Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - TMRC

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-Changes in blue
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

The following sets forth certain risks and uncertainties that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and/or results of operations, and the trading price of our common stock which may decline (it has recently declined and may continue to further decline) and investors may lose all or part of their investment. These risk factors should be considered along with the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K because these factors could cause our actual results or financial condition to differ materially from those projected in forward-looking statements. Additional risks and uncertainties that we do not presently know or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations. We cannot assure you that we will successfully address these risks or that other unknown risks exist that may affect our business.

Risks Associated with our investment in Round Top

Failure to fund cash calls.

USARE, as manager, will issue monthly cash calls pursuant to adopted Budgets. Both parties, as members, will have 10 days after receipt of such a billing to meet the cash call. Failure to meet a cash call results in dilution. The governing provisions of the Operating Agreement with respect to cash calls and dilution are as follows:

Cash Calls.

On the basis of the adopted program and budget then in effect, the manager will submit to each member monthly cash calls at least 10 days before the last day of each month, and within 10 days of receipt, (a) USARE will pay to RTMD, as an additional capital contribution, its proportionate share of the estimated cash requirements based on its interest and (b) the Company will either (i) pay to RTMD, as an additional capital contribution, its proportionate share of the estimated cash requirements based on its interest, or (ii) deliver to RTMD a written notice indicating what amount, if any, of the applicable estimated cash requirements that the Company will contribute, being the Notice of Non-Contribution. Failure by the Company to deliver payment of its proportionate share of the estimated cash requirements, as an additional capital contribution, or to deliver a Notice of Non-Contribution within the 10 day period shall automatically be considered a “Deemed Non-Contribution” and shall have the same effect as if the Company provided a timely Notice of Non-Contribution with respect to non-contribution of its entire proportionate share of the applicable cash call.

Remedies for Failure to Meet Cash Calls

Non-Contribution. Capital contributions only will be made to fund programs and budgets. If the Company does not contribute all or any portion of any additional capital contribution that it is required to contribute pursuant to a Notice of Non-Contribution or a Deemed Non-Contribution, then USARE shall fund the entire shortfall, being the Shortfall Amount, within 5 business days after the Notice of Non-Contribution or Deemed Non-Contribution.

Dilution. Upon the contribution of the Shortfall Amount by USARE, the interests of the members will be recalculated based on the adjustment provision set forth below in the sub-heading “– Adjustment of Interests”.

Maximum Dilution. The dilution of the Company shall not fall below a 3% interest in RTMD, being the Minimum Percentage Interest. Upon the contribution by USARE of a Shortfall Amount which otherwise would result in a dilution of the Company below the Minimum Percentage Interest, USARE will receive a priority distribution of available cash, in addition to a distribution of available cash to which USARE otherwise is entitled to receive as a result of its proportionate additional capital contribution pursuant to the applicable cash call request, up to the Shortfall Amount that would have resulted in the Company’s interest being further diluted but for the Minimum Percentage Interest, being the Priority Distribution. The Priority Distribution will continue until USARE has been reimbursed for its contribution of the Shortfall Amount that would have resulted in the Company having an interest below the Minimum Percentage Interest, after which time the members shall receive distributions of available cash pro rata in proportion to their respective interests.

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Adjustment of Interests.

If USARE contributes the Shortfall Amount, then the then current interest of the Company will be reduced (subject to the Minimum Percentage Interest), effective as of each cash call under an additional capital contribution for the applicable program and budget, by a fraction, expressed as a percentage:

the numerator of which equals the Shortfall Amount actually funded by USARE; and

the denominator of which equals the market capitalization of the Company.

As such, the failure by us to fund our cash calls will result in dilution to our membership interest in RTMD, which could be significant over time and could ultimately reduce us to a 3% membership interest and possibly a Priority Distribution owed to USARE, as described above. Dilution to our membership interest in RTMD will adversely affect the value of our Company and likely the value of our Common Stock. We currently do not have the necessary capital to fund future cash calls and there can be no assurance that we will be able to raise additional capital to fund cash calls. Moreover, the raising of capital by issuing shares of Common Stock will result in dilution to our common stockholders).

