Quiver Quantitative

Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - AEMD

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An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below as well as the other information in this Annual Report before deciding to invest in or maintain your investment in our company. The risks described below are not intended to be an all-inclusive list of all of the potential risks relating to an investment in our securities. Any of the risk factors described below could significantly and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known or that are currently considered to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business. As a result, the trading price or value of our securities could be materially adversely affected and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Relating to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital

We have incurred significant losses and expect to continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future.

We have never been profitable. We have generated revenues during the fiscal years ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020, in the amounts of $659,104, and $650,187, respectively, primarily from our contracts with the NIH. Our revenues, from research grants, continue to be insufficient to cover our cost of operations. It is possible that we may not be able to enter into future government contracts beyond our current contract with the NIH. Future profitability, if any, will require the successful commercialization of our Hemopurifier technology, other products that may emerge from our potential diagnostic products or from additional government contract or grant income. We may not be able to successfully commercialize the Hemopurifier or any other products, and even if commercialization is successful, we may never be profitable. We may not be able to successfully commercialize one or more of our products, and even if commercialization is successful, we may never be profitable.

We will require additional financing to sustain our operations.

We will require significant additional financing for our operations and for expected additional future clinical trials in the U.S., as well as to fund all of our continued research and development activities for the Hemopurifier and other future products. In addition, as we expand our activities, our overhead costs to support personnel, laboratory materials and infrastructure will increase. If the financing we may require to sustain our working capital needs is unavailable to us on reasonable terms, or at all, we may be unable to support our research and FDA development activities, including our planned clinical trials. If the financing we may require to sustain our working capital needs be unavailable to us on reasonable terms, or at all, we may be unable to support our research and FDA development activities, including our planned clinical trials. The failure to implement our research and clearance activities would have a material adverse effect on our ability to commercialize our products or continue our business.

We also will need to raise additional funds through debt or equity financings to achieve our business objectives and to satisfy our cash obligations, which may dilute the ownership of our existing stockholders.

We will need to raise additional funds through debt and/or equity financings in order to complete our ultimate business objectives, including funding working capital to support development and regulatory clearance of our potential products. We also may choose to raise additional funds in debt or equity financings if they are available to us on reasonable terms to increase our working capital and to strengthen our financial position. Any sales of additional equity or convertible debt securities could result in dilution of the equity interests of our existing stockholders, which could be substantial. Also, new investors may require that we and certain of our stockholders enter into voting arrangements that give them additional voting control or representation on our Board of Directors.


Risks Related to Our Business Operations

We face intense competition in the medical device industry.

We compete with numerous U.S. and foreign companies in the medical device industry, and many of our competitors have greater financial, personnel, operational and research and development resources than we do. We believe that because the field of exosome research is burgeoning, multiple competitors are or will be developing competing technologies to address exosomes in cancer. Progress is constant in the treatment and prevention of viral diseases, so the opportunities for the Hemopurifier may be reduced there as well. Diagnostic technology may be developed that can supplant diagnostics we are developing for neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Our commercial opportunities will be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and market products for any of the diseases we target that:

· are more effective;

· have fewer or less severe adverse side effects;

· are better tolerated;

· are more adaptable to various modes of dosing;

· are easier to administer; or

· are less expensive than the products or product candidates we are developing.

Even if we are successful in developing the Hemopurifier and potential diagnostic products, and obtain FDA and other regulatory approvals necessary for commercializing them, our products may not compete effectively with other successful products. Researchers are continually learning more about diseases, which may lead to new technologies for treatment. Our competitors may succeed in developing and marketing products that are either more effective than those that we may develop, alone or with our collaborators, or that are marketed before any products we develop are marketed. Our competitors include fully integrated pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies as well as universities and public and private research institutions. Many of the organizations competing with us have substantially greater capital resources, larger research and development staffs and facilities, greater experience in product development and in obtaining regulatory approvals, and greater marketing capabilities than we do. If our competitors develop more effective pharmaceutical treatments for infectious disease or cancer, or bring those treatments to market before we can commercialize the Hemopurifier for such uses, we may be unable to obtain any market traction for our products, or the diseases we seek to treat may be substantially addressed by competing treatments. If we are unable to successfully compete against larger companies in the pharmaceutical industry, we may never generate significant revenue or be profitable.

We have limited experience in identifying and working with large-scale contracts with medical device manufacturers; manufacture of our devices must comply with good manufacturing practices in the U.S.

To achieve the levels of production necessary to commercialize our Hemopurifier and any other future products, we will need to secure large-scale manufacturing agreements with contract manufacturers which comply with good manufacturing practice standards and other standards prescribed by various federal, state and local regulatory agencies in the U.S. and any other country of use. We have limited experience coordinating and overseeing the manufacture of medical device products on a large-scale. It is possible that manufacturing and control problems will arise as we attempt to commercialize our products and that manufacturing may not be completed in a timely manner or at a commercially reasonable cost. In addition, we may not be able to adequately finance the manufacture and distribution of our products on terms acceptable to us, if at all. If we cannot successfully oversee and finance the manufacture of our products if they obtain regulatory clearances, we may never generate revenue from product sales and we may never be profitable.


