in some cases, require us to obtain export licenses for engines exported to foreign countries. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security, through the U.S. Customs and Border Protection, enforces regulations related to the import of engines and aircraft into the United States for maintenance or lease and imports of parts for installation on our engines and aircraft.

Restriction Lists. We are prohibited from doing business with persons designated by the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) on its “Specially Designated Nationals List,” and must monitor our operations and existing and potential lessees and other counterparties for compliance with OFAC’s rules. Similarly, sanctions issued by the United Nations, the U.S. government, the European Union or other foreign governments could prohibit or restrict us from doing business in certain countries or with certain persons. As a result, we must monitor our operations and existing and potential lessees and other counterparties for compliance with such sanctions.

Anti-corruption Laws. As a U.S. corporation with international operations, we are required to comply with a number of U.S. and international laws and regulations which combat corruption. For example, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”) and similar world-wide anti-bribery laws generally prohibit improper payments to foreign officials for the purpose of influencing any official act or decision or securing any improper advantage. The scope and enforcement of such anti-corruption laws and regulations may vary. Although our policies expressly mandate compliance with the FCPA and similarly applicable laws, there can be no assurance that none of our employees or agents will take any action in violation of our policies. Violations of such laws or regulations could result in substantial civil or criminal fines or penalties. Actual or alleged violations could also damage our reputation, be expensive to defend, and impair our ability to do business.

Civil aviation regulation. Users of engines and aircraft are subject to general civil aviation authorities, including the FAA and the EASA, who regulate the maintenance of engines and issue airworthiness directives. Airworthiness directives typically set forth special maintenance actions or modifications to certain engine and aircraft types or a series of specific engines that must be implemented for the engine or aircraft to remain in service. Also, airworthiness directives may require the lessee to make more frequent inspections of an engine, aircraft or particular engine parts. Each lessee of an engine or aircraft generally is responsible for complying with all airworthiness directives. However, if the engine or aircraft is off lease, we may be forced to bear the cost of compliance with such airworthiness directives. Additionally, even if the engine or aircraft is leased, subject to the terms of the lease, if any, we may still be forced to share the cost of compliance.

Our aircraft, engines and parts could cause damage resulting in liability claims.

Our aircraft, engines or parts could cause bodily injury or property damage, exposing us to liability claims. Our leases require our lessees to indemnify us against these claims and to carry insurance customary in the air transportation industry, including general liability and property insurance at agreed upon levels. However, we cannot guarantee that one or more catastrophic events will not exceed insurance coverage limits or that lessees’ insurance will cover all claims that may be asserted against us. Any insurance coverage deficiency or default by lessees under their indemnification or insurance obligations may reduce our recovery of losses upon an event of loss.

We have risks in managing our portfolio of aircraft and engines to meet customer needs.

The relatively long life cycles of aircraft and jet engines can be shortened by world events, government regulation or customer preferences. We seek to manage these risks by trying to anticipate demand for particular engine and aircraft types, maintaining a portfolio mix of engines that we believe is diversified, has long-term value and will be sought by lessees in the global market for jet engines, and by selling engines and aircraft that we expect will not experience obsolescence or declining usefulness in the foreseeable future. There is no assurance that the engine and aircraft types owned or acquired by us will meet customer demand.

Liens on our engines or aircraft could exceed the value of such assets, which could negatively affect our ability to repossess, lease or sell a particular engine or aircraft.

Liens that secure the payment of repairers’ charges or other liens may, depending on the jurisdiction, attach to engines and aircraft. Engines also may be installed on airframes to which liens unrelated to the engines have attached. These liens may secure substantial sums that may, in certain jurisdictions or for certain types of liens, exceed the value of the particular engine or aircraft to which the liens have attached. In some jurisdictions, a lien may give the holder the right to detain or, in limited
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cases, sell or cause the forfeiture of the engine or aircraft. Such liens may have priority over our interest as well as our creditors’ interest in the engines or aircraft. These liens and lien holders could impair our ability to repossess and lease or sell the engines or aircraft. We cannot give assurance that our lessees will comply with their obligations to discharge third-party liens on our assets. If they do not, we may, in the future, find it necessary to pay the claims secured by such liens to repossess such assets.