Certain matters that require unanimous management committee approval will not be applicable if the Company’s membership interest falls below 15% in Round Top.

Meetings will be held every three months unless otherwise agreed. For matters before the management committee that require a vote, voting is by simple majority except for certain “major decisions” that require a unanimous vote. So long as the Company maintains a 15% or greater ownership interest, the nine decisions identified in the bullet points below require unanimous approval. If the Company’s ownership interest falls below 15%, the number of unanimous decisions is reduced to five (being the first five bullet points below). If the Company is acquired by a REE mining company or sells its ownership interest to a REE mining company, in each case who elects a majority of the Company’s board, this unanimous approval requirement can be suspended by USARE, at its option. The major decisions requiring unanimous approval, as set forth above, are:

approval of an amendment to any Budget that causes the Budget to increase by 15% or more, except for emergencies;

other than purchase money security interests or other security interests in Round Top equipment to finance the acquisition or lease of Round Top equipment used in operations, the consummation of a project financing or the incurrence by Round Top of any indebtedness for borrowed money that requires the guarantee by any member of any obligations of Round Top;

substitution of a member under certain circumstances and dissolution of Round Top;

the issuance of an ownership interest or other equity interest in Round Top, or the admission of any person as a new member of Round Top, other than in connection with the exercise of a right of first offer by a member;

the redemption of all or any portion of an ownership interest, except for limited circumstances provided for in the Operating Agreement;

a decision to grant authorization for Round Top to file a petition for relief under any chapter of the United States Bankruptcy Code, to consent to such relief in any involuntary petition filed against Round Top by any third party, or to admit in writing any insolvency of Round Top or inability to pay its debts as they become due, or to consent to any receivership of Round Top;

acquisition or disposition of significant mineral rights, other real property or water rights outside of the area of interest as set forth in the Operating Agreement or outside of the ordinary course of business;

the merger of Round Top into or with any other entity; and

the sale of all or substantially all of Round Top’s assets.

Any future dilution of our membership interest in RTMD below 15% will adversely impact our input with respect to certain RTMD corporate actions, which could adversely affect us.

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We have relied on an exclusion from the definition of “investment company” in order to avoid being subject to the Investment Company Act of 1940. To the extent the nature of our business changes in the future, we may become subject to the requirements of the 1940 Act, which would limit our business operations and require us to spend significant resources in order to comply with such Act.

The 1940 Act defines an “investment company,” among other things, as an issuer that is engaged in the business of investing, reinvesting, owning, holding or trading in securities and owns investment securities having a value exceeding 40 percent of the issuer’s unconsolidated assets, excluding cash items and securities issued by the federal government. However, the 1940 Act excludes from this definition any person substantially all of whose business consists of owning or holding oil, gas or other mineral royalties or leases or fractional interests therein, or certificates of interest or participation relating to such mineral royalties or leases. We believe that we satisfy this mineral company exception to the definition of “investment company.” If our reliance on the mineral company exclusion from the definition of investment company is misplaced, we may have been in violation of the 1940 Act, the consequences of which can be significant. For example, investment companies that fail to register under the 1940 Act are prohibited from conducting business in interstate commerce, which includes selling securities or entering into other contracts in interstate commerce.

If in the future the nature of our business changes, or a regulatory agency would disagree with our analysis regarding the exclusion from the 1940 Act, such that the mineral company exception to the threshold definition of investment company is not available to us, we will be required to register as an investment company with the SEC. The ramifications of becoming an investment company, both in terms of the restrictions it would have on our Company and the cost of compliance, would be significant. For example, in addition to expenses related to initially registering as an investment company, the 1940 Act also imposes various restrictions with regard to our ability to enter into affiliated transactions, the diversification of our assets and our ability to borrow money. If we became subject to the 1940 Act at some point in the future, our ability to continue pursuing our business plan would be severely limited as it would be significantly more difficult for us to raise additional capital in a manner that would comply with the requirements of the 1940 Act. To the extent we are unable to raise additional capital, we may be forced to discontinue our operations or sell or otherwise dispose of our mineral assets.