Our Hemopurifier technology may become obsolete.

Our Hemopurifier product may be made unmarketable prior to commercialization by us by new scientific or technological developments by others with new treatment modalities that are more efficacious and/or more economical than our products. The homeland security industry is growing rapidly with many competitors that are trying to develop products or vaccines to protect against infectious disease. Any one of our competitors could develop a more effective product which would render our technology obsolete. Further, our ability to achieve significant and sustained penetration of our key target markets will depend upon our success in developing or acquiring technologies developed by other companies, either independently, through joint ventures or through acquisitions. If we fail to develop or acquire, and manufacture and sell, products that satisfy our customers’ demands, or we fail to respond effectively to new product announcements by our competitors by quickly introducing competitive products, then market acceptance of our products could be reduced and our business could be adversely affected. Our products may not remain competitive with products based on new technologies.

Our success is dependent in part on our executive officers.

Our success depends to a critical extent on the continued services of our Chief Executive Officer, Charles J. Fisher, Jr., M.D., our Chief Financial Officer, James B. Frakes, our Chief Medical Officer, Steven LaRosa, M.D., and our Chief Business Officer, Guy Cipriani. If any of these key executive officers were to leave us, we would be forced to expend significant time and money in the pursuit of a replacement, which would result in both a delay in the implementation of our business plan and the diversion of limited working capital. If one or both of these key executive officers were to leave us, we would be forced to expend significant time and money in the pursuit of a replacement, which would result in both a delay in the implementation of our business plan and the diversion of limited working capital. The unique knowledge and expertise of these individuals would be difficult to replace within the biotechnology field. We do not currently carry key man life insurance policies on any of our key executive officers which would assist us in recouping our costs in the event of the loss of those officers. If either of our key officers were to leave us, it could make it impossible, if not cause substantial delays and costs, to implement our long-term business objectives and growth.

Our inability to attract and retain qualified personnel could impede our ability to achieve our business objectives.

We have ten full-time employees, consisting of our Chief Executive Officer, our Chief Financial Officer, a Chief Medical Officer, a Chief Business Officer, a Vice President, Manufacturing and Product Development, a Vice President, Clinical Operations, a Project Manager, and three research scientists. We utilize, whenever appropriate, consultants in order to conserve cash and resources.

Although we believe that these employees and consultants will be able to handle most of our additional administrative, research and development and business development in the near term, we will nevertheless be required over the longer-term to hire highly skilled managerial, scientific and administrative personnel to fully implement our business plan and growth strategies, including to mitigate the material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting described above. Due to the specialized scientific nature of our business, we are highly dependent upon our ability to attract and retain qualified scientific, technical and managerial personnel. Competition for these individuals, especially in San Diego, California, where many biotechnology companies are located, is intense and we may not be able to attract, assimilate or retain additional highly qualified personnel in the future. We may not be able to engage the services of qualified personnel at competitive prices or at all, particularly given the risks of employment attributable to our limited financial resources and lack of an established track record. Also, if we are required to attract personnel from other parts of the U.S. or abroad, we may have significant difficulty doing so due to the high cost of living in the Southern California area and due to the costs incurred with transferring personnel to the area. If we cannot attract and retain qualified staff and executives, we will be unable to develop our products and achieve regulatory clearance, and our business could fail.

We plan to expand our operations, which may strain our resources; our inability to manage our growth could delay or derail implementation of our business objectives.

We will need to significantly expand our operations to implement our longer-term business plan and growth strategies. We will also be required to manage multiple relationships with various strategic partners, technology licensors, customers, manufacturers and suppliers, consultants and other third parties. This expansion and these expanded relationships will require us to significantly improve or replace our existing managerial, operational and financial systems, procedures and controls; to improve the coordination between our various corporate functions; and to manage, train, motivate and maintain a growing employee base. The time and costs to effectuate these steps may place a significant strain on our management personnel, systems and resources, particularly given the limited amount of financial resources and skilled employees that may be available at the time. We cannot assure you that we will institute, in a timely manner or at all, the improvements to our managerial, operational and financial systems, procedures and controls necessary to support our anticipated increased levels of operations and to coordinate our various corporate functions, or that we will be able to properly manage, train, motivate and retain our anticipated increased employee base. If we cannot manage our growth initiatives, we will be unable to commercialize our products on a large-scale in a timely manner, if at all, and our business could fail.


As a public company with limited financial resources undertaking the launch of new medical technologies, we may have difficulty attracting and retaining executive management and directors.