In certain countries, an engine affixed to an aircraft may become an addition to the aircraft and we may not be able to exercise our ownership rights over the engine.

In certain jurisdictions, an engine affixed to an aircraft may become an addition to the aircraft such that the ownership rights of the owner of the aircraft supersede the ownership rights of the owner of the engine. If an aircraft is security for the owner’s obligations to a third-party, the security interest in the aircraft may supersede our rights as owner of the engine. Such a security interest could limit our ability to repossess an engine located in such a jurisdiction in the event of a lessee bankruptcy or lease default. We may suffer a loss if we are not able to repossess engines leased to lessees in these jurisdictions.

Higher or volatile fuel prices could affect the profitability of the aviation industry and our lessees’ ability to meet their lease payment obligations to us.

Historically, fuel prices have fluctuated widely depending primarily on international market conditions, geopolitical and environmental factors and events and currency exchange rates. Natural and other disasters can also significantly affect fuel availability and prices. Factors such as natural disasters can also significantly affect fuel availability and prices. The cost of fuel represents a major expense to airlines that is not within their control, and significant increases in fuel costs or hedges that inaccurately assess the direction of fuel costs can materially and adversely affect their operating results. Due to the competitive nature of the aviation industry, operators may be unable to pass on increases in fuel prices to their customers by increasing fares in a manner that fully offsets the increased fuel costs they may incur. In addition, they may not be able to manage this risk by appropriately hedging their exposure to fuel price fluctuations. The profitability and liquidity of those airlines that do hedge their fuel costs can also be adversely affected by swift movements in fuel prices if such airlines are required to post cash collateral under hedge agreements. Therefore, if for any reason fuel prices return to historically high levels or show significant volatility, our lessees are likely to incur higher costs or generate lower revenues, which may affect their ability to meet their obligations to us.

Interruptions in the capital markets could impair our lessees’ ability to finance their operations, which could prevent the lessees from complying with payment obligations to us.

The global financial markets can be highly volatile and the availability of credit from financial markets and financial institutions can vary substantially depending on developments in the global financial markets. Our lessees depend on banks and the capital markets to provide working capital and to refinance existing indebtedness. To the extent such funding is unavailable, or available only on unfavorable terms, and to the extent financial markets do not provide equity financing as an alternative, our lessees’ operations and operating results may be materially and adversely affected and they may not comply with their respective payment obligations to us.

Our lessees may fail to adequately insure our aircraft or engines which could subject us to additional costs.

While an aircraft or engine is on lease, we do not directly control its operation. Nevertheless, because we hold title to the aircraft or engine, we could, in certain jurisdictions, be held liable for losses resulting from its operation. At a minimum, we may be required to expend resources in our defense. We require our lessees to obtain specified levels of insurance and indemnify us for, and insure against, such operational liabilities. However, some lessees may fail to maintain adequate insurance coverage during a lease term, which, although constituting a breach of the lease, would require us to take some corrective action, such as terminating the lease or securing insurance for the aircraft or engines. Therefore, our lessees’ insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all claims that could be asserted against us arising from the operation of our aircraft or engines. Inadequate insurance coverage or default by lessees in fulfilling their indemnification or insurance obligations to us will reduce the insurance proceeds that we would otherwise be entitled to receive in the event we are sued and are required to make payments to claimants. Moreover, our lessees’ insurance coverage is dependent on the financial condition of insurance companies and their ability to pay claims. A reduction in insurance proceeds otherwise payable to us as a result of any of these factors could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

If our lessees fail to cooperate in returning our aircraft or engines following lease terminations, we may encounter obstacles and are likely to incur significant costs and expenses conducting repossessions.