Risk Related to Our Business, Including Being an Owner of a 19.611% membership interest in a Mineral Project Being Operated by Round Top

Our financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern.

Our financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. The Company has an accumulated deficit from inception through August 31, 2023, of approximately $42,344,000 and has yet to achieve profitable operations, and projects further losses in the development of its business. At August 31, 2023, the Company had a working capital surplus of approximately $1,025,000; however the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern is dependent upon its ability to obtain the necessary financing to meet its obligations and pay its liabilities arising from normal business operations when they come due.

In accordance with our current projected Budget, the Company does not have sufficient capital to fund its (i) total cash calls expected during the fiscal year ending August 31, 2024 (currently anticipated to be between approximately $3 million to $4 million) and (ii) expected general and administrative expenses during the fiscal year ending August 31, 2024 (expected to be at least $600,000). Thus far during the current fiscal year, we have elected to incur dilution to our Round Top membership interest which as of the date of this Annual report is 19.611% and the failure of the Company to make required cash calls to Round Top during the remainder of our current fiscal year will result in further dilution to our current 19.611% ownership interest. We expect to incur dilution to our then current membership interest to fund our cash call obligations during the fiscal year ending August 31, 2024. The Company may be required to raise additional capital to fund its obligations (pursuant to the current Budget if it elects not to incur dilution to its then current membership interest and to fund general and administrative expenses) during the fiscal year ended August 31, 2024. There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to raise the necessary capital to fund its cash calls and expected general and administrative expenses. We have no firm commitments for equity or debt financing and any financing that may be obtained will be on a best efforts basis. Based on these factors, there is substantial doubt as to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for a period of twelve months from the issuance date of these financial statements. The failure to obtain sufficient financing may cause us to curtail or discontinue operations.

We have a history of losses and will require additional financing to fund operations. Failure to obtain additional financing could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operation and could cast uncertainty on our ability to continue as a going concern in future periods.

During the fiscal year ended August 31, 2023, we had no revenues. For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2023, our net loss was approximately $2.6 million and our accumulated deficit at August 31, 2023 was approximately $42.3 million. For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2022, our net loss was approximately $2.9 million and our accumulated deficit at August 31, 2022 was approximately $39.8 million. At August 31, 2023, our cash position was approximately $1.1 million and our working capital surplus was approximately $1.0 million. Round Top has not commenced commercial production on any of its mineral properties, and there can be no assurance that the Round Top Project will ever commence commercial production. Round Top has not commenced commercial production on any of our mineral properties.

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During the fiscal year ending August 31, 2024, it is likely that USARE will be required to fund our portion of current Round Top Budget estimated to be between $3 million and $4 million to optimize the leaching and developing of the CIX/CIC processing of the Round Top Project, based on our current cash position (which will result in dilution to our membership interest in RTMD). Initial process design work will be carried out at USARE’s facility in Wheat Ridge, Colorado. Pending completion of the initial process development, this facility will either be relocated to or replicated at USARE’s Oklahoma facility where a pilot plant is expected to be established. Pending completion of the initial process development, this facility will either be relocated to or replicated at the Round Top Project where a pilot plant is expected to be established. It is estimated that the Round Top Project will require additional time and further expenditure to complete a bankable feasibility study, if at all.