The directors and management of publicly traded corporations are increasingly concerned with the extent of their personal exposure to lawsuits and stockholder claims, as well as governmental and creditor claims which may be made against them, particularly in view of recent changes in securities laws imposing additional duties, obligations and liabilities on management and directors. Due to these perceived risks, directors and management are also becoming increasingly concerned with the availability of directors’ and officers’ liability insurance to pay on a timely basis the costs incurred in defending such claims. While we currently carry directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, such insurance is expensive and difficult to obtain. If we are unable to continue or provide directors’ and officers’ liability insurance at affordable rates or at all, it may become increasingly more difficult to attract and retain qualified outside directors to serve on our Board of Directors. We may lose potential independent board members and management candidates to other companies in the biotechnology field that have greater directors’ and officers’ liability insurance to insure them from liability or to biotechnology companies that have revenues or have received greater funding to date which can offer greater compensation packages. The fees of directors are also rising in response to their increased duties, obligations and liabilities. In addition, our products could potentially be harmful to users, and we are exposed to claims of product liability including for injury or death. We have limited insurance and may not be able to afford robust coverage even as our products are introduced into the market. As a company with limited resources and potential exposures to management, we will have a more difficult time attracting and retaining management and outside independent directors than a more established public or private company due to these enhanced duties, obligations and potential liabilities.

If we fail to comply with extensive regulations of U.S. and foreign regulatory agencies, the commercialization of our products could be delayed or prevented entirely.

Our Hemopurifier product is subject to extensive government regulations related to development, testing, manufacturing and commercialization in the U.S. and other countries. The determination of when and whether a product is ready for large-scale purchase and potential use will be made by the U.S. Government through consultation with a number of governmental agencies, including the FDA, the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Department of Homeland Security. Our Hemopurifier has not received required regulatory approval from the FDA, or any foreign regulatory agencies, to be commercially marketed and sold. The process of obtaining and complying with FDA and other governmental regulatory approvals and regulations in the U.S. and in foreign countries is costly, time consuming, uncertain and subject to unanticipated delays. Obtaining such regulatory approvals, if any, can take several years. Despite the time and expense exerted, regulatory approval is never guaranteed. We also are subject to the following risks and obligations, among others:

· the FDA may refuse to approve an application if it believes that applicable regulatory criteria are not satisfied;

· the FDA may require additional testing for safety and effectiveness;

· the FDA may interpret data from pre-clinical testing and clinical trials in different ways than we interpret them;

· if regulatory approval of a product is granted, the approval may be limited to specific indications or limited with respect to its distribution; and

· the FDA may change its approval policies and/or adopt new regulations.


Failure to comply with these or other regulatory requirements of the FDA may subject us to administrative or judicially imposed sanctions, including:

· warning letters;

· civil penalties;

· criminal penalties;

· injunctions;

· product seizure or detention;

· product recalls; and

· total or partial suspension of productions.

Delays in successfully completing our planned clinical trials could jeopardize our ability to obtain regulatory approval.

Our business prospects will depend on our ability to complete studies, clinical trials, including our ongoing Early Feasibility trial in 10 to 12 patients in head and neck cancer and our study in Covid-19 patients, obtain satisfactory results, obtain required regulatory approvals and successfully commercialize our Hemopurifier product candidate. Completion of our clinical trials, announcement of results of the trials and our ability to obtain regulatory approvals could be delayed for a variety of reasons, including:

· slow patient enrollment;

· serious adverse events related to our medical device candidates;

· unsatisfactory results of any clinical trial;

· the failure of our principal third-party investigators to perform our clinical trials on our anticipated schedules;

Our development costs will increase if we have material delays in any clinical trial or if we need to perform more or larger clinical trials than planned. If the delays are significant, or if any of our product candidates do not prove to be safe or effective or do not receive required regulatory approvals, our financial results and the commercial prospects for our product candidates will be harmed. Furthermore, our inability to complete our clinical trials in a timely manner could jeopardize our ability to obtain regulatory approval.


If we or our suppliers fail to comply with ongoing FDA or foreign regulatory authority requirements, or if we experience unanticipated problems with our products, these products could be subject to restrictions or withdrawal from the market.

Any product for which we obtain clearance or approval, and the manufacturing processes, reporting requirements, post-approval clinical data and promotional activities for such product, will be subject to continued regulatory review, oversight and periodic inspections by the FDA and other domestic and foreign regulatory bodies. In particular, we and our third-party suppliers may be required to comply with the FDA’s Quality System Regulation, or QSR. These FDA regulations cover the methods and documentation of the design, testing, production, control, quality assurance, labeling, packaging, sterilization, storage and shipping of our products. Compliance with applicable regulatory requirements is subject to continual review and is monitored rigorously through periodic inspections by the FDA. If we, or our manufacturers, fail to adhere to QSR requirements in the U.S., this could delay production of our products and lead to fines, difficulties in obtaining regulatory clearances, recalls, enforcement actions, including injunctive relief or consent decrees, or other consequences, which could, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

In addition, the FDA assesses compliance with the QSR through periodic announced and unannounced inspections of manufacturing and other facilities. The failure by us or one of our suppliers to comply with applicable statutes and regulations administered by the FDA, or the failure to timely and adequately respond to any adverse inspectional observations or product safety issues, could result in any of the following enforcement actions:

Moreover, the FDA strictly regulates the promotional claims that may be made about approved products. In particular, a product may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the FDA as reflected in the product’s approved labeling. However, companies may share truthful and not misleading information that is otherwise consistent with a product’s FDA approved labeling. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties. The COVID-19 pandemic could also potentially affect the business of the FDA and comparable authorities in other countries, which could result in delays in meetings related to planned clinical trials and ultimately of reviews and approvals of our product candidates.