Our legal rights and the relative difficulty of repossession vary significantly depending on the jurisdiction in which an aircraft or engines are located. We may need to obtain a court order or consents for de-registration or re-export, a process that can differ substantially from county to country. When a defaulting lessee is in bankruptcy, protective administration, insolvency or similar proceedings, additional limitations may also apply. For example, certain jurisdictions give rights to the trustee in bankruptcy or a similar officer to assume or reject the lease, to assign it to a third party, or to entitle the lessee or another third party to retain possession of the aircraft or engines without paying lease rentals or performing all or some of the obligations under the relevant lease. Certain of our lessees are partially or wholly owned by government-related entities, which can further complicate our efforts to repossess our aircraft or engines in that government’s jurisdiction. If we encounter any of these difficulties, we may be delayed in, or prevented from, enforcing certain of our rights under a lease and in re-leasing the affected aircraft or engines.
When conducting a repossession, we are likely to incur significant costs and expenses that are unlikely to be recouped. These include legal and other expenses related to legal proceedings, including the cost of posting security bonds or letters of credit necessary to effect repossession of the aircraft or engines, particularly if the lessee is contesting the proceedings or is in bankruptcy. We must absorb the cost of lost revenue for the time the aircraft or engines are off-lease. We may incur substantial maintenance, refurbishment or repair costs that a defaulting lessee has failed to pay and are necessary to put the aircraft or engines in suitable condition for re-lease or sale. We may also incur significant costs in retrieving or recreating aircraft records
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required for registration of the aircraft and in obtaining the certificate of airworthiness for an aircraft. It may be necessary to pay to discharge liens or pay taxes and other governmental charges on the aircraft to obtain clear possession and to remarket the aircraft effectively, including, in some cases, liens that the lessee may have incurred in connection with the operation of its other aircraft. We may also incur other costs in connection with the physical possession of the aircraft or engines.

If our lessees fail to discharge aircraft liens for which they are responsible, we may be obligated to pay to discharge the liens.

In the normal course of their businesses, our lessees are likely to incur aircraft and engine liens that secure the payment of airport fees and taxes, custom duties, Eurocontrol and other air navigation charges, landing charges, crew wages, and other liens that may attach to our aircraft. Aircraft may also be subject to mechanic’s liens as a result of routine maintenance performed by third parties on behalf of our customers. Some of these liens can secure substantial sums, and if they attach to entire fleets of aircraft, as permitted for certain kinds of liens, they may exceed the value of the aircraft itself. Although the financial obligations relating to these liens are the contractual responsibility of our lessees, if they fail to fulfill their obligations, the liens may ultimately become our financial responsibility. Until they are discharged, these liens could impair our ability to repossess, re-lease or sell our aircraft or engines. In some jurisdictions, aircraft and engine liens may give the holder thereof the right to detain or, in limited cases, sell or cause the forfeiture of the aircraft. If we are obliged to pay a large amount to discharge a lien, or if we are unable take possession of our aircraft subject to a lien in a timely and cost-effective manner, it could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

If our lessees encounter financial difficulties and we restructure or terminate our leases, we are likely to obtain less favorable lease terms.

If a lessee delays, reduces, or fails to make rental payments when due, or has advised us that it will do so in the future, we may elect or be required to restructure or terminate the lease. A restructured lease will likely contain terms that are less favorable to us. If we are unable to agree on a restructuring and we terminate the lease, we may not receive all or any payments still outstanding, and we may be unable to re-lease the aircraft or engines promptly and at favorable rates, if at all.

Withdrawal, suspension or revocation of governmental authorizations or approvals could negatively affect our business.

We are subject to governmental regulation and our failure to comply with these regulations could cause the government to withdraw or revoke our authorizations and approvals to do business and could subject us to penalties and sanctions that could harm our business. Governmental agencies throughout the world, including the FAA, highly regulate the manufacture, repair and operation of aircraft operated in the United States and equivalent regulatory agencies in other countries, such as the EASA in Europe, regulate aircraft operated in those countries. With the aircraft, engines and related parts that we purchase, lease and sell to our customers, we include documentation certifying that each part complies with applicable regulatory requirements and meets applicable standards of airworthiness established by the FAA or the equivalent regulatory agencies in other countries. Specific regulations vary from country to country, although regulatory requirements in other countries are generally satisfied by compliance with FAA requirements. With respect to a particular engine or engine component, we utilize FAA and/or EASA certified repair stations to repair and certify engines and components to ensure marketability. The revocation or suspension of any of our material authorizations or approvals would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. New and more stringent government regulations, if enacted, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, certain product sales to foreign countries require approval or licensing from the U.S. government. Denial of export licenses could reduce our sales to those countries and could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Risks Related to Our Structure and Financing/Liquidity Risks

Our holding company structure may increase risks related to our operations.