In accordance with the current Round Top Budget, the Company will likely continue to elect to incur dilution to its Round Top membership interest in lieu of providing cash payments to fund its portion of the Round Top Budget, as we don’t have sufficient capital to fund currently expected cash calls and general and administrative expenses during the fiscal year ending August 31, 2024. If we were to elect to fund our portion of the expected Round Top Budget in cash, we would be required to raise additional capital to fund our obligations during this fiscal year. Moreover, it is possible that the Round Top Budget for the fiscal year ended August 31, 2024 could increase and it should be expected that such Round Top Budget will be higher in future periods. There can be no assurance that we will be able to raise the necessary capital to fund our cash calls and general and administrative expenses either during this current fiscal year or thereafter. There can be no assurance that we will be able to raise the necessary capital to fund our cash calls and expected general and administrative expenses. The failure to fund our portion of the Round Top Budget during this current fiscal year and/or thereafter would result in the continued dilution of our membership interest Round Top (currently 19.611%, which dilution during this current fiscal year and/or thereafter could be significant), and/or could cause us to curtail or cease our operations. The most likely source of future financing presently available to us is through the sale of our securities, of which there is no assurance that we will be able to raise additional capital on reasonable terms, if at all. Any sale of our shares of Common Stock to raise capital will result in dilution of equity ownership to existing stockholders. Any sale of our shares of Common Stock will result in dilution of equity ownership to existing stockholders. This means that if we sell shares of Common Stock, more shares will be outstanding and each existing stockholder will own a smaller percentage of the shares then outstanding. Additionally, the actual or perceived sale of additional shares of Common Stock could have the effect of decreasing our stock price, which would further exacerbate dilution to our existing shareholders. Alternatively, we may rely on debt financing and assume debt obligations that require us to make substantial interest and principal payments. Also, we may issue or grant warrants or options in the future pursuant to which additional shares of Common Stock may be issued. Exercise of such warrants or options will result in dilution of equity ownership to our existing stockholders. We have no firm commitments with respect to obtaining equity or debt financing and, accordingly, we will be reliant upon a best efforts financing strategy. The failure to obtain sufficient financing in this current fiscal year or subsequent thereto will result in the continued dilution of our membership interest in RTMD (which could be significant) and/or may cause us to curtail or discontinue operations.

We have a limited operating history on which to base an evaluation of our business and properties.

Any investment in the Company should be considered a high-risk investment because investors will be placing funds at risk in an early stage, under-capitalized business with unforeseen costs, expenses, competition, a history of operating losses and other problems to which start-up ventures are often subject. Investors should not invest in the Company unless they can afford to lose their entire investment. Your investment must be considered in light of the risks, expenses, and difficulties encountered in establishing a new business in a highly competitive and mature industry. Our operating history has been restricted to the acquisition and sampling of the Round Top Project and this does not provide a meaningful basis for an evaluation of the Round Top Project. Other than through conventional and typical exploration methods and procedures, we have no additional way to evaluate the likelihood of whether the Round Top Project contains commercial quantities of mineral reserves or, if it does, that it will be operated successfully. We anticipate that we will continue to incur operating costs in the form of cash calls in connection with our current 19.611% membership interest in Round Top without realizing any revenues during the foreseeable future. We anticipate that we will continue to incur operating costs in connection with our 20% membership interests in Round Top without realizing any revenues during the foreseeable future. If we continue to satisfy our Round Top cash call obligations through dilution to our then current membership interest, then we will incur continued dilution to our membership interest, which could be significant. To date, substantially all of our business consists of owning a 19.611% membership interest in Round Top as of the date of this Annual Report. To date, substantially all of our business consists of owning a 20% membership interest in Round Top.

The Round Top Project is in the exploration stage. There is no assurance that Round Top can establish the existence of any mineral reserve from the Round Top Project in commercially exploitable quantities. Until then, we cannot earn any revenues from the Round Top Project, and our business could fail.

We have not established that the Round Top Project contains any commercial exploitable quantities of mineral reserve, nor can there be any assurance that we will be able to do so. The probability of the Round Top Project ever having a commercial exploitable mineral reserve that meets the requirements of the SEC may be remote. Even if we do eventually discover commercial exploitable quantities of mineral reserve on the Round Top Project, there can be no assurance that it can be developed into a producing mine and extract those minerals. Both mineral exploration and development involve a high degree of risk and few properties, which are explored, are ultimately developed into producing mines.

The commercial viability of an established mineral deposit will depend on a number of factors including, by way of example, the size, grade and other attributes of the mineral deposit, the proximity of the deposit to infrastructure such as a smelter, roads and a point for shipping, government regulation and market prices. Most of these factors will be beyond our control, and any of them could increase costs and make extraction of any identified mineral deposit unprofitable.