Any of these sanctions could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, our key component suppliers may not currently be or may not continue to be in compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements, which could result in our failure to produce our products on a timely basis and in the required quantities, if at all.

Delays, interruptions or the cessation of production by our third-party suppliers of important materials or delays in qualifying new materials, may prevent or delay our ability to manufacture or process our Hemopurifier.

Most of the raw materials used in the process for manufacturing our Hemopurifier are available from more than one supplier. However, there are materials within the manufacturing and production process that come from single suppliers. We do not have written contracts with all of our single source suppliers, and at any time they could stop supplying our orders. FDA review of a new supplier may be required if these materials become unavailable from our current suppliers. Although there may be other suppliers that have equivalent materials that would be available to us, FDA review of any alternate suppliers, if required, could take several months or more to obtain, if able to be obtained at all. Any delay, interruption or cessation of production by our third-party suppliers of important materials, or any delay in qualifying new materials, if necessary, would prevent or delay our ability to manufacture our Hemopurifiers. In addition, an uncorrected impurity, a supplier’s variation in a raw material or testing, either unknown to us or incompatible with its manufacturing process, or any other problem with our materials, testing or components, would prevent or delay the release of our Hemopurifiers for use in our clinical trials.


For example, in late 2020, we identified during our device quality review procedures prior to product release that one of our critical suppliers had produced a Hemopurifier component that was not produced to our specifications. Although no affected Hemopurifiers were released to us or to any trial sites, we are working to resolve the issue, and concurrently are working to identify alternative suppliers for this component. We believe that our current Hemopurifier inventory is sufficient for the conduct of our current ongoing clinical trials, but it is possible that the need for our Hemopurifiers could increase or the resolution of the issue with one of our current suppliers and identification of an alternative supplier could take longer than expected. Although we intend to procure alternative supply sources for our component and our current supplier intends to correct their issue, we can provide no assurance that we will do so in a timely manner. Any such delays could limit our ability to meet demand for the Hemopurifier and delay our ongoing clinical trials, which would have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Any delay or termination of our clinical trials will delay the filing of our product submissions and, ultimately, our ability to commercialize our product candidates and generate revenues.

Difficulties in manufacturing our Hemopurifier could have an adverse effect upon our expenses and our product revenues.

We currently outsource most of the manufacturing of our Hemopurifier. The manufacturing of our Hemopurifier is difficult and complex. To support our current clinical trial needs, we comply with and intend to continue to comply with cGMP in the manufacture of our product. Our ability to adequately manufacture and supply our Hemopurifier in a timely matter is dependent on the uninterrupted and efficient operation of our facilities and those of third-parties producing raw materials and supplies upon which we rely in our manufacturing. The manufacture of our products may be impacted by:

·availability or contamination of raw materials and components used in the manufacturing process, particularly those for which we have no other source or supplier;
·our ability to comply with new regulatory requirements, including our ability to comply with cGMP;
·inclement weather and natural disasters;
·changes in forecasts of future demand for product components;
·potential facility contamination by microorganisms or viruses;
·updating of manufacturing specifications;
·product quality success rates and yields; and
·global viruses and pandemics, including the current COVID-19 pandemic.

If efficient manufacture and supply of our Hemopurifier is interrupted, we may experience delayed shipments or supply constraints. If we are at any time unable to provide an uninterrupted supply of our products for our clinical trials, our ongoing clinical trials may be delayed, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial conditions.

If our products, or malfunction of our products, cause or contribute to a death or a serious injury, we will be subject to medical device reporting regulations, which can result in voluntary corrective actions or agency enforcement actions.

Under the FDA medical device reporting regulations, medical device manufacturers are required to report to the FDA information that a device has or may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or has malfunctioned in a way that would likely cause or contribute to death or serious injury if the malfunction of the device or one of our similar devices were to recur. If we fail to report these events to the FDA within the required timeframes, or at all, FDA could take enforcement action against us. Any such adverse event involving our products also could result in future voluntary corrective actions, such as recalls or customer notifications, or agency action, such as inspection or enforcement action. Any corrective action, whether voluntary or involuntary, as well as defending ourselves in a lawsuit, will require the dedication of our time and capital, distract management from operating our business, and may harm our reputation and financial results.


We outsource many of our operational and development activities, and if any party to which we have outsourced certain essential functions fails to perform its obligations under agreements with us, the development and commercialization of our lead product candidate and any future product candidates that we may develop could be delayed or terminated.

