Quiver Quantitative

Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - JACK

-New additions in green
-Changes in blue
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
We caution you that our business and operations are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties. The factors listed below are important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from our historical results and from projections in the forward-looking statements contained in this report, in our other filings with the SEC, in our news releases, and in oral statements by our representatives. However, other factors that we do not anticipate or that we do not consider material based on currently available information may also have an adverse effect on our results.
Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted and may continue to disrupt our business, which has affected and could continue to materially affect our operations, financial condition, and results of operations for an extended period of time.
The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, federal, state and local government responses to COVID-19 and our responses to the outbreak have all disrupted and may continue to disrupt our business.
Our operating results substantially depend upon our sales volumes, restaurant profitability, and financial stability, and to the extent we and/or our franchisees experience financial distress due to the COVID-19 pandemic, our operating results may be adversely impacted, potentially materially affecting our liquidity, financial condition, or results of operations.
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Our business could be further disrupted if any of our company or franchised restaurant employees are diagnosed with COVID-19 since this could require us or our franchisees to quarantine some or all of a restaurant’s employees, disinfect the restaurant’s facilities, and/or reduce restaurant operating hours. If a significant percentage of our or our franchisees’ workforce is unable to work, whether because of illness, quarantine, limitations on travel or other government regulations or restrictions in connection with COVID-19, our results may be adversely impacted, potentially materially affecting our liquidity, financial condition, or results of operations. If a significant percentage of our or our franchisees’ workforce is unable to work, whether because of illness, quarantine, limitations on travel or other government restrictions in connection with COVID-19, our results may be adversely impacted, potentially materially affecting our liquidity, financial condition, or results of operations. The impending federal vaccine mandate may also materially impact our results if we or our franchised restaurants were to lose employees and/or incur additional costs for testing as a result of the mandate.
Our business has been disrupted and could be further disrupted to the extent our suppliers, distributors, and/or third-party delivery partners are adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. If our suppliers, distributors, and/or third-party delivery partners experience labor shortages or their employees are unable to work, whether because of illness, quarantine, limitations on travel or other government restrictions in connection with COVID-19, we could face cost increases, shortages of food items, shortages of delivery services, and/or shortages of other supplies across our restaurants, and our results could be adversely impacted by such interruptions.
The COVID-19 outbreak also may have the effect of heightening many other risks disclosed herein, including, but not limited to, those related to consumer confidence, increase in food and commodity costs, supply chain interruptions, labor availability and cost, cybersecurity incidents, increased indebtedness, regulatory and legal complexity, governmental regulations, and our stock price.The COVID-19 outbreak also may have the effect of heightening other risks disclosed, including, but not limited to, those related to consumer confidence, increase in food and commodity costs, supply chain interruptions, labor availability and cost, cybersecurity incidents, increased indebtedness, regulatory and legal complexity, and governmental regulations.
Risks Related to Operating in the Restaurant Industry
We face significant competition in the food service industry and our inability to compete may adversely affect our business.
The food service industry is highly competitive with respect to price, service, location, product offering, image and attractiveness of the facilities, personnel, advertising, brand identification, and food quality. Our competition includes a large number of national and regional restaurant chains, as well as locally owned and independent businesses. In particular, we operate in the quick service restaurant chain segment, in which we face a number of established competitors, as well as frequent new entrants to the segment nationally and in regional markets. Some of our competitors have significantly greater financial, marketing, technological, personnel, and other resources than we do. In addition, many of our competitors have greater name recognition nationally or in some of the local or regional markets in which we have restaurants.
Additionally, the trend toward convergence in grocery, deli, delivery, and restaurant services is increasing the number of our competitors. For example, competitive pressures can come from deli sections and in-store cafes of major grocery store chains, including those targeted at customers who desire high-quality food and convenience, as well as from convenience stores and other dining outlets. These competitors may have, among other things, a more diverse menu, lower operating costs and prices, better locations, better facilities, more effective marketing, and more efficient operations than we do. Such increased competition could decrease the demand for our products and negatively affect our sales, operating results, profits, business and financial position, and prospects (collectively, our “financial results”).
While we continue to make improvements to our facilities, to implement new service, technology, and training initiatives, and to introduce new products, there can be no assurance that such efforts will generate increased sales or sufficient customer interest. Many of our competitors are remodeling their facilities, implementing service improvements, introducing a variety of new products and service offerings, and advertising that their ingredients are healthier or locally sourced. Such competing products and health- or environmental-focused claims may hurt our competitive positioning as existing or potential customers could seek out other dining options.
Changes in demographic trends and in customer tastes and preferences could cause sales and the royalties that we receive from franchisees to decline.
Changes in customer preferences, demographic trends, and the number, type, and location of competing restaurants have great impact in the restaurant industry. Our sales and the revenue that we receive from franchisees could be impacted by changes in customer preferences related to dietary concerns, such as preferences regarding calories, sodium content, carbohydrates, fat, additives, and sourcing, or in response to environmental and animal welfare concerns. Such preference changes could result in customers favoring other foods to the exclusion of our menu items. If we fail to adapt to changes in customer preferences and trends, we may lose customers and our sales and the rents, royalties, and marketing fees we receive from franchisees may deteriorate.
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Changes in consumer confidence and declines in general economic conditions could negatively impact our financial results.
The restaurant industry depends on consumer discretionary spending. We are impacted by consumer confidence, which is, in turn, influenced by general economic conditions and discretionary income levels. A material decline in consumer confidence or a decline in family “food away from home” spending could cause our financial results to decline. If economic conditions worsen, customer traffic could be adversely impacted if our customers choose to dine out less frequently or reduce the amount they spend on meals while dining out, which could cause our company and our franchised average restaurant sales to decline. An economic downturn may be caused by a variety of factors, such as macro-economic changes, increased unemployment rates, increased taxes, interest rates, or other changes in government fiscal policy. High gasoline prices, increased healthcare costs, declining home prices, and political unrest, foreign or domestic, may potentially contribute to an economic downturn, as may regional or local events, including natural disasters or local regulation. The impact of these factors may be exacerbated by the geographic profile of our brand. Specifically, nearly 70% of our restaurants are located in the states of California and Texas. Economic conditions, state and local laws, or government regulations affecting those states may therefore more greatly impact our results than would similar occurrences in other locations.