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Even if commercial viability of a mineral deposit is established, it may take several years in the initial phases of drilling until production is possible, during which time the economic feasibility of production may change. Substantial expenditures are required to establish proven and probable reserves through drilling and bulk sampling, to determine the optimal metallurgical process to extract the metals from the ore and, in the case of new properties, to construct mining and processing facilities. Because of these uncertainties, no assurance can be given that our exploration programs will result in the establishment or expansion of a mineral deposit or reserves.

The Round Top Project is a high risk project and investors should not make an investment in the Company unless you have the ability to lose your entire investment.

There is no history of producing metals from the Round Top Project.

There is no history of producing metals from the Round Top Project. The Round Top Project is an exploration stage property in the early stage of exploration and evaluation. Advancing properties from exploration into the development stage requires significant capital and time, and successful commercial production from the Round Top Project, if any, will be subject to completing feasibility studies, permitting and construction of the mine, processing plants, roads, and other related works and infrastructure. As a result, we are subject to all of the risks associated with developing and establishing new mining operations and business enterprises including:

completion of feasibility studies to verify reserves and commercial viability, including the ability to find sufficient REE reserves to support a commercial mining operation;

the timing and cost, which can be considerable, of further exploration, preparing feasibility studies, permitting and construction of infrastructure, mining and processing facilities;

the availability and costs of drill equipment, exploration personnel, skilled labor and mining and processing equipment, if required;

the availability and cost of appropriate smelting and/or refining arrangements, if required, and securing a commercially viable sales outlet for our products;

compliance with environmental and other governmental approval and permit requirements;

the availability of funds to finance exploration, development and construction activities, as warranted;

potential opposition from non-governmental organizations, environmental groups, local groups or local inhabitants which may delay or prevent development activities;

dilution to our membership interest in Round Top, which could be significant;

potential increases in exploration, construction and operating costs due to changes in the cost of fuel, power, materials and supplies; and

potential shortages of mineral processing, construction and other facilities related supplies.

The costs, timing and complexities of exploration, development and construction activities may be increased by the location of the Round Top Project (or other properties that may subsequently be acquired) and demand by other mineral exploration and mining companies. It is common in exploration programs to experience unexpected problems and delays during drill programs and, if warranted, development, construction and mine start-up activities. Accordingly, Round Top’s activities may not result in profitable mining operations and Round Top may not succeed in establishing mining operations or profitably producing metals with respect to the Round Top Project. This is a high risk project and investors should not make an investment in the Company unless you have the ability to lose your entire investment.

If we establish the existence of a mineral reserve in the Round Top Project in a commercially exploitable quantity, we will require additional capital in order to maintain our current membership interest in Round Top and fund our proportionate costs to develop the property into a producing mine. If we cannot raise this additional capital, our membership interest in RTMD will be diluted, our membership interest will lose value, and our Company could fail. If we cannot raise this additional capital, we will likely be diluted and not be able to exploit the reserve, and our business could fail.

Round Top will be required to expend significant funds to determine if there exist mineral reserves in commercially exploitable quantities in the Round Top Project, and then Round Top will be required to expend substantial additional sums of money to establish the extent of the reserve, develop processes to extract it and develop extraction and processing facilities and infrastructure. Each of USARE and the Company, as the members of Round Top, will likely need to fund such expenditure. Our failure to raise capital to fund our portion of future cash calls will result in our current 19.611% membership interest being diluted. Round Top does not have adequate capital to fund expenditures at the project level, therefore requiring the members to fund cash calls based upon our current ownership interests in Round Top and we can elect to satisfy our cash call obligations through incurring dilution to our Round Top membership interest. There is no assurance that any Round Top project level financing can ever be obtained, which will depend initially upon obtaining a preliminary feasibility study which is anticipated to be completed during calendar 2024, although there can be no assurance that this will be obtained. As such, there is no assurance that, either at the member level or project level, the necessary financing can be obtained to develop necessary facilities and infrastructure to accomplish our goals. Although Round Top may derive substantial benefits from the discovery of a major mineral deposit, there can be no assurance that such a deposit will be large enough to justify commercial operations, nor can there be any assurance that Round Top will be able to raise the funds at the Round Top level required for development on a timely basis. Although we may derive substantial benefits from the discovery of a major mineral deposit, there can be no assurance that such a deposit will be large enough to justify commercial operations, nor can there be any assurance that we will be able to raise the funds required for development on a timely basis. If Round Top cannot raise the necessary capital at the Round Top level or complete the necessary facilities and infrastructure, cash calls from the members will continue and if we can’t fund our position, our membership interest will continue to be diluted (which dilution could be significant) and/or our business may fail and your investment in our Common Stock will be lost. Since June 2023 through the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our current membership interest was diluted from 20% to 19.611%, and it should be expected that our membership interest will be further diluted during this current fiscal year.