We rely on third-party consultants or other vendors to manage and implement the much of the day-to-day conduct of conducting clinical trials and manufacturing our current product candidates. Accordingly, we are and will continue to be dependent on the timeliness and effectiveness of the efforts of these third parties. Accordingly, we are and will continue to be dependent on the timeliness and effectiveness of their efforts. Our dependence on third parties includes key suppliers and third-party service providers supporting the development, manufacture and regulatory approval of our Hemopurifier, as well as support for our information technology systems and other infrastructure. Our dependence on third parties includes key suppliers and third-party service providers supporting the development, manufacture and regulatory approval of our products as well as support for our information technology systems and other infrastructure. While our management team oversees these vendors, failure of any of these third parties to meet their contractual, regulatory and other obligations or the development of factors that materially disrupt the performance of these third parties could have a material adverse effect on our business. For example, all of the key oversight responsibilities for the development and manufacture of our Hemopurifier are conducted by our management team, but all other activities are the responsibility of third-party vendors. For example, all of the key oversight responsibilities for the development and manufacture of our lead product candidate are conducted by our management team, but all other activities are the responsibility of third-party vendors. It is possible that the current COVID-19 epidemic might constrain the ability of needed third-party vendors to provide services that we require.

If a clinical research organization that we utilize is unable to allocate sufficient qualified personnel to our studies in a timely manner or if the work performed by it does not fully satisfy the requirements of the FDA or other regulatory agencies, we may encounter substantial delays and increased costs in completing our development efforts. Any manufacturer that we select may encounter difficulties in the manufacture of new products in commercial quantities, including problems involving product yields, product stability or shelf life, quality control, adequacy of control procedures and policies, compliance with FDA regulations and the need for further FDA approval of any new manufacturing processes and facilities. If any of these occur, the development and commercialization of our product candidates could be delayed, curtailed or terminated because we may not have sufficient financial resources or capabilities to continue such development and commercialization on our own.

If we or our contractors or service providers fail to comply with regulatory laws and regulations, we or they could be subject to regulatory actions, which could affect our ability to develop, market and sell our product candidates and any other or future product candidates that we may develop and may harm our reputation.

If we or our manufacturers or other third-party contractors fail to comply with applicable federal, state or foreign laws or regulations, we could be subject to regulatory actions, which could affect our ability to successfully develop, market and sell our Hemopurifier product candidate or any future product candidates under development and could harm our reputation and lead to reduced or non-acceptance of our proposed product candidates by the market. Even technical recommendations or evidence by the FDA through letters, site visits, and overall recommendations to academia or biotechnology companies may make the manufacturing of a clinical product extremely labor intensive or expensive, making the product candidate no longer viable to manufacture in a cost-efficient manner. The mode of administration may make the product candidate not commercially viable. The required testing of the product candidate may make that candidate no longer commercially viable. The conduct of clinical trials may be critiqued by the FDA, or a clinical trial site’s Institutional Review Board or Institutional Biosafety Committee, which may delay or make impossible clinical testing of a product candidate. The Institutional Review Board for a clinical trial may stop a trial or deem a product candidate unsafe to continue testing. This would have a material adverse effect on the value of the product candidate and our business prospects.

We will need to outsource and rely on third parties for the clinical development and manufacture, sales and marketing of Hemopurifier or any future product candidates that we may develop, and our future success will be dependent on the timeliness and effectiveness of the efforts of these third parties.

We do not have the required financial and human resources to carry out on our own all the pre-clinical and clinical development for our Hemopurifier product candidate or any other or future product candidates that we may develop, and do not have the capability and resources to manufacture, market or sell our Hemopurifier product candidate or any future product candidates that we may develop. Our business model calls for the partial or full outsourcing of the clinical and other development and manufacturing, sales and marketing of our product candidates in order to reduce our capital and infrastructure costs as a means of potentially improving our financial position. Our success will depend on the performance of these outsourced providers. If these providers fail to perform adequately, our development of product candidates may be delayed and any delay in the development of our product candidates would have a material and adverse effect on our business prospects.


We are and will be exposed to product liability risks, and clinical and preclinical liability risks, which could place a substantial financial burden upon us should we be sued.

Our business exposes us to potential product liability and other liability risks that are inherent in the testing, manufacturing and marketing of medical devices. Claims may be asserted against us. A successful liability claim or series of claims brought against us could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may not be able to continue to obtain or maintain adequate product liability insurance on acceptable terms, if at all, and such insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. Claims or losses in excess of any product liability insurance coverage that we may obtain could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our Hemopurifier product candidate may be used in connection with medical procedures in which it is important that those products function with precision and accuracy. If our product candidates, including our Hemopurifier, do not function as designed, or are designed improperly, we may be forced by regulatory agencies to withdraw such products from the market. If our products do not function as designed, or are designed improperly, we may be forced by regulatory agencies to withdraw such products from the market. In addition, if medical personnel or their patients suffer injury as a result of any failure of our products to function as designed, or our products are designed inappropriately, we may be subject to lawsuits seeking significant compensatory and punitive damages. The risk of product liability claims, product recalls and associated adverse publicity is inherent in the testing, manufacturing, marketing and sale of medical products. We have recently obtained general clinical trial liability insurance coverage. However, our insurance coverage may not be adequate or available. We may not be able to secure product liability insurance coverage on acceptable terms or at reasonable costs when needed. Any product recall or lawsuit seeking significant monetary damages may have a material effect on our business and financial condition. Any liability for mandatory damages could exceed the amount of our coverage. Moreover, a product recall could generate substantial negative publicity about our products and business and inhibit or prevent commercialization of other future product candidates.

We have not received, and may never receive, approval from the FDA to market a medical device in the United States.

Before a new medical device can be marketed in the U.S., it must first receive a PMA or 510(k) clearance from the FDA, unless an exemption applies. A PMA submission, which is a higher standard than a 510(k) clearance, is used to demonstrate to the FDA that a new or modified device is safe and effective. The 510(k) is used to demonstrate that a device is “substantially equivalent” to a predicate device (one that has been cleared by the FDA). We expect that any product we seek regulatory approval for, including the Hemopurifier, will require a PMA. The FDA approval process involves, among other things, successfully completing clinical trials and filing for and obtaining a PMA. The PMA process requires us to prove the safety and effectiveness of our products to the FDA’s satisfaction. This process, which includes preclinical studies and clinical trials, can take many years and requires the expenditure of substantial resources and may include post-marketing surveillance to establish the safety and efficacy of the product. Notwithstanding the effort and expense incurred, the process may never result in the FDA granting a PMA. Data obtained from preclinical studies and clinical trials are subject to varying interpretations that could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval. Delays or rejections may also be encountered based upon changes in governmental policies for medical devices during the period of product development. The FDA can delay, limit or deny approval of a PMA application for many reasons, including:

· our inability to demonstrate safety or effectiveness of the Hemopurifier or any other product we develop to the FDA’s satisfaction;

· insufficient data from our preclinical studies and clinical trials, including for our Hemopurifier, to support approval;

· failure of the facilities of our third-party manufacturer or suppliers to meet applicable requirements;

· inadequate compliance with preclinical, clinical or other regulations;

· our failure to meet the FDA’s statistical requirements for approval; and

· changes in the FDA’s approval policies, or the adoption of new regulations that require additional data or additional clinical studies.


Modifications to products that are approved through a PMA application generally need FDA approval. Similarly, some modifications made to products cleared through a 510(k) may require a new 510(k). The FDA’s 510(k) clearance process usually takes from three to 12 months, but may last longer. The process of obtaining a PMA is much costlier and more uncertain than the 510(k) clearance process and generally takes from one to three years, or even longer, from the time the application is submitted to the FDA until an approval is obtained. Any of our products considered to be a class III device, which are considered to pose the greatest risk and the approval of which is governed by the strictest guidelines, will require the submission and approval of a PMA in order for us to market it in the U.S. We also may design new products in the future that could require the clearance of a 510(k).

Although we have received approval to proceed with clinical trials of the Hemopurifier in the U.S. under the investigational device exemption, the current approval from the FDA to proceed could be revoked, the study could be unsuccessful, or the FDA PMA approval may not be obtained or could be revoked. Even if we obtain approval, the FDA or other regulatory authorities may require expensive or burdensome post-market testing or controls. Any delay in, or failure to receive or maintain, clearance or approval for our future products could prevent us from generating revenue from these products or achieving profitability. Additionally, the FDA and other regulatory authorities have broad enforcement powers. Regulatory enforcement or inquiries, or other increased scrutiny on us, could dissuade some physicians from using our products and adversely affect our reputation and the perceived safety and efficacy of our products.

The approval requirements for medical products used to fight bioterrorism and pandemics are still evolving, and any products we develop for such uses may not meet these requirements.

We are advancing product candidates under governmental policies that regulate the development and commercialization of medical treatment countermeasures against bioterror and pandemic threats. While we intend to pursue FDA market clearance to treat infectious bioterror and pandemic threats, it is often not feasible to conduct human studies against these deadly high threat pathogens. For example, the Hemopurifier is an investigational device that has not yet received FDA approval for any indication. We continue to investigate the potential for the use of the Hemopurifier in viral diseases under an open IDE and our FDA Breakthrough Designation for “…the treatment of life-threatening glycosylated viruses that are not addressed with an approved therapy.” We currently have an open FDA approved Expanded Access Protocol for the treatment of Ebola infected patients in the U.S. and a corresponding HealthCanada approval in Canada. Based on our studies to date, the Hemopurifier can potentially clear many viruses that are pathogenic in humans, including HCV, HIV and Ebola. We do have preclinical data suggesting that it could clear a closely related coronavirus (MERS).

On June 17, 2020, the FDA approved a supplement to our open IDE for the Hemopurifier in viral disease to allow for the testing of the Hemopurifier in patients with SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 in a New Feasibility Study. That study’s plan is to enroll up to 40 subjects at up to 20 centers in the U.S. Subjects will have established laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19, be admitted to an intensive care unit, or ICU, and will have acute lung injury and/or severe or life threatening disease, among other criteria. Endpoints for this study, in addition to safety, will include reduction in circulating virus as well as clinical outcomes (NCT # 04595903). The initial sites for this trial, Hoag Memorial Hospital Presbyterian in Newport Beach, CA and Hoag Hospital – Irvine in Irvine, CA and Loma Linda Hospital in Loma Linda, CA, have completed clinical trial agreements, and have received IRB approval in the case of the Hoag hospitals, and are preparing to open for patient enrollment. Under Single Patient Emergency Use regulations, the Company has also treated two patients with COVID-19 with the Hemopurifier.

Additionally, we have a very limited supply of Hemopurifiers and therefore any use in this pandemic will be only investigational in a very small number of patients, even if it appears that the device can help those patients.

Thus, we may not be able to demonstrate the effectiveness of our treatment countermeasures through controlled human efficacy studies. Additionally, a change in government policies could impair our ability to obtain regulatory approval and the FDA may not approve any of our product candidates.


The results of our clinical trials may not support our product candidate claims or may result in the discovery of adverse side effects.

Any research and development, pre-clinical testing and clinical trial activities involving our Hemopurifier and any additional products that we may develop are subject to extensive regulation and review by numerous governmental authorities both in the U.S. and abroad. Clinical studies must be conducted in compliance with FDA regulations or the FDA may take enforcement action. The data collected from these clinical studies may ultimately be used to support market clearance for these products. Even if our clinical trials are completed as planned, the results of these trials may not support our product candidate claims and the FDA may not agree with our conclusions regarding the trial results. Success in pre-clinical studies and early clinical trials does not ensure that later clinical trials will be successful, and the later trials may not replicate the results of prior trials and pre-clinical studies. The clinical trial process may fail to demonstrate that our product candidates are safe and effective for the proposed indicated uses, which could cause us to abandon a product candidate and may delay development of others. Any delay or termination of our clinical trials will delay the filing of our product submissions and, ultimately, our ability to commercialize our product candidates and generate revenues. It is also possible that patients enrolled in clinical trials will experience adverse side effects that are not currently part of the product candidate’s profile.

U.S. legislative or FDA regulatory reforms may make it more difficult and costly for us to obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates and to manufacture, market and distribute our products after approval is obtained.

From time to time, legislation is drafted and introduced in Congress that could significantly change the statutory provisions governing the regulatory approval, manufacture and marketing of regulated products or the reimbursement thereof. In addition, FDA regulations and guidance are often revised or reinterpreted by the FDA in ways that may significantly affect our business and our products. Any new regulations or revisions or reinterpretations of existing regulations may impose additional costs or lengthen review times of future products. It is impossible to predict whether legislative changes will be enacted or FDA regulations, guidance or interpretations changed, and what the impact of such changes, if any, may be or new product development efforts.

Our current and future business activities are subject to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, false claims, physician payment transparency, health information privacy and security and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to significant penalties.

We are currently and will in the future be subject to healthcare regulation and enforcement by the U.S. federal government and the states in which we will conduct our business once our product candidates are approved by the FDA and commercialized in the United States. In addition to the FDA’s restrictions on marketing of approved products, the U.S. healthcare laws and regulations that may affect our ability to operate include: the federal fraud and abuse laws, including the federal anti-kickback and false claims laws; federal data privacy and security laws; and federal transparency laws related to payments and/or other transfers of value made to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and other healthcare professionals (beginning January 1, 2022) and teaching hospitals. Many states have similar laws and regulations that may differ from each other and federal law in significant ways, thus complicating compliance efforts. These laws may adversely affect our sales, marketing and other activities with respect to any product candidate for which we receive approval to market in the United States by imposing administrative and compliance burdens on us.

Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of available statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors, it is possible that some of our business activities, particularly any sales and marketing activities after a product candidate has been approved for marketing in the United States, could be subject to legal challenge and enforcement actions. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the federal and state laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal, and administrative penalties, including, without limitation, damages, fines, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, additional reporting obligations and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or other agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.


We are subject to stringent and changing privacy laws, regulations and standards as well as policies, contracts and other obligations related to data privacy and security. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could lead to government enforcement actions (that could include fines and penalties), a disruption of our clinical trials or commercialization of our products, private litigation, harm to our reputation, or other adverse effects on our business or prospects.

We collect, receive, store, process, use, generate, transfer, disclose, make accessible, protect and share personal information and other information, including information we collect in connection with clinical trials, or “Process” or “Processing”, as necessary to operate our business, for legal and marketing purposes, and for other business-related purposes.

There are numerous federal, state, local and international laws, regulations and guidance regarding privacy, information security and Processing, the number and scope of which is changing, subject to differing applications and interpretations, and which may be inconsistent. We are, or may become, subject to these laws, regulations, and guidance, and we are also subject to the terms of our external and internal privacy and security policies, representations, certifications, standards, publications, frameworks, and contractual obligations to third parties related to privacy, information security and Processing, or Data Protection Obligations.

If we fail, or are perceived to have failed, to address or comply with Data Protection Obligations, it could: increase our compliance and operational costs; expose us to regulatory scrutiny, actions, fines and penalties; result in reputational harm; interrupt or stop our clinical trials; result in litigation and liability; result in an inability to process personal data or to operate in certain jurisdictions; harm our business operations or financial results or otherwise result in a material harm to our business, or each, a Material Adverse Impact. Additionally, given that Data Protection Obligations impose complex and burdensome obligations and that there is substantial uncertainty over the interpretation and application of these obligations, we may be required to incur material costs, divert management attention, and change our business operations, including our clinical trials, in an effort to comply, which could materially adversely affect our business operations and financial results.

The California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, CCPA, is an example of the increasingly stringent data protection legislation in the United States. The CCPA gives California residents expanded rights to access and require deletion of their personal information, opt-out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches and statutory damages ranging from $100 to $750 per violation, which is expected to increase data breach class action litigation and result in significant exposure to costly legal judgements and settlements. Although there are limited exemptions for clinical trial data under the CCPA, the CCPA and other similar laws could impact our business activities depending on how they are interpreted.

The European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, is an example of the type of data protection legislation being passed in international jurisdictions. The GDPR requires covered businesses to, among other requirements, provide detailed disclosures, contractually commit to data protection measures in our contracts, maintain adequate data security measures, notify regulators and affected individuals of certain data breaches and meet extensive privacy governance and documentation requirements. Companies that violate the GDPR can face private litigation, restrictions on data processing, and fines of up to the greater of 20 million Euros or 4% of their worldwide annual revenue. In addition, the GDPR includes restrictions on cross-border data transfers. A Recent decision by the Court of Justice of the European Union, or the “Schrems II” ruling, however, has created substantial uncertainty regarding how to legally transfer personal data from Europe to the United States. There are few, if any, viable options for us or our vendors to legally transfer personal data from Europe to the United States, which could materially impact our business.

If our security measures, or those maintained on our behalf, are compromised, or the security, confidentiality, integrity or availability of our information technology, software, services, networks, communications or data is compromised, limited or fails, this could result in a Material Adverse Impact.

In the ordinary course of our business, we Process proprietary, confidential and sensitive information, including personal data, intellectual property, trade secrets, and proprietary business information owned or controlled by ourselves or other third parties, or collectively, Sensitive Information. We may use and share Sensitive Information with service providers and subprocessors and other third parties upon whom we rely to help us operate our business. If we, our service providers, partners, or other relevant third parties have experienced, or in the future experience, any security incident(s) that result in any data loss; deletion or destruction; unauthorized access to; loss, unauthorized acquisition, disclosure, or exposure of, Sensitive Information, or compromise related to the security, confidentiality, integrity of our (or their) information technology, software, services, communications or data (any, a “Security Breach”), it may result in a Material Adverse Impact (as defined above), including the diversion of funds to address the breach, and interruptions, delays, or outages in our operations and development programs.


Cyberattacks, malicious internet-based activity and online and offline fraud are prevalent and continue to increase. In addition to threats from traditional computer “hackers,” threat actors, software bugs, malicious code (such as viruses and worms), employee theft or misuse, denial-of-service attacks (such as credential stuffing) and ransomware attacks, sophisticated nation-state and nation-state supported actors now engage in attacks (including advanced persistent threat intrusions). We may also be the subject of phishing attacks, viruses, malware installation, server malfunction, software or hardware failures, loss of data or other computer assets, or other similar issues.

We may be required to expend significant resources, fundamentally change our business activities and practices, or modify our operations, including clinical trial activities, or information technology in an effort to protect against Security Breaches and to mitigate, detect and remediate actual and potential vulnerabilities. Applicable Data Protection Obligations (as defined above) may require us to implement specific security measures or use industry-standard or reasonable measures to protect against Security Breaches. There can be no assurances that our security measures or those of third parties upon whom we rely will be effective in protecting against Security Incidents.

Applicable Data Protection Obligations (as defined above) may require us to notify relevant stakeholders of Security Breaches, including affected individuals, partners, collaborators, regulators, law enforcement agencies and others. Such disclosures are costly, and the disclosures or the failure to comply with such requirements could lead to Material Adverse Impacts. There can be no assurances that any limitations or exclusions of liability in our contracts would be adequate or would otherwise protect us from liabilities or damages if we fail to comply with Data Protection Obligations related to information security or Security Breaches.

We cannot be sure that our insurance coverage, if any, will be adequate or otherwise protect us from or adequately mitigate liabilities or damages with respect to claims, costs, expenses, litigation, fines, penalties, business loss, data loss, regulatory actions or Material Adverse Impacts arising out of our Processing operations, privacy and security practices, or Security Breaches that we may experience. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceeds our available insurance coverage, or results in changes to our insurance policies (including premium increases or the imposition of large excess or deductible or co-insurance requirements), could have a Material Adverse Impact.

Should our products be approved for commercialization, lack of third-party coverage and reimbursement for our devices could delay or limit their adoption.

In both the U.S. and international markets, the use of medical devices is dependent in part on the availability of reimbursement from third-party payors, such as government and private insurance plans. Healthcare providers that use medical devices generally rely on third-party payors to pay for all or part of the costs and fees associated with the medical procedures being performed or to compensate them for their patient care services. Should our products under development be approved for commercialization by the FDA, any such products may not be considered cost-effective, reimbursement may not be available in the U.S. or other countries, if approved, and reimbursement may not be sufficient to allow sales of our future products, including the Hemopurifier, on a profitable basis. The coverage decisions of third-party payors will be significantly influenced by the assessment of our future products by