Increases in food and commodity costs could decrease our profit margins or result in a modified menu, which could adversely affect our financial results.
We and our franchisees are subject to volatility in food and commodity costs and availability. Accordingly, our profitability depends in part on our ability to anticipate and react to changes in food costs and availability. As is true of all companies in the restaurant industry, we are susceptible to increases in food costs that are outside of our control. Factors that can impact food and commodity costs include general economic conditions, inflation, labor shortages, seasonal fluctuations, weather and climate conditions, energy costs, global demand, trade protections and subsidies, food safety issues, infectious diseases, possible terrorist activity, cyberattacks, transportation issues, currency fluctuations, product recalls, and government regulatory schemes. Factors that can impact food and commodity costs include general economic conditions, seasonal fluctuations, weather and climate conditions, global demand, trade protections and subsidies, food safety issues, infectious diseases, possible terrorist activity, currency fluctuations, product recalls, and government regulatory schemes. Additionally, some of our produce, meats, and restaurant supplies are sourced from outside the United States. Any new or increased import duties, tariffs, or taxes, or other changes in U.S. trade or tax policy, could result in higher food and commodity costs that would adversely impact our financial results.
Weather and climate related issues, such as freezes or drought, may lead to temporary or even longer-term spikes in the prices of some ingredients such as produce and meats, or of livestock feed. Increasing weather volatility or other long-term changes in global weather patterns, including any changes associated with global climate change, could have a significant impact on the price or availability of some of our ingredients. Any increase in the prices of the ingredients most critical to our menu, such as beef, chicken, pork, tomatoes, lettuce, dairy products, and potatoes could adversely affect our financial results. In the event of cost increases with respect to one or more of our raw ingredients, we may choose to change our pricing or suspend serving a menu item rather than paying the increased cost for the particular ingredient.
We seek to manage food and commodity costs, including through extended fixed price contracts, strong category and commodity management, and purchasing fundamentals. However, certain commodities such as beef and pork, which currently represent approximately 16% and 6% respectively, of our commodity spend, do not lend themselves to fixed price contracts. We cannot assure you that we will successfully enter into fixed price contracts on a timely basis or on commercially favorable pricing terms. In addition, although our produce contracts contain predetermined price limits, we are subject to force majeure clauses resulting from weather or acts of God that may result in temporary spikes in costs.
Further, we cannot assure you that we or our franchisees will be able to successfully anticipate and react effectively to changing food and commodity costs by adjusting purchasing practices or menu offerings. We and our franchisees also may not be able to pass along price increases to our customers as a result of adverse economic conditions, competitive pricing, or other factors. Therefore, variability of food and other commodity costs could adversely affect our profitability and results of operations.
Failure to receive scheduled deliveries of high-quality food ingredients and other supplies could harm our operations and reputation.
Dependence on frequent deliveries of fresh produce and other food products subjects food service businesses such as ours to the risk that shortages or interruptions in supply could adversely affect the availability, quality or cost of ingredients or require us to incur additional costs to obtain adequate supplies. Deliveries of supplies may be affected by adverse weather conditions, natural disasters, labor shortages, or financial or solvency issues of our distributors or suppliers, product recalls, production disruptions such as mechanical failures, or other issues. Deliveries of supplies may be affected by adverse weather conditions, natural disasters, labor shortages, or financial or solvency issues of our distributors or suppliers, product recalls, or other issues. Further, increases in fuel prices could result in increased distribution costs. In addition, if any of our distributors, suppliers, vendors, or other contractors fail to meet our quality or safety standards or otherwise do not perform adequately, or if any one or more of them seeks to terminate its agreement or fails to perform as anticipated, or if there is any disruption in any of our distribution or supply relationships or operations for any reason, our business reputation, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially affected.
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We have a limited number of suppliers for our major products and rely on a distribution network with a limited number of distribution partners for the majority of our national distribution program. If our suppliers or distributors are unable to fulfill their obligations under their contracts, it could harm our operations.
We contract with a distribution network with a limited number of distribution partners located throughout the nation to provide the majority of our food distribution services. Through these arrangements, our food supplies are largely distributed through several primary distributors. If any of these relationships are interrupted or terminated, or if one or more supply or distribution partners are unable or unwilling to fulfill their obligations for whatever reasons, product availability to our restaurants may be interrupted, and business and financial results may be negatively impacted. Although we believe that alternative supply and distribution sources are available, there can be no assurance that we will be able to identify or negotiate with such sources on terms that are commercially reasonable to us.
Food safety and food-borne illness concerns may have an adverse effect on our business by reducing demand and increasing costs.
Food safety is a top priority for our company, and we expend significant resources on food safety programs to ensure that our customers are able to enjoy safe and high-quality food products. These include a daily, structured food safety assessment and documentation process at our restaurants, and periodic third-party and internal audits to review the food safety performance of our vendors, distributors, and restaurants. Nonetheless, food safety risks cannot be completely eliminated, and food safety and food-borne illness issues do occur in the food service industry. Any report or publicity linking us to instances of food-borne illness or other food safety issues, including issues involving food tampering, natural or foreign objects, or other contaminants or adulterants in our food, could adversely affect our reputation, as well as our financial results. Furthermore, our reliance on food suppliers and distributors increases the risk that food-borne illness incidents could be introduced by third-party vendors outside our direct control. Although we test and audit these activities, we cannot guarantee that all food items are safely and properly maintained during transport or distribution throughout the supply chain.
Additionally, past reports linking nationwide or regional incidents of food-borne illnesses such as salmonella, E. coli, and listeria to certain products such as produce and proteins, or human-influenced illness such as hepatitis A or norovirus, have resulted in consumers avoiding certain products and restaurant concepts for a period of time. Similarly, reaction to media-influenced reports of avian flu, incidents of “mad cow” disease, or similar concerns have also caused some consumers to avoid products that are, or are suspected of being, affected and could have an adverse effect on the price and availability of affected ingredients. Further, if we react to these problems by changing our menu or other key aspects of the brand experience, we may lose customers who do not accept those changes, and we may not be able to attract enough new customers to generate sufficient revenue to make our restaurants profitable.