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Our exploration activities may not be commercially successful.

Our long-term success depends on our ability to identify mineral deposits in the Round Top Project or other properties we may acquire, if any, that we can then develop into commercially viable mining operations. Our belief that the Round Top Project contains commercially exploitable minerals has been based solely on preliminary tests that Round Top has conducted and data provided by third parties (including USARE). Our belief that the Round Top Project contains commercially exploitable minerals has been based solely on preliminary tests that we have conducted and data provided by third parties, including the data published in various third party reports. There can be no assurance that the tests and data upon which we have relied is correct or accurate and, accordingly, there is no assurance that the Round Top Project contains commercially exploitable minerals. There can be no assurance that the tests and data upon which we have relied is correct or accurate. Moreover, mineral exploration is highly speculative in nature, involves many risks and is frequently non-productive. Unusual or unexpected geologic formations and the inability to obtain suitable or adequate machinery, equipment or labor are risks involved in the conduct of exploration programs. The success of mineral exploration and development is determined in part by the following factors:

the identification of potential mineralization based on analysis;

the availability of exploration permits;

the quality of our management and our geological and technical expertise; and

the capital available for exploration.

Substantial expenditures and time are required to establish existing proven and probable reserves through drilling and analysis, to develop metallurgical processes to extract metal, and to develop the mining and processing facilities and infrastructure at any site chosen for mining. Whether a mineral deposit will be commercially viable depends on a number of factors, which include, without limitation, the particular attributes of the deposit, such as size, grade and proximity to infrastructure; metal prices, which fluctuate widely; and government regulations, including, without limitation, regulations relating to prices, taxes, royalties, land tenure, land use, allowable production, importing and exporting of minerals and environmental protection. Any one or a combination of these factors may result in us not receiving an adequate return on our investment in Round Top or any other mineral project we may pursue. The decision to abandon a project will have an adverse effect on the market value of our securities and our ability, if any, to raise future financing. The decision to abandon a project may have an adverse effect on the market value of our securities and our ability to raise future financing.

Increased costs could affect our financial condition.

We anticipate that costs at the Round Top Project as it is developed, if warranted, will frequently be subject to variation from one year to the next due to a number of factors, such as changing ore grade, metallurgy and revisions to mine plans, if any, in response to the physical shape and location of the ore body. In addition, costs are affected by the price of commodities such as fuel, rubber, and electricity. Such commodities are at times subject to volatile price movements, including increases that could make production at certain operations less profitable. A material increase in costs at any significant location could have a significant effect on the Round Top operations as well as Round Top member funding requirements.

Macroeconomic conditions, domestic and global political turbulence could have a materially adverse impact on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

Macroeconomic conditions, such as high inflation, changes to monetary policy, high interest rates, volatile currency exchange rates, decreasing consumer confidence and spending, and global or local recessions could negatively impact our business, financial condition, or results of operations. Recent macroeconomic conditions have been and likely will continue to be adversely impacted by political instability and military hostilities in multiple geographies (including the ongoing conflict between Ukraine and Russia and the conflict in the Middle East). The results of these macroeconomic conditions, and the actions taken by governments and consumers in response, have, and may continue to, result in higher inflation and higher interest rates in the U.S. and globally, which may, in turn, lead to an increase in costs and cause changes in fiscal and monetary policy, including additional increased interest rates.

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No assurance that the Company will enter into any agreement with respect to the Alhambra project owned by Santa Fe or that this project will proceed.