Our business, financial condition and results of operations are dependent upon those of our individual businesses, and our aggregate investment in particular industries. We are a holding company with investments in businesses and assets in a number of industries. Our business, financial condition and results of operations are dependent upon our various businesses and investments and their management teams. Our business, financial condition and results of operations are dependent upon our various businesses and investments and these businesses generally operate independently and in a decentralized manner. Each of our businesses generally operate independently and in a decentralized manner. Additionally, in the ordinary course of business we guarantee the obligations of entities that we manage and/or invest in. Additionally, in the ordinary course of business we guarantee the obligations of other entities that we manage and/or invest in. Any material adverse change in one of our businesses, investments or management teams, or in a particular industry in which we operate or invest, may cause material adverse changes to our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any material adverse change in one of our businesses or investments, or in a particular industry in which we operate or invest, may cause material adverse changes to our business, financial condition and results of operations. The more capital we devote to a particular investment or industry may increase the risk that such investment could significantly impact our financial condition and results of operations, possibly in a material adverse way.

A small number of stockholders has the ability to control the Company.

We have a very concentrated stockholder base. As of March 31, 2021, our three largest stockholders beneficially owned or had the ability to direct the voting of shares of our common stock representing approximately 62% of the outstanding shares. As a result, these stockholders have the power to determine the outcome of substantially all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of our board of directors. In addition, future sales by these stockholders of substantial amounts of our common stock, or the potential for such sales, could adversely affect the prevailing market price of our securities.

An increase in interest rates or in our borrowing margin would increase the cost of servicing our debt and could reduce our cash flow and negatively affect the results of our business operations.An increase in interest rates or in our borrowing margin would increase the cost of servicing our debt and could reduce our profitability.
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A portion of our outstanding debt bears interest at floating rates. As a result, to the extent we have not hedged against rising interest rates, an increase in the applicable benchmark interest rates would increase the cost of servicing our debt and could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows. In addition, if we refinance our indebtedness and interest rates or our borrowing margins increase between the time an existing financing arrangement was consummated and the time such financing arrangement is refinanced, the cost of servicing our debt would increase and our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.

Our inability to maintain sufficient liquidity could limit our operational flexibility and also impact our ability to make payments on our obligations as they come due.

In addition to being capital intensive and highly leveraged, our aircraft and engine business requires that we maintain sufficient liquidity to enable us to contribute the non-financed portion of engine and aircraft purchases as well as to service our payment obligations to our creditors as they become due, despite the fact that the timing and amounts of our revenues do not match the timing under our debt service obligations. Our restricted cash is unavailable for general corporate purposes. Accordingly, our ability to successfully execute our business strategy and maintain our operations depends on our ability to continue to maintain sufficient liquidity, cash and available credit under our credit facilities. Our liquidity could be adversely impacted if we are subjected to one or more of the following:
a significant decline in revenues,
a material increase in interest expense that is not matched by a corresponding increase in revenues,
a significant increase in operating expenses,
a reduction in our available credit under our credit facilities, or
general economic or national events.
If we do not maintain sufficient liquidity, our ability to meet our payment obligations to creditors or to borrow additional funds could become impaired.

Future cash flows from operations or through financings may not be sufficient to enable the Company to meet its obligations.

Future cash flow of the Company’s operations can fluctuate significantly. If future cash flows are not sufficient to permit the Company to meet its obligations, this would likely have a material adverse effect on the Company, its businesses, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, credit market volatility may affect our ability to refinance our existing debt, borrow funds under our existing lines of credit or incur additional debt - certain of which mature in the next twelve months. Additionally, credit market volatility may affect our ability to refinance our existing debt, borrow funds under our existing lines of credit or incur additional debt. There can be no assurance that the Company or its subsidiaries will continue to have access to their lines of credit if their financial performance does not satisfy the financial covenants set forth in the applicable financing agreements. There can be no assurances that the Company or its subsidiaries will continue to have access to their lines of credit if their financial performance does not satisfy the financial covenants set forth in the applicable financing agreements. If the Company or its subsidiaries do not meet certain of its financial covenants, and if they are unable to secure necessary waivers or other amendments from the respective lenders on terms acceptable to management and to renew or replace financing arrangements that mature during the current fiscal year, their ability to access available lines of credit could be limited, their debt obligations could be accelerated by the respective lenders and liquidity could be adversely affected. If the Company or its subsidiaries do not meet certain of its financial covenants, and if they are unable to secure necessary waivers or other amendments from the respective lenders on terms acceptable to management, their ability to access available lines of credit could be limited, their debt obligations could be accelerated by the respective lenders and liquidity could be adversely affected.

The Company and/or its subsidiaries may be required to seek additional or alternative financing sources if the Company’s or its subsidiaries’ cash needs are significantly greater than anticipated or they do not materially meet their business plans, or there are unanticipated downturns in the markets for the Company’s and its subsidiaries’ products and services. Future disruption and volatility in credit market conditions could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s ability, or that of its subsidiaries, to refinance debt when it comes due on terms similar to our current credit facilities, to draw upon existing lines of credit or to incur additional debt if needed. There can be no assurance therefore that such financing will be available or available on acceptable terms. The inability to generate sufficient cash flows from operations or through financings or disruptions in the credit markets could impair the Company’s or its subsidiaries’ liquidity and would likely have a material adverse effect on their businesses, financial condition and results of operations. The inability to generate sufficient cash flows from operations or through financings could impair the Company’s or its subsidiaries’ liquidity and would likely have a material adverse effect on their businesses, financial condition and results of operations.

A large proportion of our capital is invested in physical assets and securities that can be hard to sell, especially if market conditions are poor.

Because our investment strategy can involve public company securities, we may be restricted in our ability to effect sales during certain time periods. A lack of liquidity could limit our ability to vary our portfolio or assets promptly in response to changing economic or investment conditions. Additionally, if financial or operating difficulties of other competitors result in distress sales, such sales could depress asset values in the markets in which we operate. The restrictions inherent in owning physical assets could reduce our ability to respond to changes in market conditions and could adversely affect the performance of our investments, our financial condition and results of operations. Because there is significant uncertainty in the valuation of, or in the stability of the value of illiquid or non-public investments, the fair values of such investments do not necessarily reflect the prices that would actually be obtained when such investments are realized.

To service our debt and meet our other cash needs, we will require a significant amount of cash, which may not be available.

Our ability to make payments on, or repay or refinance, our debt, will depend largely upon our future operating performance. Our future performance, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. In addition, our ability to borrow funds in the future to make payments on our debt will depend on our maintaining specified financial ratios and satisfying financial condition tests and other covenants in the agreements governing our debt. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flow from operations and future borrowings may not be available in amounts sufficient to pay our debt and to satisfy our other liquidity needs.

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If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to seek alternatives.

If we cannot meet our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and aircraft or engine purchases, sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. Our ability to restructure or refinance our debt will depend on the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and might require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. The terms of our debt instruments may restrict us from adopting some of these alternatives. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations or to meet our aircraft or engine purchase commitments as they come due.

The transition away from LIBOR may adversely affect our cost to obtain financing and may potentially negatively impact our interest rate swap agreements.

It is expected that a transition away from the widespread use of London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR") to alternative rates will occur over the course of the next few years. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York and various other authorities have commenced the publication of reforms and actions relating to alternatives to U.S. dollar LIBOR. The full impact of such reforms and actions, together with any transition away from LIBOR remains unclear. The full impact of such reforms and actions, together with any transition away from LIBOR, including the potential or actual discontinuance of LIBOR publication, remains unclear. These changes may have a material adverse impact on the availability and cost of our financing, including LIBOR-based loans, as well as our interest rate swap agreements.

Despite our substantial indebtedness, we might incur significantly more debt, and cash may not be available to meet our financial obligations when due or enable us to capitalize on investment opportunities when they arise.

We employ debt and other forms of leverage in the ordinary course of business to enhance returns to our investors and finance our operations, and despite our current indebtedness levels, we expect to incur additional debt in the future to finance our operations, including purchasing aircraft and engines and meeting our contractual obligations as the agreements relating to our debt, including our indentures, term loan facilities, revolving credit facilities, and other financings do not entirely prohibit us from incurring additional debt. We also enter into financing commitments in the normal course of business, which we may be required to fund. If we are required to fund these commitments and are unable to do so, we could be liable for damages pursued against us or a loss of opportunity through default under contracts that are otherwise to our benefit could occur. We are therefore subject to the risks associated with debt financing and refinancing, including but not limited to the following: (i) our cash flow may be insufficient to meet required payments of principal and interest; (ii) payments of principal and interest on borrowings may leave us with insufficient cash resources to pay operating expenses and dividends; (iii) if we are unable to obtain committed debt financing for potential acquisitions or can only obtain debt at high interest rates or on other unfavorable terms, we may have difficulty completing acquisitions or may generate profits that are lower than would otherwise be the case; (iv) we may not be able to refinance indebtedness at maturity due to company and market factors such as the estimated cash flow produced by our assets, the value of our assets, liquidity in the debt markets, and/or financial, competitive, business and other factors; and (v) if we are able to refinance our indebtedness, the terms of a refinancing may not be as favorable as the original terms for such indebtedness. If we are unable to refinance our indebtedness on acceptable terms, or at all, we may need to utilize available liquidity, which would reduce our ability to pursue new investment opportunities, dispose of one or more of our assets on disadvantageous terms, or raise equity, causing dilution to existing stockholders.

The terms of our various credit agreements and other financing documents also require us to comply with a number of customary financial and other covenants, such as maintaining debt service coverage and leverage ratios, adequate insurance coverage and certain credit ratings. These covenants may limit our flexibility in conducting our operations and breaches of these covenants could result in defaults under the instruments governing the applicable indebtedness, even if we have satisfied and continue to satisfy our payment obligations. Regulatory changes may also result in higher borrowing costs and reduced access to credit.

Future acquisitions and dispositions of businesses and investments are possible, changing the components of our assets and liabilities, and if unsuccessful or unfavorable, could reduce the value of the Company and its securities.

Any future acquisitions or dispositions may result in significant changes in the composition of our assets and liabilities, as well as our business mix and prospects. Consequently, our financial condition, results of operations and the trading price of our securities may be affected by factors different from those affecting our financial condition, results of operations and trading price at the present time.

We face numerous risks and uncertainties as we expand our business.

We expect the growth and development of our business to come primarily from internal expansion and through acquisitions, investments, and strategic partnering. As we expand our business, there can be no assurance that financial controls, the level and knowledge of personnel, operational abilities, legal and compliance controls and other corporate support systems will be adequate to manage our business and growth. The ineffectiveness of any of these controls or systems could adversely affect our business and prospects. In addition, if we acquire new businesses and/or introduce new products, we face numerous risks and uncertainties concerning the integration of their controls and systems, including financial controls, accounting and data processing systems, management controls and other operations. In addition, if we acquire new businesses and introduce new products, we face numerous risks and uncertainties concerning the integration of their controls and systems, including financial controls, accounting and data processing systems, management controls and other operations. A failure to integrate these systems and controls, and even an inefficient integration of these systems and controls, could adversely affect our business and prospects.

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Our business strategy includes acquisitions, and acquisitions entail numerous risks, including the risk of management diversion and increased costs and expenses, all of which could negatively affect the Company’s ability to operate profitably.