Our restaurants currently have an ingredient mix that can be exposed to one or more food allergens, such as eggs, wheat, milk, fish, shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, and soy. We employ precautionary allergen training steps for food handlers in order to minimize risk of allergen cross contamination and we post allergen information on nutritional posters in our restaurants or otherwise make such information available to guests upon request. Even with such precautionary measures, the potential risk of allergen cross contamination exists in a restaurant environment. A potentially serious allergic reaction by a guest may result in adverse public communication, media coverage, a decline in restaurant sales, and a material decline in our financial results.
Negative publicity relating to our business or industry could adversely impact our reputation.
Our business can be materially and adversely affected by widespread negative publicity of any type, particularly regarding food quality, food safety, nutritional content, safety or public health issues (such as outbreaks, pandemics, epidemics, or the prospect of any of these), obesity or other health concerns, animal welfare issues, and employee relations issues, among other things. Adverse publicity in these areas could damage the trust customers place in our brand. The increasingly widespread use of mobile devices and social media platforms has amplified the speed and scope of adverse publicity and could hamper our ability to promptly correct misrepresentations or otherwise respond effectively to negative publicity, whether or not accurate. Any widespread negative publicity regarding the Company, our brand, our vendors and suppliers, and our franchisees, or negative publicity about the restaurant industry in general, whether or not accurate, could cause a decline in restaurant sales, and could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Additionally, employee or customer claims against us or our franchisees based on, among other things, wage and hour violations, discrimination, harassment, or wrongful termination may also create negative publicity that could adversely affect us and divert financial and management resources that would otherwise be focused on the future performance of our operations. Consumer demand for our products could decrease significantly if any such incidents or other matters create negative publicity or otherwise erode consumer confidence in us, our brand or our products, or in the restaurant industry in general.
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We are also subject to the risk of negative publicity associated with animal welfare regulations and campaigns. Our restaurants utilize ingredients manufactured from beef, poultry, and pork. Our policies require that our approved food suppliers and their raw material providers engage in proper animal welfare practices. Despite our policies and efforts, media reports and portrayals of inhumane acts toward animals by participants in the food supply chain, whether by our suppliers or not, can create a negative opinion or perception of the food industry’s animal welfare efforts. Such media reports and negative publicity could impact guest perception of our brand or industry and can have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Our business could be adversely affected by increased labor costs.
Labor is a primary component of our operating costs. Increased labor costs due to factors such as competition for workers, labor shortages, labor market pressures, increased minimum wage requirements, paid sick leave or vacation accrual mandates, or other legal or regulatory changes, such as predictive scheduling, may adversely impact operating costs for us and our franchisees. Increased labor costs due to factors such as competition for workers, labor market pressures, increased minimum wage requirements, paid sick leave or vacation accrual mandates, or other legal or regulatory changes, such as predictive scheduling, may adversely impact operating costs for us and our franchisees. Additional taxes or requirements to incur additional employee benefit costs, including the requirements of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the “Affordable Care Act”) or any new or replacement healthcare requirements, could also adversely impact our operating costs.
The enactment of additional state or local minimum wage increases above federal wage rates or regulations related to non-exempt employees has increased and could continue to increase labor costs for employees across our system-wide operations, especially considering our concentration of restaurants in California.
Inability to attract, train and retain top-performing personnel could adversely impact our financial results or business.
We believe that our continued success will depend, in part, on our ability to attract and retain the services of skilled personnel. The loss of the services of, or our inability to attract and retain, such personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, including reduced restaurant operating hours. The loss of the services of, or our inability to attract and retain, such personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business. We believe good managers and crew are a key part of our success, and we devote significant resources to recruiting and training our restaurant managers and crew. We aim to reduce turnover among our restaurant crews and managers in an effort to retain top performing employees and better realize our investment in training new employees. Any failure to do so may adversely impact our operating results by increasing training costs and making it more difficult to deliver outstanding customer service, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
We may not have the same resources as our competitors for marketing, advertising, and promotion.
Some of our competitors have greater financial resources, which enable them to: invest significantly more than us in advertising, particularly television and radio ads, as well as endorsements and sponsorships; have a presence across more media channels; and support multiple system and regional product launches at one time. Should our competitors increase spending on marketing, advertising, and promotion, or should the cost of advertising increase or our advertising funds decrease for any reason (including reduced sales, implementation of reduced spending strategies, or a decrease in the percentage contribution to the marketing fund for any reason), our results of operations and financial condition may be materially impacted.
In addition, our financial results may be harmed if our marketing, advertising, and promotional programs are less effective than those of our competitors. The growing prevalence and importance of social media platforms, behavioral advertising, and mobile technology also pose challenges and risks for our marketing, advertising, and promotional strategies; and failure to effectively use and gain traction on these platforms or technologies could cause our advertising to be less effective than our competitors. Moreover, improper or damaging use of social media or mobile technology, including by our employees, franchisees, or guests could increase our costs, lead to litigation, or result in negative publicity, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
We may be adversely impacted by severe weather conditions, natural disasters, terrorist acts, or civil unrest that could result in property damage, injury to employees and staff, and lost restaurant sales.
Food service businesses such as ours can be materially and adversely affected by severe weather conditions, such as severe storms, hurricanes, flooding, prolonged drought, or protracted heat or cold waves, and by natural disasters, such as earthquakes and wildfires, or “man-made” calamities such as terrorist incidents or civil unrest, and their aftermath. Such occurrences could result in lost restaurant sales, property damage, lost products, interruptions in supply, and increased costs.
If systemic or widespread adverse changes in climate or weather patterns occur, we could experience more severe impact, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results. The impact of these factors may be exacerbated by our geographic profile, as nearly 70% of our restaurants are located in the states of California and Texas.
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Risks Related to Our Business Strategy
We may not achieve our development goals.