While the Company has entered into a mineral exploration and operation agreement with Santa Fe, there is no assurance the Company will enter into a formal joint venture agreement or otherwise pursue this project. Even if the Company enters into a formal joint venture agreement with Santa Fe, there is no assurance that this project will be economically feasible, that exploration will be successful or that this project will be a commercial success. The Company is currently pursuing financing sources for this project and there can be no assurance that the Company will be able to arrange and procure necessary financing to commercially exploit a silver property currently held by Santa Fe within the Black Hawk Mining District in Grant County, New Mexico. The status of our electromagnetic surveying and testing with respect to this project is preliminary in nature and there can be no assurance that this project will proceed or that results will be positive.

Licensing and permitting of mining operations in the State of New Mexico is difficult and could have a material effect on the length of time and cost of securing the required permits.

Regulatory agencies governing permitting include the New Mexico Mining and Minerals Division of the State of New Mexico, New Mexico Environmental Department, New Mexico Office of the State Engineer, the US Forest Service, the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the EPA, Mine Safety and Health Administration and Grant County, New Mexico. Permitting process is also vulnerable to the intrusion of various non-governmental organizations hostile to mining. Accordingly, there is no assurance that we will be able to obtain the necessary permits with respect to the Alhambra project, either at the state or federal level.

A shortage of equipment and supplies could adversely affect our ability to operate our business.

Round Top is and will be dependent on various supplies and equipment to carry out mining exploration and, if warranted, development operations. The shortage of such supplies, equipment and parts could have a material adverse effect on the ability to carry out Round Top’s operations and therefore limit or increase the cost of production.

Mining and mineral exploration is inherently dangerous and subject to conditions or events beyond our control, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and plans.

Mining and mineral exploration involves various types of risks and hazards, including:

environmental hazards;

power outages;

metallurgical and other processing problems;

unusual or unexpected geological formations;

personal injury, flooding, fire, explosions, cave-ins, landslides and rock-bursts;

inability to obtain suitable or adequate machinery, equipment, or labor;

metals losses;

fluctuations in exploration, development and production costs;

labor disputes;

unanticipated variations in grade;

mechanical equipment failure; and

periodic interruptions due to inclement or hazardous weather conditions.

These risks could result in damage to, or destruction of, the Round Top Project, production facilities or other properties, personal injury, environmental damage, delays in mining, increased production costs, monetary losses and possible legal liability. Round Top may not be able to obtain insurance to cover these risks at economically feasible premiums. Insurance against certain environmental risks, including potential liability for pollution or other hazards as a result of the disposal of waste products occurring from production, may be prohibitively expensive. Round Top may suffer a material adverse effect on its business if not covered by insurance policies.

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The figures for our mineralization are estimates based on interpretation and assumptions and may yield less mineral production under actual conditions than is currently estimated.

Unless otherwise indicated, mineralization figures presented in this Annual Report and in our filings with securities regulatory authorities, press releases and other public statements that may be made from time to time are based upon estimates made by independent geologists and our internal geologists. When making determinations about whether to advance to development any project that we have or may have interest in will be reliant upon such estimated calculations as to the mineral reserves and grades of mineralization on our properties. When making determinations about whether to advance any of our projects to development, we must rely upon such estimated calculations as to the mineral reserves and grades of mineralization on our properties. Until ore is actually mined and processed, mineral reserves and grades of mineralization must be considered as estimates only. All resource and grade estimates are based on state of the art analytical methods. All resource and grade estimates are based on state of the art analytical methods. However, any procedure for analyzing small amounts of metals in a chemically complex matrix may be subject to error and other uncertainties.

Estimates made to date rely on geophysical data, and geophysics is an indirect method of exploration and must be verified by drilling and underground investigation. Additionally, estimates can be imprecise and depend upon geological interpretation and statistical inferences drawn from drilling and sampling analysis, which may prove to be unreliable. 17 Estimates can be imprecise and depend upon geological interpretation and statistical inferences drawn from drilling and sampling analysis, which may prove to be unreliable. We cannot assure you that:

these interpretations and inferences will be accurate;

mineralization estimates will be accurate; or

this mineralization can be mined or processed profitably.

Investors should not rely upon any such figures in making an investment decision to acquire our Common Stock.

