Quiver Quantitative

Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - GSIT

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

Our future performance is subject to a variety of risks. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could suffer and the trading price of our common stock could decline. Additional risks that we currently do not know about or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also impair our business operations. You should also refer to other information contained in this report, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes.

Risks Related to Our Business and Financial Condition

Unpredictable fluctuations in our operating results could cause our stock price to decline.

Our quarterly and annual revenues, expenses and operating results have varied significantly and are likely to vary in the future. Our quarterly and annual revenues, expenses and operating results have varied significantly and are likely to vary in the future. For example, in the twelve fiscal quarters ended March 31, 2021, we recorded net revenues of as much as $14.7 million and as little as $6.6 million, including net revenues varying from $6.6 million to $7.7 million in the last four quarters and quarterly operating income of as much as $2.2 million and, in eleven quarters, operating losses, including operating losses varying from $5.2 million to $5.7 million in the last four quarters ended March 31, 2021. We therefore believe that period-to-period comparisons of our operating results are not a good indication of our future performance, and you should not rely on them to predict our future performance or the future performance of our stock price. For the last four consecutive quarters, our net revenues were adversely impacted by the COVID-19 global pandemic. In future periods, we may not have any revenue growth, or our revenues could decline or continue to be further adversely impacted by the COVID-19 global pandemic. In future periods, we may not have any revenue growth, or our revenues could decline or be adversely impacted by the COVID-19 global pandemic. Furthermore, if our operating expenses exceed our expectations, our financial performance could be adversely affected. Factors that may affect periodic operating results in the future include:

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commercial acceptance of our associative computing products;

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changes in our customers' inventory management practices;

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unpredictability of the timing and size of customer orders, since most of our customers purchase our products on a purchase order basis rather than pursuant to a long-term contract;

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our ability to anticipate and conform to new industry standards;

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fluctuations in availability and costs associated with materials and manufacturing services needed to satisfy customer requirements caused by supply constraints;

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manufacturing defects, which could cause us to incur significant warranty, support and repair costs, lose potential sales, harm our relationships with customers and result in write-downs;

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changes in our product pricing policies, including those made in response to new product announcements and pricing changes of our competitors; and

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our ability to address technology issues as they arise, improve our products' functionality and expand our product offerings.

Our expenses are, to a large extent, fixed, and we expect that these expenses will increase in the future. Our expenses are, to a large extent, fixed, and we expect that these expenses will increase in the future. We have recently experienced price increases for raw materials and manufacturing services due to the tightness in the semiconductor market. We will not be able to adjust our spending quickly if our revenues fall short of our expectations. If this were to occur, our operating results would be harmed. If our operating results in future quarters fall below the expectations of market analysts and investors, the price of our common stock could fall.

The COVID-19 global pandemic has caused increased stock market volatility and uncertainty in customer demand and the worldwide economy in general, and we may continue to experience decreased sales and revenues in the future. The COVID-19 global pandemic has caused increased stock market volatility and uncertainty in customer demand and the worldwide economy in general, and we may experience decreased sales and revenues in the near future. We expect such impact will in particular affect our SRAM sales and may also impact the launch of our

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APU product to some degree. However, the magnitude of such impact on our business and its duration is highly uncertain. However, the magnitude of such impact on our business and its duration is uncertain and cannot be reasonably estimated at this time.

Our largest OEM customer accounts for a significant percentage of our net revenues. Our largest OEM customer accounts for a significant percentage of our net revenues. If this customer, or any of our other major customers, reduces the amount they purchase or stop purchasing our products, our operating results will suffer.

Nokia, our largest customer, purchases our products directly from us and through contract manufacturers and distributors. Nokia, our largest customer, purchases our products directly from us and through contract manufacturers and distributors. Purchases by Nokia represented approximately 39%, 38% and 45% of our net revenues in fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Purchases by Nokia represented approximately 38%, 45% and 36% of our net revenues in fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. We expect that our operating results in any given period will continue to depend significantly on orders from our key OEM customers, particularly Nokia, and our future success is dependent to a large degree on the business success of this customer over which we have no control. We do not have long-term contracts with Nokia or any of our other major OEM customers, distributors or contract manufacturers that obligate them to purchase our products. We expect that future direct and indirect sales to Nokia and our other key OEM customers will continue to fluctuate significantly on a quarterly basis and that such fluctuations may substantially affect our operating results in future periods. The decline in economic activity resulting from the COVID-19 global pandemic is expected to cause a continued reduction in orders from Nokia and our other key OEM customers. Any decline in economic activity resulting from the COVID-19 global pandemic could cause a decline in orders from Nokia and our other key OEM customers. If we fail to continue to sell to our key OEM customers, distributors or contract manufacturers in sufficient quantities, our business could be harmed.

The ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic may continue to adversely affect our revenues, results of operations and financial condition. The ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic may adversely affect our revenues, results of operations and financial condition.

Our business is expected to continue to be materially adversely affected by the COVID-19 global pandemic. National, state and local governments in affected regions have implemented, and may continue to implement, safety precautions which include quarantines, travel restrictions, business closures, cancellations of public gatherings and other measures as they deem necessary. Many organizations and individuals, including the Company and our employees, are taking additional steps to avoid or reduce infection, including limiting travel and working from home. These measures are disrupting normal business operations both in and outside of affected areas and have had significant negative impacts on businesses and financial markets worldwide.

We continue to monitor our operations and government recommendations and have made modifications to our normal operations because of the COVID-19 global pandemic. We have instituted many preventative measures and are regularly evaluating those measures and others as we continue to better understand our current and future operating environment. Since March 2020, except for our employees located in Taiwan, the majority of our employees have worked from home around the world. In May 2021, with the surge in COVID-19 infections in Taiwan, our Taiwan employees have begun working from home under alternating schedules. We have maintained a substantial portion of our manufacturing operational capacity at our primary manufacturing support facility located in Hsin Chu, Taiwan where our suppliers are located and where all of our products are manufactured. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, aside from the lengthening of lead times for wafers and assembly services and some price increases, we have experienced minimal impact, and continue to experience minimal impact, on our manufacturing operations in Taiwan. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, aside from the lengthening of lead times for wafers and assembly services, we have experienced minimal impact on 14 Table of Contents our manufacturing operations in Taiwan. Final testing of our product is conducted in house. Shipping and receiving operations at our Sunnyvale headquarters facility are being maintained by a skeleton crew with minimal impact. Our revenues have been and are expected to continue to be impacted by changes in customer buying patterns and communication limitations related to COVID-19 restrictions that require a significant number of our customer contacts to work from home. Our revenues may be impacted by possible changes in customer buying patterns and communication limitations related to shelter in place restrictions that require a significant number of our customer contacts to work from home. We have adapted our sales strategies for the COVID-19 environment where we cannot do face-to-face meetings and conduct secure meetings with government and defense contractors.

We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, a number of adverse impacts as a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic, including reductions in demand for our products, delays and cancellations of orders, difficulties in obtaining raw materials and components, shortages of labor to manufacture products, inefficiencies caused by remote worker’s difficulties in performing their normal work outputs, closures of the facilities of some of our suppliers and customers, delays in shipments and delays in collecting accounts receivable. Although it is difficult to accurately estimate the length or gravity of the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak, if the pandemic continues, it is expected to have an adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and liquidity during fiscal year 2022. This includes results from new information that may emerge concerning COVID-19 and any

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actions taken to contain or treat COVID-19, as well as the economic impact on local, regional, national and international customers and markets. We have made estimates of the impact of COVID-19 within our financial statements and there may be changes to those estimates in future periods.

The disruption to the marketplace resulting from the COVID-19 global pandemic that we continue to experience is unlike anything we have ever had to deal with. While we continue to monitor the business metrics that we have historically used to predict our financial performance, we are uncertain as to whether these metrics will operate consistently with our historical experience.

Disruptions in the capital markets as a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic may also adversely affect our ability to obtain additional liquidity should the impacts of the global pandemic continue for a prolonged period.

We have incurred significant losses and may incur losses in the future. We have incurred significant losses and may incur losses in the future.

We have incurred significant losses. We have incurred significant losses. We incurred net losses of $21.5 million, $10.3 million and $4.5 million during fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2018, respectively. We incurred net losses of $10.3 million and $4.5 million during fiscal 2020 and 2018, respectively. There can be no assurance that our Very Fast SRAMs will continue to receive broad market acceptance, that our new product development initiatives will be successful or that we will be able to achieve sustained revenue growth or profitability.

We depend upon the sale of our Very Fast SRAMs for most of our revenues, and a downturn in demand for these products could significantly reduce our revenues and harm our business. We depend upon the sale of our Very Fast SRAMs for most of our revenues, and a downturn in demand for these products could significantly reduce our revenues and harm our business.

We derive most of our revenues from the sale of Very Fast SRAMs, and we expect that sales of these products will represent the substantial majority of our revenues for the foreseeable future. We derive most of our revenues from the sale of Very Fast SRAMs, and we expect that sales of these products will represent the substantial majority of our revenues for the foreseeable future. Our business depends in large part upon continued demand for our products in the markets we currently serve, which could continue to be adversely impacted by the COVID-19 global pandemic, and adoption of our products in new markets. Our business depends in large part upon continued demand for our products in the markets we currently serve, which could be adversely impacted by the COVID-19 global pandemic, and adoption of our products in new markets. Market adoption will be dependent upon our ability to increase customer awareness of the benefits of our products and to prove their high-performance and cost-effectiveness. We may not be able to sustain or increase our revenues from sales of our products, particularly if the networking and telecommunications markets were to experience another significant downturn in the future. Any decrease in revenues from sales of our products could harm our business more than it would if we offered a more diversified line of products.

Our future success is substantially dependent on the successful introduction of new in-place associative computing products which entails significant risks. Our future success is substantially dependent on the successful development of new in-place associative computing products which entails significant risks.

Since 2015, our principal strategic objective has been the development of our first in-place associative computing product. We have devoted, and will continue to devote, substantial efforts and resources to the development of our new family of in-place associative computing products. This ongoing project involves the commercialization of new, cutting-edge technology, will require a continuing substantial effort during fiscal 2022 and beyond and will be subject to significant risks. This ongoing project involves the commercialization of new, cutting-edge technology, will require a substantial effort during fiscal 2021 and beyond and will be subject to significant risks. In addition to the typical risks associated with the development of technologically advanced products (as further detailed in the next paragraph), this project will be subject to enhanced risks of technological problems related to the development of this entirely new category of products, substantial risks of delays or unanticipated costs that may be encountered, and risks associated with the establishment of entirely new markets and customer relationships. In addition to the typical risks associated with the development of technologically advanced products (as further detailed in the next paragraph), this project will be subject to enhanced risks of technological problems related to the development of an entirely new category of products, substantial risks of delays or unanticipated costs that may be encountered, and risks associated with the establishment of entirely new markets and customer relationships. The establishment of new customer relationships and selling our in-place associative computing products to such new customers is a significant undertaking that requires us to invest heavily in our sales team, enter into new channel partner relationships, expand our marketing activities and change the focus of our business and operations. The establishment of new customer relationships 15 Table of Contents and selling our in-place associative computing products to such new customers will be a significant undertaking that will require us to invest heavily in our sales team, enter into new channel partner relationships, expand our marketing activities and change the focus of our business and operations. Our inability to successfully establish a market for the product that we have developed will have a material adverse effect on our future financial and business success, including our prospects for increased revenues. Our inability to successfully conclude this major development effort and establish a market for the products we hope to develop would have a material adverse effect on our future financial and business success, including our prospects for increased revenues. Additionally, if we are unable to meet the expectations of market analysts and investors with respect to this major product introduction effort, then the price of our common stock could fall. Additionally, if we are unable to meet the expectations of market analysts and investors with respect to this major development effort, then the price of our common stock could fall.

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We are dependent on a number of single source suppliers, and if we fail to obtain adequate supplies, our business will be harmed and our prospects for growth will be curtailed.

We currently purchase several key components used in the manufacture of our products from single sources and are dependent upon supply from these sources to meet our needs. We currently purchase several key components used in the manufacture of our products from single sources and are dependent upon supply from these sources to meet our needs. If any of these suppliers cannot provide components on a timely basis, at the same price or at all, our ability to manufacture our products will be constrained and our business will suffer. For example, due to the COVID-19 global pandemic, we could see additional disruptions in our supply chain beyond the longer lead-times for the purchase of wafers and assembly services that we are currently experiencing. Most significantly, we obtain wafers for our Very Fast SRAM and APU products from a single foundry, TSMC, and most of them are packaged at ASE. If we are unable to obtain an adequate supply of wafers from TSMC or find alternative sources in a timely manner, we will be unable to fulfill our customer orders and our operating results will be harmed. We do not have supply agreements with TSMC, ASE or any of our other independent assembly and test suppliers, and instead obtain manufacturing services and products from these suppliers on a purchase-order basis. Our suppliers, including TSMC, have no obligation to supply products or services to us for any specific product, in any specific quantity, at any specific price or for any specific time period. As a result, the loss or failure to perform by any of these suppliers could adversely affect our business and operating results.

Should any of our single source suppliers experience manufacturing failures or yield shortfalls, be disrupted by the COVID-19 global pandemic, natural disaster or political instability, choose to prioritize capacity or inventory for other uses or reduce or eliminate deliveries to us for any other reason, we likely will not be able to enforce fulfillment of any delivery commitments and we would have to identify and qualify acceptable replacements from alternative sources of supply. In particular, if TSMC is unable to supply us with sufficient quantities of wafers to meet all of our requirements, we would have to allocate our products among our customers, which would constrain our growth and might cause some of them to seek alternative sources of supply. Since the manufacturing of wafers and other components is extremely complex, the process of qualifying new foundries and suppliers is a lengthy process and there is no assurance that we would be able to find and qualify another supplier without materially adversely affecting our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we do not successfully develop new products to respond to rapid market changes due to changing technology and evolving industry standards, particularly in the networking and telecommunications markets, our business will be harmed. If we do not successfully develop new products to respond to rapid market changes due to changing technology and evolving industry standards, particularly in the networking and telecommunications markets, our business will be harmed.

If we fail to offer technologically advanced products and respond to technological advances and emerging standards, we may not generate sufficient revenues to offset our development costs and other expenses, which will hurt our business. The development of new or enhanced products is a complex and uncertain process that requires the accurate anticipation of technological and market trends. In particular, the networking and telecommunications markets are rapidly evolving and new standards are emerging. We are vulnerable to advances in technology by competitors, including new SRAM architectures, new forms of DRAM and the emergence of new memory technologies that could enable the development of products that feature higher performance or lower cost. In addition, the trend toward incorporating SRAM into other chips in the networking and telecommunications markets has the potential to reduce future demand for Very Fast SRAM products. Additionally, the trend toward incorporating SRAM into other chips in the networking and telecommunications markets has the potential to reduce future demand for Very Fast SRAM products. We may experience development, marketing and other technological difficulties that may delay or limit our ability to respond to technological changes, evolving industry standards, competitive developments or end-user requirements. For example, because we have limited experience developing integrated circuits, or IC, products other than Very Fast SRAMs, our efforts to introduce new products may not be successful and our business may suffer. Other challenges that we face include:

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our products may become obsolete upon the introduction of alternative technologies;

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we may incur substantial costs if we need to modify our products to respond to these alternative technologies;

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we may not have sufficient resources to develop or acquire new technologies or to introduce new products capable of competing with future technologies;

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new products that we develop may not successfully integrate with our end-users’ products into which they are incorporated;

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we may be unable to develop new products that incorporate emerging industry standards;

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we may be unable to develop or acquire the rights to use the intellectual property necessary to implement new technologies; and

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when introducing new or enhanced products, we may be unable to manage effectively the transition from older products.

If we are unable to offset increased wafer fabrication and assembly costs by increasing the average selling prices of our products, our gross margins will suffer. If we are unable to offset increased wafer fabrication costs by increasing the average selling prices of our products, our gross margins will suffer.

If there is a significant upturn in the demand for the manufacturing and assembly of semiconductor products as has incurred in recent months as a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic, the available supply of wafers and packaging services may be limited. As a result, we could be required to obtain additional manufacturing and assembly capacity in order to meet increased demand. As a result, we could be required to obtain additional manufacturing capacity in order to meet increased demand. Securing additional manufacturing and assembly capacity may cause our wafer fabrication and assembly costs to increase. Securing additional manufacturing capacity may cause our wafer fabrication costs to increase. If we are unable to offset these increased costs by increasing the average selling prices of our products, our gross margins will decline.

We are subject to the highly cyclical nature of the networking and telecommunications markets. We are subject to the highly cyclical nature of the networking and telecommunications markets.

Our Very Fast SRAM products are incorporated into routers, switches, wireless local area network infrastructure equipment, wireless base stations and network access equipment used in the highly cyclical networking and telecommunications markets. Our products are incorporated into routers, switches, wireless local area network infrastructure equipment, wireless base stations and network access equipment used in the highly cyclical networking and telecommunications markets. We expect that the networking and telecommunications markets will continue to be highly cyclical, characterized by periods of rapid growth and contraction. Our business and our operating results are likely to fluctuate, perhaps quite severely, as a result of this cyclicality.

The market for Very Fast SRAMs is highly competitive.

The market for Very Fast SRAMs, which are used primarily in networking and telecommunications equipment, is characterized by price erosion, rapid technological change, cyclical market patterns and intense foreign and domestic competition. The market for Very Fast SRAMs, which are used primarily in networking and telecommunications equipment, is characterized by price erosion, rapid technological change, cyclical market patterns and intense foreign and domestic competition. Several of our competitors offer a broad array of memory products and have greater financial, technical, marketing, distribution and other resources than we have. Some of our competitors maintain their own semiconductor fabrication facilities, which may provide them with capacity, cost and technical advantages over us. We cannot assure you that we will be able to compete successfully against any of these competitors. Our ability to compete successfully in this market depends on factors both within and outside of our control, including:

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real or perceived imbalances in supply and demand of Very Fast SRAMs;

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the rate at which OEMs incorporate our products into their systems;

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the success of our customers’ products;

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our ability to develop and market new products; and

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the supply and cost of wafers.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete successfully in the future. There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete successfully in the future. Our failure to compete successfully in these or other areas could harm our business.

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We rely heavily on distributors and our success depends on our ability to develop and manage our indirect distribution channels.

A significant percentage of our sales are made to distributors and to contract manufacturers who incorporate our products into end products for OEMs. A significant percentage of our sales are made to distributors and to contract manufacturers who incorporate our products into end products for OEMs. For example, in fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019, our largest distributor Avnet Logistics accounted for 29.8%, 34.3% and 31.3%, respectively, of our net revenues. For example, in fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018, our largest distributor Avnet Logistics accounted for 34.3%, 31.3% and 35.3%, respectively, of our net revenues. Avnet Logistics and our other existing distributors may choose to devote greater resources to marketing and supporting the products of other companies. Since we sell through multiple channels and distribution networks, we may have to resolve potential conflicts between these channels. For example, these conflicts may result from the different discount levels offered by multiple channel distributors to their customers or, potentially, from our direct sales force targeting the same equipment manufacturer accounts as our indirect channel distributors. These conflicts may harm our business or reputation.

The average selling prices of our products are expected to decline, and if we are unable to offset these declines, our operating results will suffer. The average selling prices of our products are expected to decline, and if we are unable to offset these declines, our operating results will suffer.

Historically, the average unit selling prices of our products have declined substantially over the lives of the products, and we expect this trend to continue. Historically, the average unit selling prices of our products have declined substantially over the lives of the products, and we expect this trend to continue. A reduction in overall average selling prices of our products could result in reduced revenues and lower gross margins. Our ability to increase our net revenues and maintain our gross margins despite a decline in the average selling prices of our products will depend on a variety of factors, including our ability to introduce lower cost versions of our existing products, increase unit sales volumes of these products, and introduce new products with higher prices and greater margins. If we fail to accomplish any of these objectives, our business will suffer. To reduce our costs, we may be required to implement design changes that lower our manufacturing costs, negotiate reduced purchase prices from our independent foundries and our independent assembly and test vendors, and successfully manage our manufacturing and subcontractor relationships. Because we do not operate our own wafer foundry or assembly facilities, we may not be able to reduce our costs as rapidly as companies that operate their own foundries or facilities. Because we 19 Table of Contents do not operate our own wafer foundry or assembly facilities, we may not be able to reduce our costs as rapidly as companies that operate their own foundries or facilities.

We are substantially dependent on the continued services and performance of our senior management and other key personnel. We are substantially dependent on the continued services and performance of our senior management and other key personnel.

Our future success is substantially dependent on the continued services and continuing contributions of our senior management who must work together effectively in order to design our products, expand our business, increase our revenues and improve our operating results. Our future success is substantially dependent on the continued services and continuing contributions of our senior management who must work together effectively in order to design our products, expand our business, increase our revenues and improve our operating results. Members of our senior management team have long-standing and important relationships with our key customers and suppliers. The loss of services, whether as a result of illness, retirement or death, of Lee-Lean Shu, our President and Chief Executive Officer, Robert Yau, our Vice President of Engineering, Dr. Avidan Akerib, our Vice President of Associative Computing, any other executive officer or other key employee could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our development and strategic objectives. We do not have employment contracts with, nor maintain key person insurance on, any of our executive officers or other key employees.

System security risks, data protection, cyber-attacks and systems integration issues could disrupt our internal operations or the operations of our business partners, and any such disruption could harm our reputation or cause a reduction in our expected revenue, increase our expenses, negatively impact our results of operation or otherwise adversely affect our stock price. System security risks, data protection, cyber-attacks and systems integration issues could disrupt our internal operations or the operations of our business partners, and any such disruption could harm our reputation or cause a reduction in our expected revenue, increase our expenses, negatively impact our results of operation or otherwise adversely affect our stock price.

Security breaches, computer malware and cyber-attacks have become more prevalent and sophisticated in recent years and may increase in the future due to a large number of our employees working from home during the COVID-19 global pandemic. Security breaches, computer malware and cyber-attacks have become more prevalent and sophisticated in recent years and may increase in the future due to a large number of our employees working from home during the COVID-19 global pandemic. Experienced computer programmers and hackers may be able to penetrate our network security or the network security of our business partners, and misappropriate or compromise our confidential and proprietary information, create system disruptions or cause shutdowns. The costs to us to eliminate or alleviate cyber or other security problems, bugs, viruses, worms, malicious software programs and security vulnerabilities could be significant, and our efforts to address these problems may not be successful and could result in interruptions and delays that may impede our sales, manufacturing, distribution or other critical functions.

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We manage and store various proprietary information and sensitive or confidential data relating to our business on the cloud. Breaches of our security measures or the accidental loss, inadvertent disclosure or unapproved dissemination of proprietary information or confidential data about us, including the potential loss or disclosure of such information or data as a result of fraud, trickery or other forms of deception, could expose us to a risk of loss or misuse of this information, result in litigation and potential liability for us, damage our reputation or otherwise harm our business. In addition, the cost and operational consequences of implementing further data protection measures could be significant.

Portions of our IT infrastructure also may experience interruptions, delays or cessations of service or produce errors in connection with systems integration or migration work that takes place from time to time. Portions of our IT infrastructure also may experience interruptions, delays or cessations of service or produce errors in connection with systems integration or migration work that takes place from time to time. We may not be successful in implementing new systems and transitioning data, which could cause business disruptions and be more expensive, time consuming, disruptive and resource-intensive than originally anticipated. Such disruptions could adversely impact our ability to fulfill orders and interrupt other processes and could adversely affect our financial results, stock price and reputation.

We may be unable to accurately predict future sales through our distributors, which could harm our ability to efficiently manage our resources to match market demand.

Our financial results, quarterly product sales, trends and comparisons are affected by fluctuations in the buying patterns of the OEMs that purchase our products from our distributors. Our financial results, quarterly product sales, trends and comparisons are affected by fluctuations in the buying patterns of the OEMs that purchase our products from our distributors. While we attempt to assist our distributors in maintaining targeted stocking levels of our products, we may not consistently be accurate or successful. This process involves the exercise of judgment and use of assumptions as to future uncertainties, including end user demand. Inventory levels of our products held by our distributors may exceed or fall below the levels we consider desirable on a going-forward basis. This could result in distributors returning unsold inventory to us, or in us not having sufficient inventory to meet the demand for our products. If we are not able to accurately predict sales through our distributors or effectively manage our relationships with our distributors, our business and financial results will suffer.

A small number of customers generally account for a significant portion of our accounts receivable in any period, and if any one of them fails to pay us, our financial position and operating results will suffer. A small number of customers generally account for a significant portion of our accounts receivable in any period, and if any one of them fails to pay us, our financial position and operating results will suffer.

At March 31, 2021, four customers accounted for 36%, 28%, 15% and 12% of our accounts receivable, respectively. If any of these customers do not pay us, our financial position and operating results will be harmed. Generally, we do not require collateral from our customers.

Demand for our products may decrease if our OEM customers experience difficulty manufacturing, marketing or selling their products.

Our products are used as components in our OEM customers’ products, including routers, switches and other networking and telecommunications products. Our products are used as components in our OEM customers’ products, including routers, switches and other networking and telecommunications products. Accordingly, demand for our products is subject to factors affecting the ability of our OEM customers to successfully introduce and market their products, including:

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capital spending by telecommunication and network service providers and other end-users who purchase our OEM customers’ products;

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the competition our OEM customers face, particularly in the networking and telecommunications industries;

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the technical, manufacturing, sales and marketing and management capabilities of our OEM customers;

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the financial and other resources of our OEM customers; and

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the inability of our OEM customers to sell their products if they infringe third-party intellectual property rights.

As a result, if OEM customers reduce their purchases of our products, our business will suffer. As a result, if OEM customers reduce their purchases of our products, our business will suffer.

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Our products have lengthy sales cycles that make it difficult to plan our expenses and forecast results.

Our products are generally incorporated in our OEM customers’ products at the design stage. Our products are generally incorporated in our OEM customers’ products at the design stage. However, their decisions to use our products often require significant expenditures by us without any assurance of success, and often precede volume sales, if any, by a year or more. If an OEM customer decides at the design stage not to incorporate our products into their products, we will not have another opportunity for a design win with respect to that customer’s product for many months or years, if at all. Our sales cycle can take up to 24 months to complete, and because of this lengthy sales cycle, we may experience a delay between increasing expenses for research and development and our sales and marketing efforts and the generation of volume production revenues, if any, from these expenditures. Moreover, the value of any design win will largely depend on the commercial success of our OEM customers’ products. There can be no assurance that we will continue to achieve design wins or that any design win will result in future revenues.

Claims that we infringe third party intellectual property rights could seriously harm our business and require us to incur significant costs. Claims that we infringe third party intellectual property rights could seriously harm our business and require us to incur significant costs.

In recent years, there has been significant litigation in the semiconductor industry involving patents and other intellectual property rights. In recent years, there has been significant litigation in the semiconductor industry involving patents and other intellectual property rights. We have been involved in protracted patent infringement litigation, and we could become subject to additional claims or litigation in the future as a result of allegations that we infringe others’ intellectual property rights or that our use of intellectual property otherwise violates the law. We have recently been involved in protracted patent infringement litigation, and we could become subject to additional claims or litigation in the future as a result of allegations that we infringe others’ intellectual property rights or that our use of intellectual property otherwise violates the law. Claims that our products infringe the proprietary rights of others would force us to defend ourselves and possibly our customers, distributors or manufacturers against the alleged infringement. Any such litigation regarding intellectual property could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Similarly, changing our products or processes to avoid infringing the rights of others may be costly or impractical. If any claims received in the future were to be upheld, the consequences to us could require us to:

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stop selling our products that incorporate the challenged intellectual property;

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obtain a license to sell or use the relevant technology, which license may not be available on reasonable terms or at all;

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pay damages; or

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redesign those products that use the disputed technology.

Although patent disputes in the semiconductor industry have often been settled through cross-licensing arrangements, we may not be able in any or every instance to settle an alleged patent infringement claim through a cross-licensing arrangement in part because we have a more limited patent portfolio than many of our competitors. Although patent disputes in the semiconductor industry have often been settled through cross-licensing arrangements, we may not be able in any or every instance to settle an alleged patent infringement claim through a cross-licensing arrangement in part because we have a more limited patent portfolio than many of our competitors. If a successful claim is made against us or any of our customers and a license is not made available to us on commercially reasonable terms or we are required to pay substantial damages or awards, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.

Our acquisition of companies or technologies could prove difficult to integrate, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and adversely affect our operating results. Our acquisition of companies or technologies could prove difficult to integrate, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and adversely affect our operating results.

In November 2015, we acquired all of the outstanding capital stock of privately held MikaMonu Group Ltd. In November 2015, we acquired all of the outstanding capital stock of privately held MikaMonu Group Ltd. , a development-stage, Israel-based company that specializes in in-place associative computing for markets including big data, computer vision and cyber security. We also acquired substantially all of the assets related to the SRAM memory device product line of Sony Corporation in 2009. We intend to supplement our internal development activities by seeking opportunities to make additional acquisitions or investments in companies, assets or technologies that we believe are complementary or strategic. Other than the MikaMonu and Sony acquisitions, we have not made any such acquisitions or investments, and therefore our experience as an organization in making such acquisitions and investments is limited. In connection with the MikaMonu acquisition, we are subject to risks related to potential problems, delays or unanticipated costs that may be encountered in the development of products based on the MikaMonu technology and the establishment of new markets and customer relationships for the potential new

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products. In addition, in connection with any future acquisitions or investments we may make, we face numerous other risks, including:

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difficulties in integrating operations, technologies, products and personnel;

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diversion of financial and managerial resources from existing operations;

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risk of overpaying for or misjudging the strategic fit of an acquired company, asset or technology;

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problems or liabilities stemming from defects of an acquired product or intellectual property litigation that may result from offering the acquired product in our markets;

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challenges in retaining key employees to maximize the value of the acquisition or investment;

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inability to generate sufficient return on investment;

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incurrence of significant one-time write-offs; and

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delays in customer purchases due to uncertainty.

If we proceed with additional acquisitions or investments, we may be required to use a considerable amount of our cash, or to finance the transaction through debt or equity securities offerings, which may decrease our financial liquidity or dilute our stockholders and affect the market price of our stock. If we proceed with additional acquisitions or investments, we may be required to use a considerable amount of our cash, or to finance the transaction through debt or equity securities offerings, which may decrease our financial liquidity or dilute our stockholders and affect the market price of our stock. As a result, if we fail to properly evaluate and execute acquisitions or investments, our business and prospects may be harmed.

If we are unable to recruit or retain qualified personnel, our business and product development efforts could be harmed. If we are unable to recruit or retain qualified personnel, our business and product development efforts could be harmed.

We must continue to identify, recruit, hire, train, retain and motivate highly skilled technical, managerial, sales and marketing and administrative personnel. We must continue to identify, recruit, hire, train, retain and motivate highly skilled technical, managerial, sales and marketing and administrative personnel. Competition for these individuals is intense, and we may not be able to successfully recruit, assimilate or retain sufficiently qualified personnel. We may encounter difficulties in recruiting and retaining a sufficient number of qualified engineers, which could harm our ability to develop new products and adversely impact our relationships with existing and future end-users at a critical stage of development. The failure to recruit and retain necessary technical, managerial, sales, marketing and administrative personnel could harm our business and our ability to obtain new OEM customers and develop new products.

Our business will suffer if we are unable to protect our intellectual property.

Our success and ability to compete depends in large part upon protecting our proprietary technology. Our success and ability to compete depends in large part upon protecting our proprietary technology. We rely on a combination of patent, trade secret, copyright and trademark laws and non-disclosure and other contractual agreements to protect our proprietary rights. These agreements and measures may not be sufficient to protect our technology from third-party infringement. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will prevent unauthorized use of our technology, particularly in foreign countries where the laws may not protect our proprietary rights as fully as in the United States. Our attempts to enforce our intellectual property rights could be time consuming and costly. In the past, we have been involved in litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights and to protect our trade secrets. We were recently involved in litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights and to protect our trade secrets. Additional litigation of this type may be necessary in the future. Any such litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources. If competitors are able to use our technology without our approval or compensation, our ability to compete effectively could be harmed.

Current unfavorable economic and market conditions, domestically and internationally, may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Current unfavorable economic and market conditions, domestically and internationally, may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We have significant customer sales both in the United States and internationally. We have significant customer sales both in the United States and internationally. We also rely heavily on our suppliers in Asia. We are therefore susceptible to adverse U.S. and international economic and market conditions,

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including the economic difficulties resulting from the COVID-19 global pandemic that currently exist in the United States and worldwide. If any of our manufacturing partners, customers, distributors or suppliers experience serious financial difficulties or ceases operations, our business could be adversely affected. If any of our manufacturing partners, customers, distributors or suppliers experiences serious financial difficulties or ceases operations, our business could be adversely affected.

Any significant order cancellations or order deferrals could adversely affect our operating results. Any significant order cancellations or order deferrals could adversely affect our operating results.

We typically sell products pursuant to purchase orders that customers can generally cancel or defer on short notice without incurring a significant penalty. We typically sell products pursuant to purchase orders that customers can generally cancel or defer on short notice without incurring a significant penalty. Any significant cancellations or deferrals in the future could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Cancellations or deferrals could cause us to hold excess inventory, which could reduce our profit margins, increase product obsolescence and restrict our ability to fund our operations. We generally recognize revenue upon shipment of products to a customer. If a customer refuses to accept shipped products or does not pay for these products, we could miss future revenue projections or incur significant charges against our income, which could materially and adversely affect our operating results.

If our business grows, such growth may place a significant strain on our management and operations and, as a result, our business may suffer.

We are endeavoring to expand our business, and any growth that we are successful in achieving could place a significant strain on our management systems, infrastructure and other resources. To manage the potential growth of our operations and resulting increases in the number of our personnel, we will need to invest the necessary capital to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls and our reporting systems and procedures. Our controls, systems and procedures may prove to be inadequate should we experience significant growth. In addition, we may not have sufficient administrative staff to support our operations. For example, we currently have only five employees in our finance department in the United States, including our Chief Financial Officer. Furthermore, our officers have limited experience in managing large or rapidly growing businesses. If our management fails to respond effectively to changes in our business, our business may suffer.

Our operations involve the use of hazardous and toxic materials, and we must comply with environmental laws and regulations, which can be expensive, and may affect our business and operating results.

We are subject to federal, state and local regulations relating to the use, handling, storage, disposal and human exposure to hazardous and toxic materials. We are subject to federal, state and local regulations relating to the use, handling, storage, disposal and human exposure to hazardous and toxic materials. If we were to violate or become liable under environmental laws in the future as a result of our inability to obtain permits, human error, accident, equipment failure or other causes, we could be subject to fines, costs, or civil or criminal sanctions, face property damage or personal injury claims or be required to incur substantial investigation or remediation costs, which could be material, or experience disruptions in our operations, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, environmental laws could become more stringent over time imposing greater compliance costs and increasing risks and penalties associated with violations, which could harm our business.

We face increasing complexity in our product design as we adjust to new and future requirements relating to the material composition of our products, including the restrictions on lead and other hazardous substances that apply to specified electronic products put on the market in the European Union, China and California. We face increasing complexity in our product design as we adjust to new and future requirements relating to the material composition of our products, including the restrictions on lead and other hazardous substances that apply to specified electronic products put on the market in the European Union, China and California. Other countries, including at the federal and state levels in the United States, are also considering similar laws and regulations. Certain electronic products that we maintain in inventory may be rendered obsolete if they are not in compliance with such laws and regulations, which could negatively impact our ability to generate revenue from those products. Although we cannot predict the ultimate impact of any such new laws and regulations, they will likely result in additional costs, or in the worst case decreased revenue, and could even require that we redesign or change how we manufacture our products. Such redesigns result in additional costs and possible delayed or lost revenue.

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Risks Related to Manufacturing and Product Development

We may experience difficulties in transitioning to smaller geometry process technologies and other more advanced manufacturing process technologies, which may result in reduced manufacturing yields, delays in product deliveries and increased expenses.

In order to remain competitive, we expect to continue to transition the manufacture of our products to smaller geometry process technologies. In order to remain competitive, we expect to continue to transition the manufacture of our products to smaller geometry process technologies. This transition will require us to migrate to new manufacturing processes for our products and redesign certain products. The manufacture and design of our products is complex, and we may experience difficulty in transitioning to smaller geometry process technologies or new manufacturing processes. These difficulties could result in reduced manufacturing yields, delays in product deliveries and increased expenses. We are dependent on our relationships with TSMC to transition successfully to smaller geometry process technologies and to more advanced manufacturing processes. We are dependent on our relationship with TSMC to transition successfully to smaller geometry process technologies and to more advanced manufacturing processes. If we or TSMC experience significant delays in this transition or fail to implement these transitions, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Manufacturing process technologies are subject to rapid change and require significant expenditures for research and development. Manufacturing process technologies are subject to rapid change and require significant expenditures for research and development.