We intend to grow the brand primarily through new restaurant development by franchisees, both in existing markets and in new markets. Development involves substantial risks, including the risk of:
the inability to identify suitable franchisees;
limited availability of financing for the Company and for franchisees at acceptable rates and terms;
development costs exceeding budgeted or contracted amounts;
the negative impact of any re-imaging strategy if not adopted by franchisees or embraced by guests;
delays in completion of construction or shortages of any equipment or construction materials;
the inability to identify, or the unavailability of suitable sites at acceptable cost and other leasing or purchase terms;
developed properties not achieving desired revenue or cash flow levels once opened;
the negative impact of a new restaurant upon sales at nearby existing restaurants;
the challenge of developing in areas where competitors are more established or have greater penetration or access to suitable development sites;
incurring substantial unrecoverable costs in the event a development project is abandoned prior to completion;
impairment charges resulting from underperforming restaurants or decisions to curtail or cease investment in certain locations or markets;
in new geographic markets where we have limited or no existing locations, the inability to successfully expand or acquire critical market presence for our brand, acquire name recognition, successfully market our products, or attract new customers;
operating cost levels that reduce the demand for, or raise the cost of, developing new restaurants;
the challenge of identifying, recruiting, and training qualified franchisees or company restaurant management;
Although we manage our growth and development activities to help reduce such risks, we cannot assure that our present or future growth and development activities will perform in accordance with our expectations. Our inability to expand in accordance with our plans or to manage the risks associated with our growth could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Our highly-franchised business model presents a number of risks, and the failure of our franchisees to operate successful and profitable restaurants could negatively impact our business.13Our highly franchised business model presents a number of risks, and the failure of our franchisees to operate successful and profitable restaurants could negatively impact our business.
As of October 3, 2021, approximately 93% of our operating restaurant properties were franchised restaurants; therefore, our success increasingly relies on the financial success and cooperation of our franchisees, yet we have limited influence over their operations.As of September 27, 2020, approximately 94% of our operating restaurant properties were franchised restaurants; therefore, our success increasingly relies on the financial success and cooperation of our franchisees, yet we have limited influence over their operations. Our income arises from two sources: fees from franchised restaurants (e.g., rent and royalties based on a percentage of sales) and, to a lesser degree, profit from our remaining Company-operated restaurants., rent and royalties based on a percentage of sales) and, to a lesser degree, sales from our remaining Company-operated restaurants. Our franchisees manage their businesses independently, and therefore are responsible for the day-to-day operation of their restaurants. The revenues we realize from franchised restaurants are largely dependent on the ability of our franchisees to grow their sales. If our franchisees do not experience sales growth, our revenues and margins could be negatively affected as a result. Also, if sales trends worsen for franchisees, their financial results may deteriorate, which could result in, among other things, franchisee bankruptcies, restaurant closures, or delayed or reduced payments to us. Also, if sales trends worsen for franchisees, their financial results may deteriorate, which could result in, among other things, restaurant closures, or delayed or reduced payments to us. Our success also increasingly depends on the willingness and ability of our independent franchisees to implement shared strategies and major initiatives, which may include financial investment, and to remain aligned with us on operating and promotional plans. Franchisees’ ability to contribute to the achievement of our plans is dependent in large part on the availability to them of funding at reasonable interest rates and may be negatively impacted by the financial markets in general or by the credit worthiness of our franchisees or the Company. As small businesses, some of our franchise operators may be negatively and disproportionately impacted by strategic initiatives, capital requirements, inflation, labor costs, employee relations issues, or other causes. In addition, franchisees’ business obligations may not be limited to the operation of Jack in the Box restaurants, making them subject to business and financial risks unrelated to the operation of our restaurants. These unrelated risks could adversely affect a franchisee’s ability to make payments to us or to make payments on a timely basis. We cannot assure you that our franchisees will successfully participate in our strategic or marketing initiatives or operate their restaurants in a manner consistent with our requirements, standards, and expectations. As compared to some of our competitors, our brand has relatively fewer franchisees who, on average, operate more restaurants per franchisee. There are significant risks to our business if a franchisee, particularly one who operates a large number of restaurants, encounters financial difficulties, including bankruptcy, or fails to adhere to our standards, projecting an image inconsistent with our brand or negatively impacting our financial results.
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We are subject to financial and regulatory risks associated with our owned and leased properties and real estate development projects.
We own or lease the real properties on which most of our restaurants are located and lease or sublease to the franchisee a majority of our franchised restaurant sites. We have engaged and continue to engage in real estate development projects. As is the case with any owner or operator of real property, we are subject to eminent domain proceedings that can impact the value of investments we have made in real property, and we are subject to other potential liabilities, cost and damages arising out of owning, operating, leasing, or otherwise having interests in real property.
If we close a restaurant in a leased location, we may remain committed to perform our obligations under the applicable lease, which would include, among other things, payment of the base rent for the balance of the lease term. Additionally, the potential losses associated with our inability to cancel leases may result in our keeping open restaurant locations that are performing significantly below targeted levels. As a result, ongoing lease obligations at closed or underperforming restaurant locations could unfavorably impact our results of operations. As a result, ongoing lease obligations at closed or underperforming restaurant locations could impair our results of operations. In addition, at the end of the lease term and expiration of all renewal periods, we may be unable to renew the lease without substantial additional cost, if at all. As a result, we may be required to close or relocate a restaurant, which could subject us to construction and other costs and risks and may have an adverse effect on our operating performance.
Information and Technology Related Risks
We are subject to the risk of cybersecurity breaches, intrusions, data loss, or other data security incidents.
We and our franchisees rely on computer systems and information technology to conduct our business. We have instituted controls, including information security governance controls that are intended to protect our computer systems, our point of sale (“POS”) systems, and our information technology systems and networks; and adhere to payment card industry data security standards and limit third party access for vendors that require access to our restaurant networks. We also have business continuity plans that attempt to anticipate and mitigate failures. However, we cannot control or prevent every cybersecurity risk.
A material failure or interruption of service, or a breach in the security of our computer systems caused by malware, ransomware or other attack, could cause reduced efficiency in operations, or other business interruptions; could negatively impact delivery of food to restaurants, or financial functions such as vendor payment, employee payroll and scheduling, franchise operations reporting, or our ability to receive customer payments through our POS or other systems, or could result in the loss or misappropriation of customer or employee data.14A material failure or interruption of service, or a breach in the security of our computer systems caused by malware, ransomware or other attack, could cause reduced efficiency in operations, or other business interruptions; could negatively impact delivery of food to restaurants, or financial functions such as vendor payment, employee payroll, franchise operations reporting, or our ability to receive customer payments through our POS or other systems, or could result in the loss or misappropriation of customer or employee data. Such events could negatively impact cash flows or require significant capital investment to rectify; result in damage to our business or reputation or loss of consumer or employee confidence; and lead to potential costs, fines, and litigation. Damage to our business or reputation or loss of consumer confidence may also result from any failure by our franchisees to implement standard computer systems and information technology, as we are dependent on our franchisees to adopt appropriate safeguards. These risks may be magnified by increased and changing regulations. The costs of compliance and risk mitigation planning, including increased investment in technology or personnel in order to protect valuable business or consumer information, have increased significantly in recent years, and may also negatively impact our financial results.
Restaurants and other retailers have faced, and we could in the future become subject to, claims for purportedly fraudulent transactions arising out of the actual or alleged theft of credit or debit card information or the loss of personally identifiable information, and we may also be subject to lawsuits or other proceedings in the future relating to these types of incidents. Any such proceedings could distract our management from running our business and cause us to incur significant unplanned losses and expenses. Consumer perception of our brand could also be negatively affected by these events, which could further adversely affect our financial results.
We collect and maintain personal information about our employees and our guests and are seeking to provide our guests with new digital experiences. These digital experiences will require us to open up access into our POS systems to allow for capabilities like mobile order and pay, third party delivery, and digital menu boards. These digital experiences will require us to open up access into our Point of Sale systems to allow for capabilities like mobile order and pay, third party delivery, and digital menu boards. The collection and use of personal information are regulated at the federal and state levels; such regulations include the California Consumer Privacy Act. We increasingly rely on cloud computing and other technologies that result in third parties holding significant amounts of customer, employee, and franchisee information on our behalf. We increasingly rely on cloud computing and other technologies that result in third parties holding significant amounts of customer or employee information on our behalf. There has been an increase over the past several years in the frequency and sophistication of attempts to compromise the security of these types of systems. If the security and information systems that we or our outsourced third-party providers use to store or process such information are compromised or if we, or such third parties, otherwise fail to comply with applicable laws and regulations, we could face litigation and the imposition of penalties that could adversely affect our financial performance. Our reputation as a brand or as an employer could also be adversely affected by these types of security breaches or regulatory violations, which could impair our ability to attract and retain qualified employees.
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We are subject to risks associated with our increasing dependence on digital commerce platforms and technologies to maintain and grow sales, and we cannot predict the impact that these digital commerce platforms and technologies, other new or improved technologies or alternative methods of delivery may have on consumer behavior and our financial results.
Advances in technologies, including advances in digital food order and delivery technologies, and changes in consumer behavior driven by such advances could have a negative effect on our business. Technology and consumer offerings continue to develop, and we expect that new and enhanced technologies and consumer offerings will be available in the future, including those with a focus on restaurant modernization, restaurant technology and digital engagement and ordering. We may pursue certain of those technologies and consumer offerings if we believe they offer a sustainable guest proposition and can be successfully integrated into our business model. However, we cannot predict consumer acceptance or our success in implementing these digital platforms, delivery channels or systems or other technologies or their impact on our business. However, we cannot predict consumer acceptance of these digital platforms, delivery channels or systems or other technologies or their impact on our business.
We are dependent on information technology and digital service providers and any material failure, misuse or interruption of our computer systems, supporting infrastructure, consumer-facing digital capabilities or social media platforms could adversely affect our business.
We are dependent upon information technology and digital service providers to properly conduct our business, including point-of-sale processing in our restaurants, order processing through digital channels, management of our supply chain, collection of cash, payment of obligations and various other processes and procedures. Our ability to efficiently manage our business, service our customers and process digital orders through our mobile application and third-party delivery partnerships depends significantly on the reliability and performance of our systems and those managed by our service providers. The failure of these systems and processes to operate effectively, including an interruption or degradation in such systems or services, could be harmful and cause delays in customer service, loss of digital sales, reduce efficiency or cause delays in operations. Significant capital investments may be required to remediate any such problems. Additionally, the success of certain of our strategic initiatives, including to expand our consumer-facing digital capabilities to connect with customers and drive growth, is highly dependent on our technology systems and digital service providers.
General Business Risks
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately determine our financial results or prevent fraud. As a result, the Company’s stockholders could lose confidence in our financial results, which could harm our business and the value of the Company’s common shares.
Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and effectively prevent fraud. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires us to evaluate and report on our internal controls over financial reporting. We cannot be certain that we will be successful in maintaining adequate internal controls over our financial reporting and financial processes in the future. We may in the future discover areas of our internal controls that need improvement. Furthermore, to the extent our business grows or significantly changes, our internal controls may become more complex, and we would require significantly more resources to ensure our internal controls remain effective. If we or our independent auditors discover a material weakness, the disclosure of that fact, even if quickly remedied, could reduce the market value of the Company’s common stock. Additionally, the existence of any material weakness may require management to devote significant time and incur significant expense to remediate any such material weaknesses and management may not be able to remediate any such material weaknesses in a timely manner.
We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property, which could harm the value of our brand and adversely affect our business.
Our ability to successfully implement our business strategy depends, in part, on our ability to further build brand recognition using our trademarks, service marks, trade dress, and other proprietary intellectual property, including our name and logos, our strategy, and the ambiance of our restaurants. If our efforts to protect our intellectual property are inadequate, or if any third party misappropriates or infringes our intellectual property, either in print or on the Internet or a social media platform, the value of our brand may be harmed, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and might prevent our brand from achieving or maintaining market acceptance.
We franchise our brand to various franchisees. While we try to ensure that the quality of our brand is maintained by all franchisees, we cannot assure that all franchisees will uphold brand standards so as not to harm the value of our intellectual property or our reputation.
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Jack in the Box may be subject to risk associated with disagreements with key stakeholders, such as franchisees.
In addition to its shareholders, Jack in the Box has several key stakeholders, including its independent franchise operators. Third parties such as franchisees are not subject to the control of the Company and may take actions or behave in ways that are adverse to the Company. Because the ultimate interests of franchisees and the Company are largely aligned around maximizing restaurant profits, the Company does not believe that any areas of disagreement between the company and franchisees are likely to create material risk to the Company or its shareholders. Nevertheless, it is possible that conflict and disagreements with these or other critical stakeholders could distract management or otherwise have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business.
The securitized debt instruments issued by certain of our wholly-owned subsidiaries have restrictive terms, and any failure to comply with such terms could result in default, which could harm the value of our brand and adversely affect our business.
The Series 2019-1 Senior Notes are subject to a series of covenants and restrictions customary for transactions of this type, including (i) that the Master Issuer maintains specified reserve accounts to be used to make required payments in respect of the Series 2019-1 Senior Notes, (ii) provisions relating to optional and mandatory prepayments and the related payment of specified amounts, including specified make-whole payments in the case of the Series 2019-1 Class A-2 Notes under certain circumstances, (iii) certain indemnification payments in the event, among other things, the assets pledged as collateral for the Series 2019-1 Senior Notes are in stated ways defective or ineffective and (iv) covenants relating to record keeping, access to information and similar matters. The Series 2019-1 Senior Notes are also subject to customary rapid amortization events provided for in the Indenture, including events tied to failure to maintain stated debt service coverage ratios, the sum of gross sales for specified restaurants being below certain levels on certain measurement dates, certain manager termination events, an event of default, and the failure to repay or refinance the Series 2019-1 Class A-2 Notes on the applicable scheduled maturity date. The Series 2019-1 Senior Notes are also subject to certain customary events of default, including events relating to non-payment of required interest, principal, or other amounts due on or with respect to the Series 2019-1 Senior Notes, failure to comply with covenants within certain time frames, certain bankruptcy events, breaches of specified representations and warranties, failure of security interests to be effective, and certain judgments.
In the event that a rapid amortization event occurs under the Indenture (including, without limitation, upon an event of default under the Indenture or the failure to repay the securitized debt at the end of the applicable term) which would require repayment of the Series 2019-1 Senior Notes, the funds available to us would be reduced or eliminated, which would in turn reduce our ability to operate and/or grow our business. If our subsidiaries are not able to generate sufficient cash flow to service their debt obligations, they may need to refinance or restructure debt, sell assets, reduce or delay capital investments, or seek to raise additional capital. If our subsidiaries are unable to implement one or more of these alternatives, they may not be able to meet debt payment and other obligations which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
We have a significant amount of debt outstanding. Such indebtedness, along with the other contractual commitments of our Company or its subsidiaries, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, as well as the ability of certain of our subsidiaries to meet debt payment obligations.
Under the Indenture, the Master Issuer has approximately $1.3 billion of outstanding debt as of October 3, 2021.
This level of debt could have certain material adverse effects on the Company, including but not limited to:
our available cash flow in the future to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, and general corporate or other purposes could be impaired, and our ability to obtain additional financing for such purposes is limited;
a substantial portion of our cash flows could be required for debt service and, as a result, might not be available for our operations or other purposes;
any substantial decrease in net operating cash flows or any substantial increase in expenses could make it difficult for us to meet our debt service requirements or could force us to modify our operations or sell assets;
our ability to operate our business and our ability to repurchase stock or pay cash dividends to our stockholders may be restricted by the financial and other covenants set forth in the Indenture.
our ability to withstand competitive pressures may be decreased; and
our level of indebtedness may make us more vulnerable to economic downturns and reduce our flexibility in responding to changing business, regulatory, and economic conditions.
In addition, we may incur additional indebtedness in the future. If new debt or other liabilities are added to our current consolidated debt levels, the related risks that it now faces could intensify.
15


The securitization transaction documents impose certain restrictions on our activities or the activities of our subsidiaries, and the failure to comply with such restrictions could adversely affect our business.
The Indenture and the management agreement entered into between certain of our subsidiaries and the Indenture trustee (the “Management Agreement”) contain various covenants that limit our and our subsidiaries’ ability to engage in specified types of transactions. For example, the Indenture and the Management Agreement contain covenants that, among other things, restrict, subject to certain exceptions, the ability of certain subsidiaries to:
incur or guarantee additional indebtedness;
sell certain assets;
alter the business conducted by our subsidiaries;
create or incur liens on certain assets; or
consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of the assets held within the securitization entities.
As a result of these restrictions, we may not have adequate resources or the flexibility to continue to manage the business and provide for growth of the Jack in the Box system, including product development and marketing for the Jack in the Box brand, which could adversely affect our future growth prospects, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
We are subject to increasing legal complexity and may be subject to claims or lawsuits that are costly to defend and could result in our payment of substantial damages or settlement costs.
We are subject to complaints or litigation brought by current or former employees, customers, current or former franchisees, vendors, landlords, shareholders, competitors (e.g., intellectual property related claims), government agencies, or others. A judgment that is not covered by insurance or that is significantly in excess of our insurance coverage for any claims could materially adversely affect our financial results. In addition, regardless of whether any claims against us are valid or whether we are found to be liable, claims may be expensive to defend, and may divert management’s attention away from our operations and hurt our performance. Further, adverse publicity resulting from claims against us or our franchisees may harm our business or that of our franchisees.
Unionization activities or labor disputes may disrupt our operations and affect our profitability.
Some or all of our employees or our franchisees’ employees may elect to be represented by labor unions in the future. If a significant number of these employees were to become unionized and collective bargaining agreement terms were significantly different from current compensation arrangements, this could adversely affect our business and financial results or the business and financial results of our franchisees. In addition, a labor dispute or organizing effort involving some or all of our employees or our franchisees’ employees may harm our brand and reputation. Resolution of such disputes may be costly and time-consuming, and thus increase our costs and distract management resources.
Our insurance may not provide adequate levels of coverage against claims.