The Round Top operations may contain significant uninsured risks which could negatively impact future profitability.

Any exploration of the Round Top Project contains and will contain certain risks, including unexpected or unusual operating conditions including rock bursts, cave-ins, flooding, fire and earthquakes. It is not always possible to insure against these risks. Should events such as these arise, they could reduce or eliminate our investment in Round Top as well as result in increased costs and a decline in the value of our investment.

Mineral operations are subject to market forces outside of our control which could negatively impact us.

The marketability of minerals is affected by numerous factors beyond our control including market fluctuations, government regulations relating to prices, taxes, royalties, allowable production, imports, exports and supply and demand. One or more of these risk elements could have an impact on the costs of the Round Top operations and, if significant enough, could impact our investment.

We may be adversely affected by fluctuations in demand for, and prices of, rare earth minerals and products.

Our goal is for Round Top to derive revenues, if any, from the sale of rare earth and related minerals by Round Top. Changes in demand for, and the market price of, these minerals could significantly affect us. The value and price of our Common Stock and our financial results may be significantly adversely affected by declines in the prices of rare earth minerals and products. Rare earth minerals and product prices may fluctuate and are affected by numerous factors beyond our control such as interest rates, exchange rates, inflation or deflation, fluctuation in the relative value of the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies on the world market, global and regional supply and demand for rare earth minerals and products, and the political and economic conditions of countries (including specifically China and the U.S.’s relationship with China at any given time) that produce rare earth minerals and products.

A prolonged or significant economic contraction in the United States or worldwide could put further downward pressure on market prices of rare earth minerals and products. Protracted periods of low prices for rare earth minerals and products could significantly reduce revenues and the availability of required development funds in the future. This could cause substantial reductions to, or a suspension of, REO production operations, impair asset values and if reserves are established on our prospects, reduce our proven and probable rare earth ore reserves.

In contrast, extended periods of high commodity prices may create economic dislocations that may be destabilizing to rare earth minerals supply and demand and ultimately to the broader markets. Periods of high rare earth mineral market prices generally are beneficial to us. However, strong rare earth mineral prices also create economic pressure to identify or create alternate technologies that ultimately could depress future long-term demand for rare earth minerals and products, and at the same time may incentivize development of otherwise marginal mining properties.

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Permitting, licensing and approval processes are required for the operations at the Round Top Project and obtaining and maintaining required permits and licenses is subject to conditions which may be unable to be achieved.

Both mineral exploration and extraction at the Round Top Project requires permits from various federal, state, provincial and local governmental authorities and are governed by laws and regulations, including those with respect to prospecting, mine development, mineral production, transport, export, taxation, labor standards, occupational health, waste disposal, toxic substances, land use, environmental protection, mine safety and other matters. Permits known to be required are (i) an operating plan for the conduct of exploration and development approved by the GLO, (ii) an operating plan for production approved by the GLO, (iii) various reporting to and approval by the Texas Railroad Commission regarding drilling and plugging of drill holes, and (v) reporting to and compliance with regulations of the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality. If Round Top recovers uranium at the Round Top Project, it will be required to obtain a source material license from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Round Top may also be subject to the reporting requirements and regulations of the Texas Department of Health. Such licenses and permits are subject to changes in regulations and changes in various operating circumstances. Companies that engage in exploration activities often experience increased costs and delays in production and other schedules as a result of the need to comply with applicable laws, regulations and permits. Issuance of permits for the Round Top activities is subject to the discretion of government authorities, and Round Top may be unable to obtain or maintain such permits. Permits required for future exploration or development may not be obtainable on reasonable terms or on a timely basis. There can be no assurance that Round Top will be able to obtain or maintain any of the permits required for the continued exploration or development of the Round Top Project (or any other of our mineral properties that we may subsequently acquire) or for the construction and operation of a mine on our properties that we may subsequently acquire at economically viable costs. If Round Top or we cannot accomplish these objectives, our business could face difficulty and/or fail.

Round Top is subject to significant governmental regulations, which affect its operations and costs of conducting its business.

Round Top’s current and future operations are and will be governed by laws and regulations, including: