Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - VIRC

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$VIRC Risk Factor changes from 00/04/28/23/2023 to 00/04/12/24/2024

Item 1A. Risk Factors: The majority of our sales are priced through one contract, under which we are the exclusive supplier of classroom furniture.” Sales priced under this contract represented approximately 64% of sales in fiscal 2024 and 2023.” Sales priced under this contract represented approximately 64% of sales in fiscal 2023 and 69% of sales in fiscal 2022. We have had a history of contracts with the purchasing organization and was most recently awarded in fiscal 2018, a five-year contract with this organization that extends through December 2022, with two-year extensions at the sole discretion of the purchasing organization extending through 2026 if both options are exercised. The Company is currently in the first of the available two-year extensions. The Company is currently in the first of the available two-year extensions. If Virco were unable to sell under this contract, we believe we would be able to sell to the vast majority of our customers under alternative contracts. If Virco were unable to sell under this contract, we believe we would be able to sell to the vast majority of our customers under alternative contracts. The Company’s education customers typically do not have logistic capabilities and approximately 80% of sales are FOB destination and include freight to customer. Approximately 50% of sales are “full service” and are FOB classroom and include turnkey set-up. Approximately 50% of sales are “full service” and are FOB classroom and include turnkey set-up. Sales of furniture that are sold FOB factory are typically made to resellers of our product who in turn provide logistics and service to the ultimate customer. Nearly all of the Company’s out-bound freight is supplied by third-party carriers. Utilizing third-party carriers is an effective method of addressing the significant seasonal peak in summer and moderating excess capacity issues in the slow season. Reliance on third-party carriers can expose the Company to freight rate volatility, fuel surcharges, and to capacity constraints in the transportation industry. Historically, the Company has been able to obtain adequate capacity from freight vendors to service the summer season. Virco has a seasoned team of installation and project management professionals located throughout the country. These resources work with local agencies to provide classroom delivery and set up as required by customers.Manufacturing and DistributionAnother important element of Virco's business model is the Company's emphasis on developing and maintaining key manufacturing, assembly, distribution, and service capabilities. For example, Virco has developed competencies in several manufacturing processes that are important to the markets the Company serves, such as finishing systems, plastic molding, metal fabrication and woodworking. Virco's physical facilities are designed to support its Assemble-to-Ship ("ATS") strategy. Warehouses have substantial staging areas combined with a large number of dock doors to support the seasonal peak in shipments during summer months.In the years subsequent to China entering the World Trade Organization in 2001, many U.S. furniture manufacturers closed their domestic manufacturing facilities and began importing increasing quantities of furniture from international sources. The Company’s primary competition evolved from manufacturers of furniture to importers and distributors of furniture. During this same period, Virco elected to significantly reduce its work force, but retain its domestic factory locations. The Company believes that its domestic manufacturing capabilities are a significant strength. As recent global supply chain challenges have led to “reshoring, nearshoring, and friendshoring” of production or other modifications to supply chains, Virco has a comprehensive, established, and fully functioning manufacturing footprint in the United States. The Company has effectively used product selection, color selection, and dependable execution of delivery to customers to enhance its market position. With increasing costs from international sources, supply chain disruptions, and increasing freight costs, our factories are cost-competitive for bulky educational furniture and equipment items, and typically provide superior delivery during the peak summer delivery season. With increasing costs from international sources, supply chain disruptions, and increasing freight costs, our factories are cost-competitive for bulky educational furniture and equipment items. The Company's ATS strategy allows for low-cube component parts to be sourced globally, with fabrication of bulky welded steel frames, wood tops, and larger molded-plastic components to be performed locally. Domestic production of laminated wood tops and molded plastic enables the Company to market a color palette that cannot be matched in a short delivery window by imported finished goods. Domestic assembly allows the Company to use standard ATS components to assemble customer-specific product and color combinations shortly prior to delivery.Finally, management continues to hone Virco's ability to finance, manufacture, and warehouse furniture within the relatively narrow delivery window associated with the highly seasonal demand for education sales. Historically, Virco ships approximately 50% of its annual revenue in the months of June, July, and August. In fiscal 2022, the seasonal peak was distorted due to severe supply chain interruptions, labor shortages, and COVID-19 related employee absences and the Company delivered less than 40% of sales during June, July, and August. In fiscal 2023, the Company started to return to the traditional 6seasonality and delivered approximately 47% of annual sales in June, July, and August. In fiscal 2023, the Company started to return to the traditional seasonality and delivered approximately 47% of annual sales in June, July, and August. In fiscal 2024, the Company continues to return to the traditional seasonality and delivered approximately 49% of annual sales in June, July, and August. In fiscal 2023, the Company started to return to the traditional seasonality and delivered approximately 47% of annual sales in June, July, and August. Shipments of furniture during peak weeks in July and August can be six times greater than in the seasonally slow winter months. Virco's substantial warehouse space allows the Company to build adequate inventories to service this narrow delivery window for the education market.Principal ProductsVirco produces the broadest line of furniture for the K-12 school market of any manufacturer in the United States. By supplementing products manufactured by Virco with products from other manufacturers, Virco provides a comprehensive product assortment that covers substantially all products and price points that are traditionally included on the FF&E line item on a new school project or school budget. Virco also provides a variety of products for preschool markets and has developed products that are targeted for college, university, and corporate learning center environments. The Company has an ambitious and ongoing product development program featuring products developed in house as well as products developed with accomplished designers. The Company's primary furniture lines are constructed of tubular metal legs and frames, combined with wood and plastic tops, plastic seats and backs, upholstered seats and backs, and upholstered rigid polyethylene and polypropylene shells. Virco also has flat metal forming capabilities to enable the production of desks, returns, bookcases, filing cabinets, mobile pedestals, and related items.Virco's principal manufactured products include: SEATING - Virco offers a full line of classroom seating in a variety of price points providing high value and quality across all types of seating, from traditional to modern solutions. The ergonomically supportive ZUMA® line designed by Peter Glass and Bob Mills has been a top seller since its launch. The ergonomically supportive ZUMA® line designed by Peter Glass and Bob Mills was launched in 2004 and continues to be the top-seller. In addition to fixed-height 4-leg chairs, the ZUMA line includes cantilever chairs; mobile task chairs and lab stools; tablet armchairs with a fixed or articulating work surface and a compact footprint; steel-frame rockers and floor rockers. Virco continues to innovate around its line of healthy movement furniture with the Room to Move ("R2M") collection of flexible seating that take movement and choice to a new level. Virco has continued to innovate around its line of healthy movement furniture with the Room to Move ("R2M") collection of flexible seating that take movement and choice to a new level. The R2M Collection is based on the idea that today’s classrooms are active, dynamic places where students are often given room to move – empowering them with choices of where to sit, how to sit and even when to sit. The Floor Rocker provides a safe, durable and ergonomic option for floor seating. The Floor Rocker provides a safe, durable and ergonomic option for floor seating. The Choose to Move ("C2M") 4-leg Chair, winner of the EDspaces Innovation in Seating Award and the A4LE LearningSCAPES Industry Partner Award, offers an empowering new twist on flexible seating with a mode selector that allows the same chair to easily transform from fixed to active seating. Like the C2M Chair, the R2M Mobile Task Chair offers movement in all directions – front-to-back and side-to-side – as well as the mobility and adjustability of a task Chair. All R2M seating is offered in our ZUMA®, Sage™ and Analogy® Series. All R2M seating is offered in our ZUMA®, Sage™ and Analogy® Series. Sage™ line, originally designed to serve students in college, university, and other adult education settings - and on high school campuses - now offers a 13” and a 15” 4-leg chair and a corresponding pair of cantilever chairs for younger or smaller students; there is also a selection of Sage rockers and floor rockers for K-12 applications and several tablet arm units. Sage™ line, originally designed to serve students in college, university, and other adult education settings - and on high school campuses - now offers a 13” and a 15” 4-leg chair and a corresponding pair of cantilever chairs for younger or smaller students; there's also a selection of Sage rockers and floor rockers for K-12 applications and several tablet arm units. Selected adult-height Sage models can be ordered with a padded, upholstered seat. The Analogy seating line includes fixed-height 4-leg chairs, mobile task chairs and lab stools, cantilever chairs; tablet armchairs with a fixed or articulating work surface and a compact footprint; steel-frame rockers, and floor rockers. The Analogy seating line includes fixed-height 4-leg chairs, mobile task chairs and lab stools, cantilever chairs; tablet armchairs with a fixed or articulating work surface and a compact footprint; steel-frame rockers, and floor rockers. Other Virco seating choices include the Metaphor® Series - an updated sequel to Virco's best-selling Classic Series™ furniture with improvements in comfort, ergonomics, stackability, and manufacturing efficiencies. The Sage Contract line is targeted for offices and reception areas, colleges, hospitality venues and other adult environments. Virco expanded the Sage Contract line with the addition of a mobile tablet-arm workstation that includes an integrated bookrack to further penetrate the higher education market. Virco expanded the Sage Contract line with the addition of a mobile tablet-arm workstation that includes an integrated bookrack to further penetrate the higher education market. Civitas™ chairs and stools are intended for foodservice, libraries, media centers, circulation areas, and related areas where people gather. Additional Virco seating alternatives include the Parison Series for business, dining, and higher education; 120, 121 and 122 Series stools; the N2 Series, which was designed as a comprehensive, ergonomic seating line that specifically caters to the budget conscious consumer. Classic Series™ stack chairs and Martest 21® hard plastic seating models are popular choices in schools across America. Along with this range of seating, Virco serves additional markets such as event venues and training spaces with a line of folding chairs and upholstered stack chairs, as well as additional plastic stack chairs and upholstered ergonomic chairs.TABLES - Our broad collection of tables offer solutions for K-12 classrooms and multi-use areas across the entire campus as well as serving higher learning, event, training and administrative spaces. Our 4000 and 5000 Series Activity Tables provide a broad range of shapes, sizes, and heights ideal for collaborative learning . Virco’s TEXT® table collection for learning environments - designed by Peter Glass and Bob Mills- features heavy-gauge tubular steel and proven Virco construction for extended product life, and elliptical legs, swooping yokes and arched feet for exceptional elegance. Virco’s TEXT® table collection for learning 7environments - designed by Peter Glass and Bob Mills- features heavy-gauge tubular steel and proven Virco construction for extended product life, and elliptical legs, swooping yokes and arched feet for exceptional elegance. Selected TEXT models can be equipped with a variety of technology-support and storage accessories. Selected TEXT models can be equipped with a variety of technology-support and storage accessories. TEXT Tilt-Top Height Adjustable Table further expand Virco’s reach into the seminar, training room, and higher education markets by enhancing the functionality and flexibility of the table while strengthening the Virco and TEXT brands. TEXT Tilt-Top Height Adjustable Table further expand Virco’s reach into the seminar, training room, and higher education markets by enhancing the functionality and flexibility of the table while strengthening the Virco and TEXT brands. The Tetra™ Series is a versatile collection of tables and student desks suitable for various environments. From classrooms to open-office spaces, the Tetra is simple enough to serve as an everyday workstation but can be customized to suit the needs of a fast-paced media lab or seminar training room. Lunada® tables, combining Virco's popular Lunada bi-point bases with a selection of 20 top sizes, make great choices for 7seminar, conference, and related settings. Lunada® tables, combining Virco's popular Lunada bi-point bases with a selection of 20 top sizes, make great choices for seminar, conference, and related settings. Designed for Virco by Peter Glass, Plateau® tables bring exceptional versatility, sturdy construction, and great styling to working and learning environments. Designed for Virco by Peter Glass, Plateau® tables bring exceptional versatility, sturdy construction, and great styling to working and learning environments. For durable, easy-to-use lightweight folding tables, Virco's Core-a-Gator® models are unsurpassed. For durable, easy-to-use lightweight folding tables, Virco's Core-a-Gator® models are unsurpassed. When paired with attractive, durable Virco cafe tops, Lunada bases by Peter Glass provide eye-catching table solutions for hospitality settings. Civitas tops and bases provide excellent furniture solutions for casual spaces where people gather. Civitas tops and bases provide excellent furniture solutions for casual spaces where people gather. Virco’s Makerspace tables are designed specifically for hands-on learning environments most commonly found in vocational classes, makerspace areas and STEM / STEAM centered education. Designed for modern learning environments, Virco Butcher Block Tables feature thick-profile legs and a durable, hard maple surface with an easy to clean finish. Virco also carries traditional folding tables and office tables, as well as the technology tables and mobile tables described below. Virco also carries traditional folding tables and office tables, as well as the technology tables and mobile tables described below. TECHNOLOGY TABLES - The TEXT® and Tetra Series table collections described in the preceding paragraph provides an array of computer furniture choices for learning or business environments; Virco's Flip-Top Technology tables and Hinged Wire Trough ("HWT") Technology tables also deliver popular computer furniture solutions. The 5700 Series features the thick profile leg of the 5000 Series with integrated technology for a modern look. The Plateau Office Solutions collection offers desks and workstations with technology-support capabilities, while the Plateau Library/Technology Solutions line has specialty tables and other products for computing applications. Plateau Media Tables feature a TV mount for adding a TV screen as well as built-in USB and Power Ports so students and colleagues can easily exchange ideas and share content. Virco offers Instructor Media Stations and Towers that include several options for media storage and presentation.DESKS/CHAIR DESKS - From the ergonomic and collaborative-learning strengths of our best-selling ZUMA® student desks to the continuing popularity of our traditional Classic Series™ chair desks and combo units, Virco's wide-ranging furniture models can be found in thousands of America's schools. To expand on the popularity of the 785 Student Desk, Virco added a Collaborative Top work surface as an option on all 785 desk models, which facilitates convenient grouping of desks for break-out sessions and classroom collaboration. The Sage Contract Series now includes an optional bookrack, which combined with the tablet arm and caster options, creates a complete mobile workstation for a variety of environments. The Molecule is a student desk with a unique shaped collaborative work surface that can be used by a single student or grouped together with multiple Molecules to create various arrangements and group settings. Related products include an array of tablet arm units, Agile Combo models and Analogy™ Series combo chair desks. Related products include an array of tablet arm units, Agile Combo models and Analogy™ Series combo chair desks. Selected models are available with durable, colorfast Martest 21® or Fortified Recycled Wood™ hard plastic components. Many of our student desks offer stand-up height and adjustable height options to accommodate flexible classroom set-ups. For teachers, principals, and district administrators - and for business environments - Virco offers an extensive range of Parameter® desks, returns and credenzas designed by Peter Glass and Bob Mills. For teachers, principals, and district administrators - and for business environments - Virco offers an extensive range of Parameter® desks, returns and credenzas designed by Peter Glass and Bob Mills. Textameter™ mobile workstations provide additional furniture choices for educators. Textameter™ mobile workstations provide additional furniture choices for educators. Designed with teachers in mind, the Topaz Series Teacher Desks combine sleek design with intelligent functionality to support modern learning environments. The Topaz Series Teacher Desk is the anchor of the collection and is offered with single or double-pedestals and features generous storage as well as integrated wire management to conveniently keep wires out of the way for a clutter free workspace. A multi-functional smart drawer provides lockable storage, built-in power and USB ports for worry-free charging of digital devices. The unique tip-out drawer allows teachers to easily access mobile phones – all while being able to keep devices plugged in. With a seamless nesting design, the Accessory Table is a versatile companion to the Teacher Desk. It creates additional workspace for grading work, or easily transforms the space for one-on-one collaboration with students. Designed for multiple teaching styles, the Topaz Series Sit-to-Stand Workstations feature an easy-to-use pneumatic height adjustment and enables easily transition from seated, focused work to standing classroom instruction and everything else in-between. ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE FURNITURE - In addition to the Plateau® Office Solutions, Parameter®, and Textameter™ product lines, Virco manufactures a selection of desks, returns, bookcases and other items that employ the Company's flat metal forming capabilities.ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE FURNITURE - In addition to the Plateau® Office Solutions, Parameter®, and Textameter™ product lines, Virco manufactures a selection of desks, returns, bookcases and other items that employ the Company's flat metal forming capabilities. These products include 53 Series steel storage cabinets, an expanded range of 53 Series lateral files, and special versions of 543 and 546 Series desks with wire management capabilities. Other products range from 53 Series wardrobe tower cabinets and Parameter file credenzas to Parameter mobile pedestals and Plateau bookcases in popular 36” wide and 48” wide models that work in classroom settings and related educational environments as well as administrative offices.LABORATORY FURNITURE - For biology and chemistry classes, and other school- and college-based lab settings, Virco offers a variety of wood and steel-based science tables. Virco manufactures the table bases of these items and equips them with specialty Chemsurf® and epoxy resin tops. Virco's ZUMA®, Sage™, Analogy®, N2, Telos®, Metaphor®, Classic Series™, and 3000 Series collections include pneumatically adjustable lab stools with high-range seat-height adjustment and a steel foot-ring. Virco also carries a selection of wood-frame science tables with Chemsurf and epoxy resin tops.MOBILE FURNITURE - Cafeterias are perfect venues for the ever-popular Virco mobile tables - including a selection of oval mobile tables with attached benches or stools - while classrooms benefit from the spacious storage capacity of Virco mobile cabinets; additional mobile cabinet models with a magnetic marker back are available. ADA compliant Mobile Bench & Stool Tables were also introduced to the Virco line of mobile products to expand on our wheelchair accessible solutions. An array of Virco product lines includes mobile chairs for school settings and offices. Topaz Series Classroom Carts conveniently store, organize and transport all essentials for teachers and students alike. The Topaz Series Mobile Storage Solutions and Mobile Bookcases offer a variety of options for flexible and convenient storage for the classroom and beyond.8STORAGE EQUIPMENT - For moving selected Virco chairs and folding tables, the Company carries a wide range of handling and storage equipment. For our convention center, arena, and auditorium customers, Virco also manufactures stackable storage trucks that work with Virco upholstered stack chairs, folding chairs and folding tables.Virco's wide-ranging product selection includes hundreds of furniture models that have earned GREENGUARD® Gold Certification (formerly known as the GREENGUARD® Children & Schools Program for indoor air quality). Virco's ZUMA and ZUMAfrd™ products earned the distinction of being the first classroom furniture models to be certified by the GREENGUARD Children & Schools Program, now known as GREENGUARD Gold certification. All of the models in the Company's most popular product lines - including ZUMA, Sage, Analogy™, 9000 Series, 5000 and 4000 Series Activity Tables, TEXT®, Core-a-Gator®, Parameter®, Plateau®, and Tetra™ furniture models - are GREENGUARD-certified. Along with Virco's leadership relative to GREENGUARD-certified furniture, the Company also introduced the classroom furniture industry's first Take-Back program in, enabling qualifying schools, colleges, universities, and other organizations and customers to return selected out-of-service furniture components for recycling rather than sending these items to a landfill.To provide a comprehensive product offering for the education market, the Company supplements Virco-manufactured products with items purchased for re-sale, including wood and steel office furniture, early learning products for pre-school and kindergarten classrooms, science laboratory furniture, and library tables, chairs and equipment. None of the products from vendor partners accounted for more than 10% of consolidated net sales in fiscal 2024 or 2023.To complement Virco's extensive selection of furniture and equipment, we offer customers a variety of valuable services in connection with the purchase of Virco products; revenues from these service levels are included in the purchase price of the furniture items. The Company has a staff of interior designers to assist in designing engaging school environments, CAD layouts, our proprietary PlanSCAPE® software prepares detailed quotations and product specification along with detailed room-by-room installation plans, and project management for the delivery and set up of all capital acquisitions that fall under the FF&E line item of new school budget. Approximately 57% of the Company’s revenues in fiscal 2024 included this level of service and support. Approximately 50% of the Company’s revenues in fiscal 2023 included this level of service and support. In addition to giving customers the option of purchasing Virco products utilizing our full-service offering, Virco provides two additional levels of delivery service. In addition to giving customers the option of purchasing Virco products utilizing our full-service offering, Virco provides two additional levels of delivery service. When customers choose Standard Delivery - also known as tailgate delivery - the delivery driver is responsible for moving the customer's goods to the tailgate of the truck only; therefore, the customer must have personnel on hand to unload the truck. Virco also offers Inside Delivery (to an inside location). The Company will sell furniture to dealers, distributors, and other resellers on FOB factory terms where the reseller provides service to the customer.CustomersIn the United States there are approximately 55 million students along with approximately 7 million teachers and support staff that can utilize Virco’s product offering.CustomersIn the United States there are approximately 55,000,000 students along with approximately 7,000,000 teachers and support staff that can utilize Virco’s product offering. Virco's major customers include public and private educational institutions, charter schools, convention centers and arenas, hospitality providers, government facilities, and places of worship. Virco's major customers include public and private educational institutions, charter schools, convention centers and arenas, hospitality providers, government facilities, and places of worship. No customer exceeded 10% of the Company’s net sales for fiscal years ended January 31, 2024 and January 31, 2023.Raw MaterialsVirco purchases steel, aluminum, plastic, polyurethane, polyethylene, polypropylene, plywood, particleboard, medium density fiberboard ("MDF"), cartons and other raw materials from many different sources for the manufacture of its principal products. Management believes the Company is not more vulnerable with respect to the sources and availability of these raw materials than other manufacturers of similar products. The Company's largest raw material cost is for steel, followed by plastics and wood. The Company's largest raw material cost is for steel, followed by plastics and wood. The price of these commodities, particularly steel and plastic, can be volatile. Historically the Company has experienced years where the price of steel, plastic, and wood have spiked significantly, often because of global demand or tariffs on international supply but also in response to domestic supply interruptions. In fiscal 2024, the cost of commodities was relatively stable. In fiscal 2023, the cost of commodities was volatile, but the volatility dampened noticeably compared to fiscal 2022. In fiscal 2023, the cost of commodities remained volatile, but the volatility dampened noticeably compared to fiscal 2022. Some commodities decreased in cost, but others increased, resulting in a net modest increase in cost. Subsequent to fiscal year end 2024, the Company is anticipating that the global sanctions on Russia and other geopolitical challenges may impact steel, plastic and fuel-related costs.In addition to the raw materials described above, the Company purchases components used in the fabrication and assembly of furniture from a variety of overseas locations, primarily from China, and certain components from domestic suppliers. These components are classified as raw materials in the consolidated financial statements until such time that the components are consumed in a fabrication or assembly processes. These components are classified as raw materials in the financial statements until such time that the components are consumed in a fabrication or assembly processes. These components are sourced from a variety of factories, none of which are owned or operated by the Company. Costs for these imported components can be volatile, impacted by tariffs, freight cost and availability, and price increases by the supplier.9The supply chain for components from China is typically interrupted for a short period of time each year during the Chinese New Year in January or February. As this is in a seasonally slow period of the Company’s business cycle and is predictable, it has not created supply chain disruptions. In fiscal 2022, the Company has experienced supply chain disruption caused primarily by availability of freight from China to the United States. In fiscal 2022, the Company has experienced supply chain disruption caused primarily by availability of freight from China to the United States. During fiscal 2022, freight costs for containers from China increased by a factor of nearly eight. During fiscal 2022, freight costs for containers from China increased by a factor of nearly eight. Cost for ocean freight moderated during fiscal 2023, and by the end of the year had returned to more normal levels. Cost for ocean freight moderated during fiscal 2023, and by the end of the year had returned to more normal levels. Cost and availability of ocean freight was stable during 2024. While we currently do not believe there will be a recurrence of material supply chain disruptions, our suppliers in China may experience material disruptions in the future, whether due to COVID-19 or otherwise. While we currently don’t believe there will be a recurrence of material supply chain disruptions, our suppliers in China may experience material disruptions in the future, whether due to COVID-19 or otherwise. With respect to the Company's annual pricing contracts (or those contracts that have longer terms), the Company may have a limited ability to increase prices during the term of the contract.With respect to the Company's annual pricing contracts (or those contracts that have longer terms), the Company may have limited ability to increase prices during the term of the contract. The Company has, however, negotiated increased flexibility under many of these contracts, allowing the Company to increase prices on future orders. Nevertheless, even with respect to these more flexible contracts, the Company may not have the ability to increase prices on orders received prior to any announced price increases in commodities. Due to the intensely seasonal nature of our business, the Company may receive significant orders during the first and second quarters for delivery in the second and third quarters of its fiscal year. With respect to any of the contracts described above, if the costs of raw materials increase suddenly or unexpectedly, the Company cannot be certain that it will be able to implement corresponding increases in its sales prices to offset such increased costs. Significant cost increases in providing products during a given contract period can adversely impact operating results and have done so during prior years. The Company typically benefits from any decreases in raw material costs under the contracts described above.SeasonalityHistorically, Virco ships approximately 50% of its annual revenue in the months of June, July, and August, and shipments of furniture during peak weeks in July and August can be six times greater than in the seasonally slow winter months. In fiscal 2022, due primarily to the COVID-19 pandemic, the seasonal peak was distorted due to severe supply chain interruptions, labor shortages, and employee absences, and the Company delivered less than 40% of sales during June, July, and August. In fiscal 2023, the Company started to return to the traditional seasonality and delivered approximately 47% of annual sales in June, July, and August. In fiscal 2023, the Company started to return to the traditional seasonality and delivered approximately 47% of annual sales in June, July, and August. In 2024 the Company continued to the traditional seasonality and delivered approximately 49% of annual sales in June, July, and August. In fiscal 2023, the Company started to return to the traditional seasonality and delivered approximately 47% of annual sales in June, July, and August. Working Capital Requirements During Our “Peak” Summer SeasonAs discussed above, the market for educational furniture and equipment is marked by extreme seasonality, with the majority of shipments occurring from June to August each year, which is the Company's peak season. Working Capital Requirements During Our “Peak” Summer SeasonAs discussed above, the market for educational furniture and equipment is marked by extreme seasonality, with the majority of shipments occurring from June to August each year, which is the Company's peak season. Because of this seasonality, Virco builds and carries significant amounts of inventory during the peak summer season to facilitate the rapid delivery requirements of customers in the educational market. This requires a large up-front investment in raw materials and components, labor, storage, and related costs as inventory is built in anticipation of peak sales during the summer months. As the capital required for this build-up generally exceeds cash available from operations, Virco has historically relied on bank financing to meet cash flow requirements during the build-up period immediately preceding the peak season. Currently, the Company has a line of credit with PNC Bank to assist in meeting cash flow requirements as inventory is built for, and business is transacted during the peak summer season.In addition, Virco typically is faced with a large balance of accounts receivable during the peak season. This occurs for three primary reasons. This occurs for three primary reasons. First, accounts receivable balances naturally increase during the peak season as product shipments increase. Second, many customers during this period are government institutions, which tend to pay accounts receivable more slowly than commercial customers. Second, many customers during this period are government institutions, which tend to pay accounts receivable more slowly than commercial customers. Third, many summer deliveries may be “projects” where the Company provides furniture for a new school or significant refurbishment of an existing school. Third, many summer deliveries may be “projects” where the Company provides furniture for a new school or significant refurbishment of an existing school. Projects may require architect sign off, school board approval prior to payment, or punch list completion, all of which can delay payment. Virco has historically enjoyed high levels of collectability on these accounts receivable due to the low-credit risk associated with such customers. Nevertheless, due to the time differential between inventory build-up in anticipation of the peak season and the collection on accounts receivable throughout the peak season, the Company must rely on external sources of financing. Nevertheless, due to the 10time differential between inventory build-up in anticipation of the peak season and the collection on accounts receivable throughout the peak season, the Company must rely on external sources of financing. As a result of the seasonality of our business, our manufacturing and distribution capacity is dictated by the capacity requirement during the months of June, July, and August. Because of this seasonality, factory utilization is lower during the slow season. The Company utilizes a variety of tactics to address this seasonal business. During the summer months, which comprise our second and third fiscal quarters, our full-time personnel utilization generally is at or exceeds full capacity. The Company utilizes temporary labor and significant overtime to meet these seasonal requirements. During the slow portions of the year, temporary labor and overtime are eliminated to moderate the off-season costs. Our manufacturing facility capacity utilization generally remains less than 100% during these off-season months; because physical structure capacity cannot be 10adjusted as readily as personnel capacity, we have secured sufficient physical structure capacity to accommodate our current needs, as well as for anticipated future growth. Our physical structure utilization is significantly lower during the first and fourth quarters of each year than it is during the second and third quarters.The Company utilizes a comparable strategy to address warehousing and distribution requirements. During summer months, temporary labor and third party contractor are hired to supplement experienced warehouse, distribution and service personnel. More than 90% of the Company's freight is provided by third-party carriers. Utilizing third-party carriers is an effective method of addressing the significant seasonal peak in summer and moderating excess capacity issues in the slow season. Reliance on third-party carriers can expose the Company to freight rate volatility, fuel surcharges, and to capacity constraints in the transportation industry. The Company has secured sufficient warehouse capacity to accommodate our current needs, as well as anticipated future growth. The Company has secured sufficient warehouse capacity to accommodate our current needs, as well as anticipated future growth. Virco's working capital requirements during, and in anticipation of, the peak summer season require management to make estimates and judgments that affect assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses, and related contingent assets and liabilities. For example, management expends a significant amount of time in the first quarter of each year developing a stocking plan and estimating the number of temporary summer employees, the amount of raw materials, and the types of components and products that will be required during the peak season. If management underestimates any of these requirements, Virco's ability to meet customer orders in a timely manner or to provide adequate customer service may be diminished. If management overestimates any of these requirements, the Company may have to absorb higher storage, labor, and related costs, each of which may negatively affect the Company's results of operations. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates and adjusts its estimates, including those related to market demand, labor costs, and stocking inventory. Moreover, management continually strives to improve its ability to correctly forecast the requirements of the Company's business during the peak season each year, based in part on annual contracts, which are in place and management's experience with respect to the market.As part of Virco's efforts to balance seasonality, financial performance, and quality without sacrificing service or market share, management has been refining the Company's ATS operating model. ATS is Virco's version of mass-customization, which assembles standardized, stocked components into customized configurations before shipment. The ATS program reduces the total amount of inventory and working capital needed to support a given level of sales. It does this by increasing the inventory's versatility, delaying assembly until the customer’s specific product and color requests are identified, and reducing the amount of warehouse space needed to store finished goods. As part of the ATS stocking program, Virco has endeavored to create a more flexible work force. The Company has developed compensation programs to reward employees who are willing to move from fabrication to assembly to the warehouse as seasonal demands evolve.Other MattersCompetitionVirco has numerous competitors in each of its markets. In the educational furniture market, Virco manufactures furniture and sells direct to educational customers. In the educational furniture market, Virco manufactures furniture and sells direct to educational customers. Competitors typically fall into two categories (1) furniture manufacturers that sell to dealers, which re-sell furniture to the end user, and (2) dealers that purchase product from these manufacturers and re-sell to educational customers. Competitors typically fall into two categories (1) furniture manufacturers that sell to dealers, which re-sell furniture to the end user, and (2) dealers that purchase product from these manufacturers and re-sell to educational customers. The manufacturers that Virco competes with include Artcobell, KI Inc. The manufacturers that Virco competes with include Artcobell, KI Inc. , Steelcase, Smith System (owned by Steelcase), V/S America, Scholarcraft, Academia, Alumni, Columbia, Moore Co., Steel Case, Smith System (owned by Steelcase), V/S America, Scholarcraft, Academia, Alumni, Columbia, Moore Co. , Paragon, SICO, Learniture (owned by School Outfitters) and Hon ("HNI"). Our competitors that purchase and re-sell furniture include School Outfitters, School Specialty ("SCHS"), MeTEOR (formerly Contrax), Kay-Twelve, and Hertz. There are numerous catalogers, internet resellers, and smaller local education furniture dealers that sell into local markets. There are numerous catalogers, internet resellers, and smaller local education furniture dealers that sell into local markets. Competitors in contract and hospitality furniture vary depending upon the specific product line or sales market, and include Falcon Products, National Public Seating, MTS and Mity Enterprises, Inc.The educational furniture market is characterized by price competition, as many sales occur on a bid basis. Management compensates for this market characteristic through a combination of methods that include emphasizing the value of Virco's products and product assortment, the convenience of one-stop shopping for “Equipment for Educators™”, the value of Virco's project management capabilities, the value of Virco's distribution and delivery capabilities, and the value of Virco's customer support capabilities, and other intangibles. In addition, management believes that the streamlining of costs assists the Company in compensating for this market characteristic by allowing Virco to offer a higher value product at a lower price. For example, as discussed above, Virco has decreased distribution costs by avoiding re-sellers, and management believes that the Company's large direct sales force, and the Company's sizeable manufacturing and warehousing capabilities facilitate these efforts. Although management prefers to compete on the value of Virco products and services, when market conditions warrant, the Company will compete based on direct prices and may reduce its prices to build or maintain its market share.Backlog11Sales order backlog at January 31, 2024 totaled approximately $48.BacklogSales order backlog at January 31, 2023 totaled approximately $58. 5 million.6 million. Sales order backlog at January 31, 2023, totaled approximately $58.6 million. The sales order backlog was higher at January 31, 2023 due in large part to a significant number of orders received in January 2023 for delivery in the Company’s second quarter ended July 31, 2023. Substantially all of the 2023 backlog shipped in 2024. Substantially all of the current backlog is expected to ship during the fiscal year ending January 31, 2025. Substantially all of the current backlog is expected to ship during the fiscal year ending January 31, 2024. Patents and TrademarksIn the last 15 years, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) has issued to Virco more than 29 patents on its various new product lines. These patents cover various design and utility features in the ZUMA®, PARAMETER®, TOPAZ®, and TEXT® product families. These patents cover various design and utility features in Ph. These patents also cover the design and utility features in the new dynamic healthy movement products such as rocking chairs, floor rockers, and collaborative learning table shapes.Virco has a number of other design and utility patents in the United States and other countries that provide protection for Virco's intellectual property as well. These patents expire over the next one to 18 years. Virco maintains an active program to protect its investment in technology and patents by monitoring and enforcing its intellectual property rights. Virco maintains an active program to protect its investment in technology and patents by monitoring and enforcing its intellectual property rights. While Virco's patents are an important element of its success, Virco's business as a whole is not believed to be materially dependent on any one patent. While Virco's patents are an important element of its success, Virco's business as a whole is not believed to be materially dependent on any one patent. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors: An inability to protect our intellectual property could have a significant impact on our business.”To distinguish genuine Virco products from competitors' products, Virco has obtained the rights to certain trademarks and trade names for its products and engages in advertising and sales campaigns to promote its brands and to identify genuine Virco products. While Virco's trademarks and trade names play an important role in its success, Virco's business as a whole is not believed to be materially dependent on any one trademark or trade name, except perhaps “Virco,” which the Company has protected and enhanced as an emblem of quality educational furniture for over 74 years. While Virco's trademarks and trade names play an important role in its success, Virco's business as a whole is not believed to be materially dependent on any one trademark or trade name, except perhaps “Virco,” which the Company has protected and enhanced as an emblem of quality educational furniture for over 73 years. Virco has no franchises or concessions that are considered to be of material importance to the conduct of its business and has not appraised or established a value for its patents or trademarks.Human Capital ResourcesAs of January 31, 2024, Virco and its subsidiaries employed 776 full-time employees across our facilities.Human Capital ResourcesAs of January 31, 2023, Virco and its subsidiaries employed approximately 800 full-time employees across our facilities. Of this number, 604 are involved in manufacturing and distribution, 112 in sales and marketing and 60 in administration. None of our employees are unionized or represented by collective bargaining agreements. The Company also utilizes temporary workers as necessary to meet seasonal production, warehousing or distribution requirements that cannot be filled by its full-time workforce. In a typical year, the Company employs a range of 200 - 300 temporary workers during the months of May through August with smaller numbers immediately preceding and following these months.Our employees play a central role in the success of our long-term strategy. Our employees play a central role in the success of our long-term strategy. Our values – Voice, Dignity, Fairness, Leadership and Merit – direct the management of our company and are built on the foundation that our people and the way we treat one another promote inclusion, creativity, innovation, and productivity, which drives the Company’s success. In addition, as a manufacturing company, our safety policy centers around safety, housekeeping, and quality, which fosters an atmosphere where health and safety are given a high priority.We believe we offer fair, competitive compensation and benefits that support our employees’ overall well-being and foster their growth and development. We believe we offer fair, competitive compensation and benefits that support our employees’ overall well-being and foster their growth and development. To ensure alignment with our short-term and long-term goals, our compensation programs for employees include base pay, short-term incentives, and opportunities for long-term incentives. To ensure alignment with our short-term and long-term goals, our compensation programs for 12employees include base pay, short-term incentives, and opportunities for long-term incentives. We offer a wide array of benefits including comprehensive health and welfare insurance; generous time-off and leave; and retirement programs. We offer a wide array of benefits including comprehensive health and welfare insurance; generous time-off and leave; and retirement programs. We provide emotional, physical, legal and financial well-being services through our Employee Assistance Program. We provide emotional, physical, legal and financial well-being services through our Employee Assistance Program. Our emotional well-being support offers help with a wide range of issues including stress management, work/life balance, grief and loss, self-esteem and personal development. Our emotional well-being support offers help with a wide range of issues including stress management, work/life balance, grief and loss, self-esteem and personal development. In addition, our financial education and financial wellness coaches offer employees tools and resources to reach their personal financial goals.Environmental Compliance and Government RegulationVirco is subject to numerous federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations in the various jurisdictions in which it operates that (a) govern operations that may have adverse environmental effects, such as the discharge of materials into the environment, as well as handling, storage, transportation, and disposal practices for solid and hazardous wastes, and (b) impose liability for response costs and certain damages resulting from past and current spills, disposals, or other releases of hazardous materials. In this context, Virco works diligently to remain in compliance with all such environmental laws and regulations, as these affect the Company's operations. Moreover, Virco has enacted policies for recycling and resource recovery that have earned repeated commendations, including: recognition by the California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery 12("CalRecycle") in 2012 and 2011 as a Waste Reduction Awards Program (“WRAP”) honoree; recognition by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 2019 as a WasteWise Winner for reducing waste, in 2004 as a WasteWise Hall of Fame Charter Member, in 2003 as a WasteWise Partner of the Year, and in 2002 as a WasteWise Program Champion for Large Businesses; and recognition by the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County for compliance with industrial waste water discharge guidelines in 2008 through 2011. Moreover, Virco has enacted policies for recycling and resource recovery that have earned repeated commendations, including: recognition by the California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery ("CalRecycle") in 2012 and 2011 as a Waste Reduction Awards Program (WRAP) honoree; recognition by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 2019 as a WasteWise Winner for reducing waste, in 2004 as a WasteWise Hall of Fame Charter Member, in 2003 as a WasteWise Partner of the Year, and in 2002 as a WasteWise Program Champion for Large Businesses; and recognition by the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County for compliance with industrial waste water discharge guidelines in 2008 through 2011. In addition to these awards and commendations, Virco's ZUMA® and ZUMAfrd™ product lines were the first classroom furniture collections to earn indoor air quality certification through the stringent GREENGUARD® Children & Schools Program, now known as GREENGUARD Gold certification. In addition to these awards and commendations, Virco's ZUMA® and ZUMAfrd™ product lines were the first classroom furniture collections to earn indoor air quality certification through the stringent GREENGUARD® Children & Schools Program, now known as GREENGUARD Gold certification. As a follow-up to the certification of ZUMA and ZUMAfrd models in 2006, hundreds of other Virco furniture items - including Analogy™ furniture models and Textameter™ instructor workstations - have earned GREENGUARD certification. Moreover, all Virco products covered by the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 are in compliance with this legislation. All affected Virco models are also in compliance with the California Air Resources Board rule and Toxic Substances Control Act rule concerning formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products.Environmental laws have changed rapidly in recent years, and Virco may be subject to more stringent environmental laws in the future. Environmental laws have changed rapidly in recent years, and Virco may be subject to more stringent environmental laws in the future. The Company has expended, and may be expected to continue to expend, significant amounts in the future for compliance with environmental rules and regulations, for the investigation of environmental conditions, for the installation of environmental control equipment, or remediation of environmental contamination. Normal recurring expenses relating to operating our factories in a manner that meets or exceeds environmental laws are matched to the cost of producing inventory. It is possible that the Company's operations may result in noncompliance with, or liability for remediation pursuant to, environmental laws. Should such eventualities occur, the Company records liabilities for remediation costs when remediation costs are probable and can be reasonably estimated. Should such eventualities occur, the Company records liabilities for remediation costs when remediation costs are probable and can be reasonably estimated. See “Item 1A. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors: We could be required to incur substantial costs to comply with environmental requirements and other legal requirements. Violations of, and liabilities under, these laws and regulations may increase our costs or require us to change our business practices. Violations of, and liabilities under, these laws and regulations may increase our costs or require us to change our business practices. ”In addition to environmental laws, we are also required to comply with federal, state, and local law and regulation in the areas of workplace health and safety, payroll and other labor and employment matters, and consumer product safety. We believe that we are in material compliance with all such applicable laws and regulations. We believe that we are in material compliance with all such applicable laws and regulations. Financial Information About Industry Segment and Geographic AreasVirco operates in a single industry segment. Financial Information About Industry Segment and Geographic AreasVirco operates in a single industry segment. For information regarding the Company's revenues, gross profit and total assets for each of the last two fiscal years, see the Company's consolidated financial statements.During fiscal 2024, Virco derived approximately 4.7% of its revenues from customers located outside of the United States (primarily Canada).During fiscal 2023, Virco derived approximately 4.4% of its revenues from customers located outside of the United States (primarily Canada).The Company determines sales to these markets based upon the customers' principal place of business.During fiscal 2024 and 2023, the Company did not have any long-lived assets outside of the United States.13During fiscal 2023 and 2022, the Company did not have any long-lived assets outside of the United States. Executive Officers of the RegistrantAs of April 1, 2024, the executive officers of the Company, who are elected by and serve at the discretion of the Company’s Board of Directors, were as follows:13 ________________________None of the Company’s executive officers have written employment contracts.Executive Officers of the RegistrantAs of April 1, 2023, the executive officers of the Company, who are elected by and serve at the discretion of the Company’s Board of Directors, were as follows: ________________________None of the Company’s executive officers have written employment contracts.

Available InformationVirco files Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Stockholders may read and copy this information at the SEC's Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. Stockholders may also obtain copies of this information by mail from the Public Reference Room at the address set forth above, at prescribed rates.The SEC also maintains an Internet website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information about issuers such as Virco that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov.

In addition, Virco makes available to its stockholders, free of charge through its Internet website, its Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed, or furnished pursuant to, Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”), as soon as reasonably practicable after Virco electronically files such material with, or furnishes it to, the SEC. The address of that site is www.virco.com. The inclusion of our website address in this report does not include or incorporate by reference into this report any information on, or accessible through, our website.Item 1A.

Risk FactorsThe following risk factors and other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K should be carefully considered. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we presently deem less significant may also adversely affect our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.RISKS RELATED TO SCHOOL FUNDING 14Our product sales are significantly affected by education funding, which is a function of tax revenues and general economic conditions. If the economy weakens, funding for education may fail to improve or decrease, which would adversely affect our business and results of operations.Our sales are significantly impacted by the level of education funding primarily in North America, which, in turn is a function of the general economic environment. In a weak economy, state and local tax revenues for many of our customers are flat or decline, restricting funding for K-12 education spending, which typically leads to a decrease in demand for school furniture. Sustained declines in the per-student funding levels provided for in state and local budgets in the future could have a materially adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations as they have in the past.In addition, public health emergencies such as COVID-19, geopolitical uncertainties, terrorist attacks, acts of war, natural disasters, increases in energy and other costs or combinations of such factors and other factors that are outside of our control could at any time have a significant effect on the economy, which in turn would affect government revenues and allocations of government spending. The occurrence of any of these or similar events in the future could cause demand for our products to decline or competitive pricing pressures to increase, any of which would likely adversely affect our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.Gaps in state budgets may adversely affect our revenue and results of operations.Virtually all states are required to balance their operating budgets either on an annual or biannual basis. Unlike the federal government, states cannot maintain services during an economic downturn by running a deficit. Many states are adversely impacted by underfunded retirement and health insurance obligations and face competing requests for available funding. Tax revenues and other state funds may be allocated to underfunded benefit obligations instead of education. If states in which we do business cut spending for education to address such budgetary shortfalls or for other reasons, our sales in those states will likely decline and our revenue and results of operations will be adversely affected.Reduced levels of spending on education may significantly impact spending on furniture and increase price competition in the furniture market. If price competition increases, we may need to reduce our prices to build or maintain our market share, which in turn could lower our profit margins.The educational furniture market is characterized by price competition, as many sales occur on a bid basis and are based on demand related to educational funding available to schools. When funding for education declines, schools typically reduce spending on all budget line items prior to reducing teacher and administrator salaries and benefits. This in turn can result in reduced demand for school furniture, which in turn can intensify price competition in our industry. This price competition could impact our ability to implement price increases or, in some cases, such as during an industry downturn, maintain prices. In addition, when market conditions warrant, we may need to reduce prices to build or maintain our market share. If we are unable to increase or maintain prices for our products, our profit margins could decline. Such decline will be compounded to the extent we are unable to maintain or reduce the cost of our products, which may be especially difficult in the current environment given the volatility of the commodities markets.STRATEGIC AND OPERATIONAL RISKSOur efforts to introduce new products that meet customer requirements may not be successful, which could limit our sales growth or cause our sales to decline.To keep pace with industry trends, such as changes in education curriculum and increases in the use of technology, and with evolving regulatory and industry requirements, including environmental, health, safety, and other standards for the education environment and for product performance, we must periodically introduce new products or modify existing ones. The introduction of new or modification of existing products requires the coordination of the design, manufacturing, and marketing of such products, which may be affected by factors beyond our control. The design and engineering of certain of our new products can take a year or more, and further time may be required to achieve customer acceptance. Accordingly, the launch of any product may be later or less successful than we originally anticipated. Additionally, our competitors may develop new product designs that achieve a high level of customer acceptance, which could give them a competitive advantage over us in making future sales. Difficulties or delays in introducing new or modified products or lack of customer acceptance of such products could limit our sales growth or cause our sales to decline.We depend on a global network of outside suppliers for raw materials and components, who may be unable to meet our volume and quality requirements on a timely basis, and we may be unable to obtain alternative sources.We require substantial amounts of raw materials and components to manufacture our products, which we purchase from a global network of third-party suppliers. Materials comprised our single largest total cost. Materials comprised our single largest total cost. Contracts with most of our suppliers are short-term. These suppliers may not continue to provide raw materials and components to us at attractive prices, or at all, 15and we may not be able to obtain the raw materials we need in the future from these or other providers on the scale and within the time frames we require. In a deteriorating economic environment, including the current economic disruption caused by COVID-19 and global supply chain disruptions, many of the Company's suppliers may experience difficulty obtaining financing and may go out of business. The Company may have difficulty replacing these suppliers, especially if the supplier fails as the Company is entering the seasonal summer shipping season. Moreover, we do not carry significant inventories of raw materials, components or finished goods that could mitigate an interruption or delay in the availability of raw materials and components. In addition, because we purchase components from international sources, primarily China, we are subject to tariffs, fluctuations in currency exchange rates as well as the impact of natural disasters, war and other factors that may disrupt the transportation systems, ports, or shipping lines used by our suppliers, and other uncontrollable factors such as changes in foreign regulation or economic conditions.In fiscal 2022, the cost of raw materials and components, including steel and plastic, was extremely volatile and unfavorably impacted our results of operations. In fiscal 2022, the cost of raw materials and components, including steel and plastic, was extremely volatile and unfavorably impacted our results of operations. In addition, the current conflict in Ukraine and global sanctions recently placed on Russia have increased the cost and negatively impacted the availability of fuel, plastic and other materials. In fiscal 2024 the cost of commodities was relatively stable. In fiscal 2021, the cost of commodities was relatively stable. In fiscal 2023, the cost of commodities was volatile, but the volatility dampened noticeably compared to fiscal 2022. In fiscal 2023, the cost of commodities remained volatile, but the volatility dampened noticeably compared to fiscal 2022. Any failure to obtain raw materials and components on a timely basis, or any significant delays or interruptions in the supply of raw materials, could prevent us from being able to manufacture and deliver products ordered by our customers in a timely fashion and increase our cost of obtaining raw materials and components in excess of our ability to pass along such costs to customers, any of which could have a negative impact on our reputation, sales and profitability.Cost and availability of third-party freight can adversely affect our profitability and results of operations.Approximately 80% our sales are FOB destination and include freight from Virco’s facilities to the customer location. Virco depends upon third-party carriers for more than 90% of customer deliveries. Increased regulation and more stringent enforcement of federal regulations governing the transportation industry (especially regarding drivers) have adversely impacted the cost and availability of transportation services. Increased regulation and more stringent enforcement of federal regulations governing the transportation industry (especially regarding drivers) have adversely impacted the cost and availability of transportation services. Further, there may be a lack of available trained and licensed drivers, which may reduce the availability of transportation services. Inability to obtain adequate third-party freight on a timely basis during the summer delivery season can adversely affect cost to deliver products to customers and the level of customer service, which can in turn adversely impact future sales.The Company imports component parts from international sources (primarily China). During fiscal 2022, freight costs for containers from China increased by a factor of nearly eight. The cost of ocean freight declined during fiscal 2023, nearly returning to more typical levels and remained stable in 2024. Ongoing disruptions in the cost or availability of ocean freight or disruptions in port operations, may adversely impact the Company’s ability to obtain adequate component parts on a cost-effective basis to support sales, particularly in the busy summer season, which could have an adverse effect on our sales and profitability. There can be no assurance that our suppliers in China will not experience material disruptions in the future, whether due to COVID-19 or otherwise. The majority of our sales are priced through one contract, under which we are the exclusive supplier of classroom furniture.We utilize a nationwide contract/price list for the pricing of a significant portion of our sales. This contract/price list allows schools and school districts to purchase furniture without bidding and is sponsored by a nationwide purchasing organization that does not purchase products from the Company. By providing a public bid specification and authorization service to publicly funded agencies, the organization's contract/price list enables such agencies to make authorized expenditures of taxpayer funds. For all sales under this contract/price list, Virco has a direct selling relationship with the purchaser, whether it is a school, a district, or another publicly funded agency. In addition, Virco can ship directly to the purchaser; perform delivery services at the purchaser's location; and finally bill directly to, and collect from, the purchaser. Although Virco sells direct to hundreds of individual schools and school districts, these schools and school districts can purchase our products and services under several bids and contracts available to them. Approximately 64% of Virco's sales in fiscal 2024 and 64% of Virco's sales in fiscal 2023 were priced under this nationwide contract/price list. Approximately 64% of Virco's sales in fiscal 2023 and 69% of Virco's sales in fiscal 2022 were priced under this nationwide contract/price list. In November 2017, the Company was awarded a five-year contract extending through December 2022 along with two two-year extensions through 2026. In November 2017, the Company was awarded a five-year contract extending through December 2022 along with two two-year extensions through 2026. If Virco were to lose its exclusive supplier status under this contract/price list, and other manufacturers were allowed to sell under this contract/price list, it could cause Virco's sales, or growth in sales, to decline. If Virco were to lose its exclusive supplier status under this contract/price list, and other manufacturers were allowed to sell under this contract/price list, it could cause Virco's sales, or growth in sales, to decline. In addition, this contract/price list determines selling prices for goods and services for periods of one year and occasionally longer. Though the Company has negotiated increased flexibility under many of these contracts that may allow the Company to increase prices on future orders, the Company has limited ability to raise prices on orders received prior to any announced price increase. Due to the intensely seasonal nature of our business, the Company may receive significant orders during the first and second quarters for delivery in the second and third quarters. With respect to any of the contracts described above, if the costs 16of providing our products or services increase between the date the orders are received and the shipping date, we will likely not be able to implement corresponding increases in our sales prices for such products or services to offset the related increased costs. Significant cost increases in providing either the services or products during a given contract period could therefore lower our profit margins.We operate in a seasonal business and require significant amounts of working capital through our existing credit facility to fund acquisitions of inventory, fund expenses for freight and classroom delivery and finance receivables during the summer delivery season. Restrictions imposed by the terms of our existing credit facility may limit our operating and financial flexibility, and we are required to meet financial covenants under our credit facility.Our credit facility with PNC, among other things, largely prevents us from incurring any additional indebtedness, limits capital expenditures, limits dividends and stock repurchases, and provides for seasonal variations in the maximum borrowing amount, including a reduced maximum level of borrowing during the fourth fiscal quarter. Our credit facility with PNC, among other things, largely prevents us from incurring any additional indebtedness, limits capital expenditures, limits dividends and stock repurchases, and provides for seasonal variations in the maximum borrowing amount, including a reduced maximum level of borrowing during the fourth fiscal quarter. Our credit facility also provides for periodic financial covenants, which currently includes a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio requirement. As a result of the foregoing, our operational and financial flexibility may be limited, which may prevent us from engaging in transactions that might further our growth strategy or otherwise be considered beneficial to us. As a result of the foregoing, our operational and financial flexibility may be limited, which may prevent us from engaging in transactions that might further our growth strategy or otherwise be considered beneficial to us. Under our credit facility, substantially all of our accounts receivable is automatically and promptly swept to repay amounts outstanding under the credit facility upon our receipt. Due to this automatic liquidating nature, if we breach any covenant, violate any representation or warranty or suffer any deterioration in our ability to borrow pursuant to the borrowing base calculation contained in the credit facility, we may not have access to cash liquidity unless provided by the lender in its discretion. If the indebtedness under our credit facility were to be accelerated, we cannot be certain that we will have sufficient funds available to pay such indebtedness or that we will have the ability to refinance the accelerated indebtedness on terms favorable to us or at all. Any such acceleration could also result in a foreclosure on all or substantially all of our assets, which would have a negative impact on the value of our common stock and jeopardize our ability to continue as a going concern. In addition, certain of the covenants and representations and warranties set forth in our credit facility contain limited or no materiality thresholds, and all of the representations and warranties must be true and correct in all material respects upon each borrowing, which we expect to occur on an ongoing basis. There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with all such covenants and be able to continue to make such representations and warranties on an ongoing basis. There can be no assurance that the Company will meet the requirements of its financial covenants on an ongoing basis or that, should we fail to meet such covenants, the Agent and Lender under our credit facility will agree to waivers or amendments with respect thereto. If we breach any of our financial covenants without receiving a corresponding waiver or amendment, the Agent and Lender may accelerate our credit facility and impose default interest and other fees, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.INDUSTRY AND ECONOMIC RISKSThe COVID-19 pandemic may continue to adversely affect our operations and financial performance. The COVID-19 pandemic and the actions taken by various governments and third parties to combat the spread of COVID-19, including mandatory quarantines and other suspensions of non-essential business operations, caused significant disruptions in our product sales and marketing, manufacturing and distribution operations, and supply chains during fiscal 2021 and 2022. While the disruption to demand for our products from the COVID-19 pandemic is currently expected to be temporary, there remains a great deal of uncertainty around the long-term structural effects of the pandemic on in-person learning in the United States. In addition, the resurgence of COVID-19 or its variants, as well as an outbreak of other widespread public health epidemics or pandemics, could cause new disruptions to our product sales, manufacturing and distribution operations, supply chains and demand for our products by our customers, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Increases in basic commodity, raw material and component costs could adversely affect our profitability.Fluctuations in the price, availability and quality of the commodities, raw materials and components used in manufacturing our products could have an adverse effect on our costs of sales, profitability and our ability to meet customers' demand. The price of commodities, raw materials and components, including steel and plastics, our largest raw material categories, have been volatile in prior years, and the cost, quality and availability of such commodities have been significantly affected in recent years by, among other things, changes in global supply and demand, changes in laws and regulations (including tariffs and duties), changes in exchange rates and worldwide price levels, natural disasters, public health issues such as the current COVID-19 pandemic (or other future pandemics), labor disputes, terrorism and political unrest or instability. These factors could lead to further price increases or supply interruptions in the future. As discussed above, in the short term, rapid changes in raw 17material costs can be very difficult for us to offset with price increases because, in the case of many of our contracts, we have committed to selling prices for goods and services for periods of one year, and occasionally longer. Our profit margins could be adversely affected if commodity, raw material, and component costs remain high or escalate further, and we are unable to pass along a portion of the higher costs to our customers.In fiscal 2022, the Company incurred material increases in commodity costs and shortages in commodity availability that were material and adversely impacted the results of operations. Both availability and volatility in cost moderated in fiscal 2024 and 2023. Both availability and volatility in cost moderated in fiscal 2023. Total material costs for fiscal 2025, as a percentage of sales, could be higher than in fiscal 2024. Total material costs for fiscal 2024, as a percentage of sales, could be higher than in fiscal 2023. The Company has increased list prices for its products in fiscal 2024 and 2025 in an effort to recover anticipated increases in material costs. We are affected by the cost of petroleum-based products and increases in petroleum prices could reduce our margins and profits.The profitability of our operations is sensitive to the cost of fuel, which materially affects our transportation costs, the costs of petroleum-based materials (like plastics) and the costs of energy (including electricity and natural gas) used in operating our manufacturing facilities. Petroleum prices have fluctuated significantly in recent years and are expected to rise from current levels. Prices and availability of petroleum products are subject to political, economic and market factors that are generally outside our control. Political events in petroleum-producing regions, as well as hurricanes and other weather-related events may cause petroleum prices to increase. If such prices increase, our transportation costs may be adversely affected in the form of increased operation costs for our fleet and surcharges on freight paid to third-party carriers. If our transportation costs increase or, the price of petroleum-based products and cost of operating our manufacturing facilities increase and we are unable to pass a material portion of these increased costs to our customers, our gross margins and profitability would be adversely affected.FINANCING RISKSWe may not be able to renew our credit facility on favorable terms, or at all, which would adversely affect our results of operations.We have historically relied on third-party bank financing to meet our seasonal cash flow requirements. Our current credit facility with PNC Bank was originally scheduled to mature on March 19, 2023. Our current credit facility with PNC Bank was originally scheduled to mature on March 19, 2023. Subsequent to fiscal 2022, the Company extended the final maturity date of the credit line with PNC Bank to April 2027. At various times during the COVID-19 pandemic, we were in non-compliance with certain financial covenants under our credit facility with PNC Bank, and in each case, we received a waiver of such violations from PNC Bank. In addition, on an annual basis, we prepare a lender-approved forecast of seasonal working capital requirements and use borrowings under our credit facility with PNC Bank to help meet these seasonal cash flow and working capital requirements. Uncertainty in the credit markets may negatively impact our ability to obtain approval of our annual forecast, make changes in our forecast or renew our credit facility upon its maturity in 2027 on favorable terms or at all. If we are unable to access or renew our credit facility on favorable terms (including available borrowing line and the rate of interest charged thereunder), or at all, or we are in violation of our financial covenants in the future and do not receive a waiver, our ability to fund our operations would be impaired, which would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.If management does not accurately forecast the Company's requirements for the peak summer season, the Company's results of operations could be adversely affected.The Company's business is highly seasonal and requires significant working capital in anticipation of and during the peak summer season. This requires management to make estimates and judgments with respect to the Company's working capital requirements during, and in anticipation of, the peak summer season. Management expends a significant amount of time in the fourth quarter of the prior year and the first quarter of each year developing a stocking plan and estimating the number of temporary summer employees, the amount of raw materials and the types of components and products that will be required during the peak season.Management expends a significant amount of time in the fourth quarter of the prior year and the first quarter of each year developing a stocking plan and estimating the number of temporary summer employees, the amount of raw materials and the types of components and products that will be required during the peak season. If management does not accurately forecast the Company's requirements, the Company's results of operations could be adversely affected. For example, if management underestimates any of these requirements, Virco's ability to meet customer orders in a timely manner or to provide adequate customer service may be diminished. If management overestimates any of these requirements, the Company may be required to absorb higher storage, labor and related costs, each of which may negatively affect the Company's results of operations. If management overestimates any of these requirements, the Company may be required to absorb higher storage, labor and related costs, each of which may negatively affect the Company's results of operations. We may require additional capital in the future, which may not be available or may be available only on unfavorable terms.Our capital requirements depend on many factors, including capital improvements, tooling and new product development. To the extent that our existing capital is insufficient to meet these requirements and cover any losses, we may need to raise 18additional funds through financings or curtail our growth and reduce our assets. Any equity or debt financing, if available at all, may be on terms that are not favorable to us. Equity financings could result in dilution to our stockholders, and the securities may have rights, preferences and privileges that are senior to those of our common stock. If our need for capital arises because of significant losses, the occurrence of these losses may make it more difficult for us to raise the necessary capital.Volatility in the equity markets or interest rates could substantially increase our pension costs and have an adverse effect on our operating results.We sponsor one qualified defined benefit pension plan, the Virco Employee Retirement Plan (“Employee Plan”), and one nonqualified pension plan. Benefits under the Plans were frozen in 2003. The difference between plan obligations and assets, or the funded status of the Employee Plan, significantly affects net periodic benefit costs of our Employee Plan and our ongoing funding requirements with respect to the Employee Plan. The Employee Plan is funded with trust assets invested in a diversified portfolio of debt and equity securities and other investments. Among other factors, changes in interest rates, investment returns, and the market value of plan assets can (i) affect the level of plan funding; (ii) cause volatility in the net periodic pension cost; and (iii) increase our future contribution requirements. Among other factors, changes in interest rates, investment returns, and the market value of plan assets can (i) affect the level of plan funding; (ii) cause volatility in the net periodic pension cost; and (iii) increase our future contribution requirements. Because the recent economic environment was characterized by historically low interest rates, we may be required to make additional cash contributions to the Employee Plan and recognize further increases in our net pension cost to satisfy our funding requirements. A significant decrease in investment returns or the market value of plan assets or a significant decrease in interest rates could increase our net periodic pension costs and adversely affect our results of operations. These factors are further complicated by the substantial intervention in the U.S. credit markets by the Federal Reserve Board and Treasury Department in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which could have the effect of artificially affecting market interest rates.LEGAL AND REGULATORY RISKSAn inability to protect our intellectual property could have an adverse effect on our business. LEGAL AND REGULATORY RISKSAn inability to protect our intellectual property could have an adverse effect on our business. We attempt to protect our intellectual property rights through a combination of patent, trademark, copyright, and trade secret laws. Our ability to compete effectively with our competitors depends, to a significant extent, on our ability to maintain the proprietary nature of our intellectual property. The degree of protection offered by the claims of the various patents, trademarks and service marks may not be broad enough to provide significant proprietary protection or competitive advantages to us, and patents, trademarks or service marks may not be issued on our pending or contemplated applications. In addition, not all of our products are covered by patents . It is also possible that our patents, trademarks, and service marks may be challenged, invalidated, cancelled, narrowed or circumvented. It is also possible that our patents, trademarks, and service marks may be challenged, invalidated, cancelled, narrowed or circumvented. If we are unable to maintain the proprietary nature of our intellectual property with respect to our significant current or proposed products, our competitors may be able to sell copies of our products, which could adversely affect our ability to sell our original products and could also result in competitive pricing pressures.If third parties claim that we infringe upon their intellectual property rights, we may incur liability and costs and may have to redesign or discontinue the infringing products.We face the risk of claims that we have infringed third parties' intellectual property rights. Companies operating in the furniture industry routinely seek protection of the intellectual property for their product designs, and our principal competitors may have large intellectual property portfolios. Our efforts to identify and avoid infringing third parties' intellectual property rights may not be successful. Any claims of intellectual property infringement, even those without merit, could (i) be expensive and time-consuming to defend; (ii) cause us to cease making, licensing or using products that incorporate the challenged intellectual property; (iii) require us to redesign, reengineer, or rebrand our products or packaging, if feasible; or (iv) require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements in order to obtain the right to use a third party's intellectual property. Such claims could have a negative impact on our sales and results of operations. Such claims could have a negative impact on our sales and results of operations. We could be required to incur substantial costs to comply with environmental and other legal requirements. Violations of, and liabilities under, these laws and regulations may increase our costs or require us to change our business practices.Our past and present ownership and operation of manufacturing plants are subject to extensive and changing federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations, including those relating to discharges to air, water and land, the handling and disposal of solid and hazardous waste and the cleanup of properties affected by hazardous substances. As a result, we are involved from time to time in administrative and judicial proceedings and inquiries relating to environmental matters and could become subject to fines or penalties related thereto. As a result, we are involved from time to time in administrative and judicial proceedings and inquiries relating to environmental matters and could become subject to fines or penalties related thereto. We cannot predict what environmental legislation or regulations will be enacted in the future, how existing or future laws or regulations will be administered or interpreted or what environmental conditions may be found to exist. We cannot predict what environmental legislation or regulations will be enacted in the future, how existing or future laws or regulations will be administered or interpreted or what environmental conditions may be found to exist. Compliance with more stringent laws or regulations, or stricter interpretation of existing laws, may require additional expenditures by us, some of which may be material. If new environmental laws and regulations are introduced and enforced domestically, but not implemented or enforced internationally, we will operate at a competitive disadvantage 19compared to competitors who source product primarily from international sources. If new environmental laws and regulations are introduced and enforced domestically, but not implemented or enforced internationally, we will operate at a competitive disadvantage compared to competitors who source product primarily from international sources. In addition, in the past we have been identified as a potentially responsible party pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (“CERCLA”) for remediation costs associated with waste disposal sites previously used by us. In addition, in the past we have been identified as a potentially responsible party pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (“CERCLA”) for remediation costs associated with waste disposal sites previously used by us. In general, CERCLA can impose liability for costs to investigate and remediate contamination without regard to fault or the legality of disposal and, under certain circumstances, liability may be joint and several, resulting in one party being held responsible for the entire obligation. Liability may also include damages for harm to natural resources. We may also be subject to claims for personal injury or contribution relating to CERCLA sites. We may also be subject to claims for personal injury or contribution relating to CERCLA sites. We reserve amounts for such matters when expenditures are probable and reasonably estimable. We reserve amounts for such matters when expenditures are probable and reasonably estimable. In addition to environmental laws and regulatio