We believe that we maintain insurance policies customary for businesses of our size, type, and experience. Historically, through the use of deductibles or self-insurance retentions, we retained a portion of expected losses for our workers’ compensation, general liability, certain employee medical and dental, employment, property, and other claims. However, there are types of losses that we may incur that cannot be insured against or that we believe are not economically reasonable to insure. Such losses could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Changes in tax laws, interpretations of existing tax law, or adverse determinations by tax authorities could adversely affect our income tax expense and income tax payments.
We are subject to income taxation at the federal, state, and local levels in the U.S. Any significant changes in income tax laws, including, but not limited to, income tax rate increases, authoritative interpretations of the tax laws, and/or comprehensive tax reform measures could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.
Risks Related to Government Regulations
Increasing regulatory and legal complexity may adversely affect restaurant operations and our financial results.
Our regulatory environment exposes us to complex compliance and similar risks that could affect our operations and results in material ways. In many of our markets, we are subject to increasing regulation, which has increased our cost of doing business. We are affected by the cost, compliance and other risks associated with the often conflicting and highly prescriptive regulations, including where inconsistent standards imposed by multiple governmental authorities can adversely affect our business and increase our exposure to litigation or governmental investigations or proceedings.
16


Our success depends in part on our ability to manage the impact of new, potential or changing regulations that can affect our business plans and operations. These include regulations affecting product packaging, marketing, the nutritional content and safety of our food and other products, labeling and other disclosure practices. Compliance efforts with those regulations may be affected by the need to comply with different, potentially conflicting laws in different jurisdictions, and the need to rely on the accuracy and completeness of information from third-party suppliers (particularly given varying requirements and practices for testing and disclosure).
Regulatory bodies may enact new laws or promulgate new regulations that are adverse to our business, or they may view matters or interpret laws and regulations differently than they have in the past or in a manner adverse to our business. For example, a recently enacted law in California purports to codify an employment classification test set forth by the California Supreme Court that established a new standard for determining employee or independent contractor status. Although we would argue that the law does not change the status of franchisees or their employees, it has been suggested that the law could be read to, for example, make franchisors legally liable for the conduct of franchisee employees. Acceptance of this or similar arguments by the courts in California or elsewhere could impact our financial results or affect restaurant operations.
Governmental regulation, including in one or more of the following areas, may adversely affect our existing and future operations and results, including by harming our ability to profitably operate our restaurants.18Risks Related to Government RegulationsGovernmental regulation, including in one or more of the following areas, may adversely affect our existing and future operations and results, including by harming our ability to profitably operate our restaurants.
Americans with Disabilities Act and Similar State Laws
We are subject to the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”) and similar state laws that give civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities in the context of employment, public accommodations, and other areas. The expenses associated with any modifications we may be required to undertake with respect to our restaurants or services, or any damages, legal fees, and costs associated with litigating or resolving claims under the ADA or similar state laws, could be material.
Consumer Protection and Privacy Laws
We are subject to various federal, state, and local laws and regulations concerning consumer protection and privacy as it relates to our marketing, advertising, and promotional programs, including, but not limited to, the California Consumer Privacy Act and the Telephone Consumer Protection Act. Any damages, legal fees, or costs associated with litigating or resolving claims under any such law could be material.
Food Regulation
The Food Safety Modernization Act granted the FDA new authority regarding the safety of the entire food system, including through increased inspections and mandatory food recalls. Although restaurants are not directly implicated by these requirements, our suppliers may initiate or otherwise be subject to food recalls or other consequences impacting the availability of certain products, which could result in adverse publicity, or require us to take actions that could be costly for us or otherwise impact our business and financial results.
Local Licensure, Zoning, and Other Regulation
Each of our restaurants is subject to state and local licensing and regulation by health, sanitation, food, and workplace safety and other agencies. We may experience material difficulties, delays, or failures in obtaining the necessary licenses or approvals for new restaurants, which could delay planned restaurant openings. In addition, stringent and varied requirements of local regulators with respect to zoning, land use, and environmental factors could delay or prevent development of new restaurants in particular locations.
Environmental Laws
We are subject to federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations concerning the discharge, storage, handling, release, and disposal of hazardous or toxic substances, as well as local ordinances restricting the types of packaging we can use in our restaurants. If and to the extent any hazardous or toxic substances are present on or adjacent to any of our restaurant locations, we believe any such contamination would be the responsibility of one or more third parties and would have been or should be addressed by the responsible party. If the relevant third parties have not or do not address the identified contamination properly or completely, then under certain environmental laws, we could be held liable as an owner or operator to address any remaining contamination, sometimes without regard to whether we knew of, or were responsible for, the release or presence of hazardous or toxic substances. Any such liability could be material. Further, we may not have identified all of the potential environmental liabilities at our properties, and any such liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our financial results. We also cannot predict what environmental laws or laws regarding packaging will be enacted in the future, how existing or future environmental or packaging laws will be administered or interpreted, or the amount of future expenditures that we may need to make to comply with, or to satisfy claims relating to, such laws.
17


Employment and Immigration Laws
We and our franchisees are subject to the federal labor laws, including the Fair Labor Standards Act, as well as various state and local laws governing such matters as minimum wages, exempt status classification, overtime, breaks, schedules, and other working conditions for employees. Federal, state, and local laws may also require us to provide paid and unpaid leave, healthcare, or other benefits to our employees. Changes in the law, or penalties associated with any failure on our part to comply with legal requirements, could increase our labor costs or result in significant additional expense to us and our franchisees.
States in which we operate may adopt new immigration laws or enforcement programs, and the U.S. Congress and the Department of Homeland Security from time to time consider and may implement changes to federal immigration laws, regulations, or enforcement programs. Such changes and enforcement programs may increase our obligations for compliance and oversight, which could subject us to additional costs and make our hiring process more cumbersome. Although we require all workers to provide us with government-specified documentation evidencing their employment eligibility, some of our employees may, without our knowledge, be unauthorized workers. All of our Company employees currently participate in the “E-Verify” program, an Internet-based, free program run by the United States government to verify employment eligibility. However, use of the “E-Verify” program does not guarantee that we will successfully identify all applicants who are ineligible for employment. Unauthorized workers are subject to deportation and may subject us to fines or penalties, and if any of our employees or our franchisees’ employees are found to be unauthorized, we could experience adverse publicity that negatively impacts our brand and may make it more difficult to hire and keep qualified employees. Termination of a significant number of employees who are found to be unauthorized workers may disrupt operations, cause temporary increases in labor costs to train new employees, and result in additional adverse publicity. We could also become subject to fines, penalties, and other costs related to claims that we did not fully comply with all record keeping obligations of federal and state immigration compliance laws. These factors could materially adversely affect our financial results.
Franchising Activities
Our franchising activities are subject to federal regulations administered by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, laws enacted by a number of states, and rules and regulations promulgated by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission. In particular, we are subject to federal and state laws regulating the offer and sale of franchises, as well as judicial and administrative interpretations of such laws. Such laws impose registration and disclosure requirements on franchisors in the offer and sale of franchises and may also apply substantive standards to the relationship between franchisor and franchisee, including limitations on the ability of franchisors to terminate franchises and alter franchise arrangements. Failure to comply with new or existing franchise laws, rules, and regulations in any jurisdiction or to obtain required government approvals could negatively affect our ability to grow or expand our franchise business and sell franchises.
The proliferation of federal, state, and local regulations increases our compliance risks, which in turn could adversely affect our business.
The restaurant and retail industries are subject to extensive federal, state, and local laws and regulations, including regulations relating to:
the preparation, ingredients, labeling, packaging, advertising, and sale of food and beverages;
building and zoning requirements;
sanitation and safety standards;
employee healthcare, including the implementation and legal, regulatory, and cost implications of the Affordable Care Act;
labor and employment, including minimum wage adjustments, overtime, working conditions, employment eligibility and documentation, sick leave, and other employee benefit and fringe benefit requirements, and changing judicial, administrative, or regulatory interpretations of federal or state labor laws;
the registration, offer, sale, termination, and renewal of franchises;
Americans with Disabilities Act;
payment cards;
climate change, including regulations related to the potential impact of greenhouse gases, water consumption, or taxes on carbon emissions; and
consumer protection and privacy obligations, including the California Consumer Privacy Act, the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, and other new or proposed federal and state regulations.
18


The increasing amount and complexity of regulations and their interpretation may increase the costs to us and our franchisees of labor and compliance and increase our exposure to legal and regulatory claims which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business. While we strive to comply with all applicable existing rules and regulations, we cannot predict the effect on our operations from modifications to the language or interpretations of existing requirements, or to the issuance of new or additional requirements in the future.
Legislation and regulations regarding our products and ingredients, including the nutritional content of our products, could impact customer preferences and negatively impact our financial results.
Changes in government regulation and consumer eating habits may impact the ingredients and nutritional content of our menu offerings or require us to disclose the nutritional content of our menu offerings. For example, a number of states, counties, and cities have enacted menu labeling laws requiring multi-unit restaurant operators to disclose certain nutritional information to customers or have enacted legislation restricting the use of certain types of ingredients in restaurants. Furthermore, the Affordable Care Act requires chain restaurants to publish calorie information on their menus and menu boards. These and other requirements may increase our expenses, slow customers’ ordering process, or negatively influence the demand for our offerings; all of which can impact sales and profitability.
Compliance with current and future laws and regulations in a number of areas, including with respect to ingredients, nutritional content of our products, and packaging and service ware may be costly and time-consuming. Compliance with current and future laws and regulations in a number of areas, including with respect to ingredients, nutritional content of our products, and packaging and serviceware may be costly and time-consuming. Additionally, if consumer health regulations change significantly, we may be required to modify our menu offerings or packaging, and as a result, may experience higher costs or reduced demand associated with such changes. Some government authorities are increasing regulations regarding trans-fats and sodium. While we have removed all artificial or “added during manufacturing” trans fats from our ingredients, some ingredients have naturally occurring trans-fats. Future requirements limiting trans-fats or sodium content may require us to change our menu offerings or switch to higher cost ingredients. These actions may hinder our ability to operate in some markets or to offer our full menu in these markets, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. If we fail to comply with such laws and regulations, our business could also experience a material adverse effect.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
Our quarterly results and, as a result, the price of our common stock, may fluctuate significantly and could fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors due to various factors.
Our quarterly results and the price of our common stock may each fluctuate significantly and could fail to meet the expectations of securities analysts and investors because of factors including:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;
changes in earnings estimated by securities analysts or our ability to meet those estimates;
the operating and stock price performance of comparable companies;
changes in our stockholder base;
volatility of the stock market in general;
changes to the regulatory and legal environment in which we operate; and
general domestic and worldwide economic conditions.
As a result of these factors, results for any one quarter are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for any other quarter or for any year. Same-store sales, system-wide sales, and earnings from continuing operations per share in any particular future period may decrease, or commodity, labor, or other operating costs and selling, general, and administrative expenses may increase. In the future, operating results may fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, which could cause the price of our common stock to fall. In addition, the stock market has historically experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. These fluctuations may be unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market fluctuations may cause declines in the price of our common stock. The price of our common stock could fluctuate based upon factors that have little or nothing to do with our financial results, and those fluctuations could materially reduce the price of our common stock.
19


Actions of activist stockholders could cause us to incur substantial costs, divert management’s attention and resources, and have an adverse effect on our business.
From time to time, we may be subject to proposals by stockholders urging us to take certain corporate actions. If activist stockholder activities ensue, our business could be adversely affected because responding to proxy contests and reacting to other actions by activist stockholders can be costly and time-consuming, disrupt our operations and divert the attention of management and our employees. For example, we may be required to retain the services of various professionals to advise us on activist stockholder matters, including legal, financial, and communications advisers, the costs of which may negatively impact our future financial results. In addition, perceived uncertainties as to our future direction, strategy or leadership created as a consequence of activist stockholder initiatives may result in the loss of potential business opportunities, harm our ability to attract new investors, customers, employees, and joint venture partners, and cause our stock price to experience periods of volatility or stagnation.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
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