Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - VBFC

-New additions in green
-Changes in blue
-Hover to see similar sentence in last filing

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

An investment in our common stock is subject to risks inherent to our business. Investors should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information included or incorporated by reference in this report. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties that management is not aware of or focused on, or that management currently deems immaterial, may also impair our business and operations. If any of the following risks adversely affects our business, financial condition or results of operations, the value of our common stock could decline.

Risk Related to the Company’s Lending Activities

Our credit standards and on-going credit assessment processes might not protect us from significant credit losses.

We take credit risk by virtue of making loans and extending loan commitments and letters of credit. We manage credit risk through a program of underwriting standards, the review of certain credit decisions and an ongoing process of assessment of the quality of the credit already extended. In addition, our credit administration function employs risk management techniques intended to promptly identify problem loans. While these procedures are designed to provide us with the information needed to implement policy adjustments where necessary and to take appropriate corrective actions, there can be no assurance that such measures will be effective in avoiding future undue credit risk, and credit losses will occur in the future and they may be significant.

14

Our allowance for loan losses may be insufficient.

We maintain an allowance for loan losses, which is a reserve established through a provision for loan losses charged to expense, that represents our best estimate of probable losses that have been incurred within the existing portfolio of loans. The allowance, in the judgment of management, is necessary to reserve for estimated loan losses and risks inherent in the loan portfolio.

The level of the allowance reflects management’s evaluation of the level of loans outstanding, the level of nonperforming loans, historical loan loss experience, delinquency trends, underlying collateral values, the amount of actual losses charged to the reserve in a given period and assessment of present and anticipated economic conditions. The determination of the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses inherently involves a high degree of subjectivity and requires us to make significant estimates of current credit risks and future trends, all of which may undergo material changes. Although we believe the allowance for loan losses is a reasonable estimate of known and inherent losses in the loan portfolio, we cannot precisely predict such losses or be certain that the loan loss allowance will be adequate in the future. Deterioration of economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside our control, may require an increase in the allowance for loan losses. In addition, bank regulatory agencies and our auditors periodically review our allowance for loan losses and may require an increase in the provision for loan losses or the recognition of further loan charge-offs, based on judgments different than those of management. Further, if charge-offs in future periods exceed the allowance for loan losses, we will need additional provisions to increase the allowance for loan losses.

On January 1, 2023, we adopted Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 326, “Financial Instruments—Credit Losses” (ASC 326), which replaces existing accounting principles for the recognition of loan losses based on losses that have been incurred with a requirement to record an allowance for credit losses that represents expected credit losses over the lifetime of all loans in the Corporation’s portfolio. Under ASC 326, the Company’s estimate of expected credit losses will be based on reasonable and supportable forecasts of future economic conditions and loan performance. While the adoption of ASC 326 will not affect ultimate loan performance or cash flows of the Company from making loans, the period in which expected credit losses affect net income of the Company may not be similar to the recognition of loan losses under current accounting guidance, and recognizing an allowance based on expected credit losses may create more volatility in the level of our allowance for credit losses and our results of operations, including based on volatility in economic forecasts and our expectations of loan performance in future periods, as actual results may differ materially from our estimates. If we are required to materially increase our level of allowance for credit losses for any reason, such increase could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Nonperforming assets take significant time to resolve and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our nonperforming assets adversely affect our net income in various ways. Nonperforming assets, (which include nonaccrual loans and other real estate owned, but exclude loans past due 90 days and still accruing as these loans are rehabilitated student loans which have a 98% guarantee by the DOE of principal and interest), were $654,000, or 0.09% of total assets, as of December 31, 2022. When we receive collateral through foreclosures and similar proceedings, we are required to mark the related loan to the then fair value of the collateral less estimated selling costs, which may result in a loss. Nonperforming assets, (which include nonaccrual loans and other real estate owned, but exclude loans past due 90 days and still accruing as these loans are rehabilitated student loans which have a 98% guarantee by the DOE of principal and interest), were $1,359,000, or 0.18% of total assets, as of December 31, 2021. When we receive collateral through foreclosures and similar proceedings, we are required to mark the related loan to the then fair value of the collateral less estimated selling costs, which may result in a loss. An increased level of nonperforming assets also increases our risk profile and may impact the capital levels regulators believe are appropriate in light of such risks. We utilize various techniques such as workouts, restructurings and loan sales to manage problem assets. Increases in or negative changes in the value of these problem assets, the underlying collateral, or in the borrowers’ performance or financial condition, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the resolution of nonperforming assets requires significant commitments of time from management and staff, which can be detrimental to the performance of their other responsibilities, including generation of new loans. There can be no assurance that we will avoid increases in nonperforming loans in the future.

15

We have a high concentration of loans secured by real estate, and a downturn in the local real estate market could materially and negatively affect our business.

We offer a variety of secured loans, including commercial lines of credit, commercial term loans, real estate, construction, residential mortgages, home equity loans and lines of credit, consumer and other loans. Many of these loans are secured by real estate (both residential and commercial) located principally in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of December 31, 2022, 78.64% of all loans were secured by mortgages on real property. A major change in the real estate market, such as deterioration in the value of this collateral, or in the local or national economy, could adversely affect our customers’ ability to pay these loans, which in turn could impact us. If there is a decline in real estate values, especially in our market area, the collateral for loans would deteriorate and provide significantly less security. The ability to recover on defaulted loans by selling the real estate collateral could then be diminished and we would be more likely to suffer losses.

A portion of our loan portfolio consists of construction and land development loans, and a decline in real estate values and economic conditions would adversely affect the value of the collateral securing the loans and have an adverse effect on our financial condition.16 Table of ContentsA portion of our loan portfolio consists of construction and land development loans, and a decline in real estate values and economic conditions would adversely affect the value of the collateral securing the loans and have an adverse effect on our financial condition.

At December 31, 2022, approximately 8.38% of our loan portfolio, or $45,127,000, consisted of construction and land development loans.At December 31, 2021, approximately 9.34% of our loan portfolio, or $49,149,000, consisted of construction and land development loans. Construction financing typically involves a higher degree of credit risk than financing on improved, owner-occupied real estate and improved, income producing real estate. Risk of loss on a construction or land development loan is largely dependent upon the accuracy of the initial estimate of the property’s value at completion of construction or development, the marketability of the property, and the bid price and estimated cost (including interest) of construction or development. If the estimate of construction or development costs proves to be inaccurate, we may be required to advance funds beyond the amount originally committed to permit completion of the project. If the estimate of the value proves to be inaccurate, we may be confronted, at or prior to the maturity of the loan, with a project whose value is insufficient to assure full repayment. When lending to builders and developers, the cost breakdown of construction or development is provided by the builder or developer. Although our underwriting criteria are designed to evaluate and minimize the risks of each construction or land development loan, there can be no guarantee that these practices will have safeguarded against material delinquencies and losses to our operations. In addition, construction and land development loans are dependent on the successful completion of the projects they finance. Loans secured by vacant or unimproved land are generally riskier than loans secured by improved property. These loans are more susceptible to adverse conditions in the real estate market and local economy.

We have a significant concentration of credit exposure in commercial real estate, and loans with this type of collateral are viewed as having more risk of default.

As of December 31, 2022, we had approximately $284,617,000 in loans secured by commercial real estate, representing approximately 52.86% of total loans outstanding at that date.As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately $255,537,000 in loans secured by commercial real estate, representing approximately 48.54% of total loans outstanding at that date. The real estate consists primarily of non-owner-operated properties and other commercial properties. These types of loans are generally viewed as having more risk of default than residential real estate loans. They are also typically larger than residential real estate loans and consumer loans and depend on cash flows from the owner’s business or the property to service the debt. It may be more difficult for commercial real estate borrowers to repay their loans in a timely manner, as commercial real estate borrowers’ abilities to repay their loans frequently depends on the successful rental of their properties. Cash flows may be affected significantly by general economic conditions, and a downturn in the local economy or in occupancy rates in the local economy where the property is located could increase the likelihood of default. Because our loan portfolio contains a number of commercial real estate loans with relatively large balances, the deterioration of one or a few of these loans could cause a significant increase in our percentage of non-performing loans. An increase in non-performing loans could result in a loss of earnings from these loans, an increase in the provision for loan losses and an increase in charge-offs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.

Our banking regulators generally give commercial real estate lending greater scrutiny, and may require banks with higher levels of commercial real estate loans to implement improved underwriting, internal controls, risk management policies and portfolio stress testing, as well as possibly higher levels of allowances for losses and capital as a result of commercial real estate lending growth and exposures, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

16

Our focus on lending to small to mid-sized community-based businesses may increase our credit risk.

Most of our commercial business and commercial real estate loans are made to small business or middle market customers. These businesses generally have fewer financial resources in terms of capital or borrowing capacity than larger entities and have a heightened vulnerability to economic conditions. If general economic conditions in the market area in which we operate negatively impact this important customer sector, our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected. Moreover, a portion of these loans have been made by us in recent years and the borrowers may not have experienced a complete business or economic cycle. The deterioration of our borrowers’ businesses may hinder their ability to repay their loans with us, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We rely upon independent appraisals to determine the value of the real estate which secures a significant portion of our loans, and the values indicated by such appraisals may not be realizable if we are forced to foreclose upon such loans.17 Table of ContentsWe rely upon independent appraisals to determine the value of the real estate which secures a significant portion of our loans, and the values indicated by such appraisals may not be realizable if we are forced to foreclose upon such loans.

A significant portion of our loan portfolio consists of loans secured by real estate. We rely upon independent appraisers to estimate the value of such real estate. Appraisals are only estimates of value and the independent appraisers may make mistakes of fact or judgment which adversely affect the reliability of their appraisals. In addition, events occurring after the initial appraisal may cause the value of the real estate to increase or decrease. As a result of any of these factors, the real estate securing some of our loans may be more or less valuable than anticipated at the time the loans were made. If a default occurs on a loan secured by real estate that is less valuable than originally estimated, we may not be able to recover the outstanding balance of the loan and will suffer a loss.

We are exposed to risk of environmental liabilities with respect to properties to which we take title.

In the course of our business we may foreclose and take title to real estate, potentially becoming subject to environmental liabilities associated with the properties. We may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs or we may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at a property. Costs associated with investigation or remediation activities can be substantial. If we are the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. These costs and claims could adversely affect our business.

Risk Related to Market Interest Rates

Our business is subject to interest rate risk, and variations in interest rates may negatively affect financial performance.

Changes in the interest rate environment may reduce our profits. It is expected that we will continue to realize income from the differential or “spread” between the interest earned on loans, securities, and other interest earning assets, and interest paid on deposits, borrowings and other interest bearing liabilities. Net interest spreads are affected by the difference between the maturities and repricing characteristics of interest earning assets and interest bearing liabilities. In addition, loan volume and yields are affected by market interest rates on loans, and rising interest rates generally are associated with a lower volume of loan originations. Management cannot ensure that it can minimize our interest rate risk. While an increase in the general level of interest rates may increase the loan yield and the net interest margin, it may adversely affect the ability of certain borrowers with variable rate loans to pay the interest and principal of their obligations. Also, when the difference between long-term interest rates and short-term interest rates is small or when short-term interest rates exceed long-term interest rates, our margins may decline and our earnings may be adversely affected. Accordingly, changes in levels of market interest rates could materially and adversely affect the net interest spread, asset quality, loan origination volume and our overall profitability.

17

Transition away from the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) to another benchmark rate could adversely affect our operations.

The administrator of LIBOR announced that the most commonly used U.S. dollar LIBOR settings would cease to be published or cease to be representative after June 30, 2023. Management cannot predict whether or when LIBOR will actually cease to be available or what impact such a transition may have on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Adjustable Interest Rate (LIBOR) Act, enacted in March 2022, provides a statutory framework to replace LIBOR with a benchmark rate based on the Secured Overnight Funding Rate (“SOFR”) for contracts governed by U.S. law that have no or ineffective fallbacks. Although governmental authorities have endeavored to facilitate an orderly discontinuation of LIBOR, no assurance can be provided that this aim will be achieved or that the use, level, and volatility of LIBOR or other interest rates, or the value of LIBOR-based securities will not be adversely affected. There continues to be substantial uncertainty as to the ultimate effects of the LIBOR transition, including with respect to the acceptance and use of SOFR and other benchmark rates.

We have a number of loans, borrowings and other financial instruments with attributes that are either directly or indirectly dependent on LIBOR. The transition from LIBOR could create considerable costs and additional risk. Since proposed alternative rates are calculated differently, payments under contracts referencing new rates will differ from those referencing LIBOR. The transition will change our market risk profiles, requiring changes to risk and pricing models, valuation tools, product design and hedging strategies. Furthermore, failure to adequately manage this transition process with our customers could adversely impact our reputation. Although we are currently unable to assess what the ultimate impact of the transition from LIBOR will be, failure to adequately manage the transition could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to the Company’s Business, Industry and Markets

We face strong and growing competition from financial services companies and other companies that offer banking and other financial services, which could negatively affect our business.

We encounter substantial competition from other financial institutions in our market area and competition is increasing. Ultimately, we may not be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors. Many competitors offer the same banking services that we offer in our service area. These competitors include national, regional and community banks. We also face competition from many other types of financial institutions, including finance companies, mutual and money market fund providers, brokerage firms, insurance companies, credit unions, financial subsidiaries of certain industrial corporations, financial technology (“fintech”) companies and mortgage companies. In particular, the activity of fintech companies has grown significantly over recent years and is expected to continue to grow. Fintech companies have and may continue to offer bank or bank-like products and some fintech companies have applied for bank charters. In addition, other fintech companies have partnered with existing banks to allow them to offer deposit products to their customers. Increased competition may result in reduced business for us.

Additionally, banks and other financial institutions with larger capitalization and financial intermediaries not subject to bank regulatory restrictions have larger lending limits and are thereby able to serve the credit needs of larger customers. Areas of competition include interest rates for loans and deposits, efforts to obtain loans and deposits, and range and quality of products and services provided, including new technology-driven products and services. If we are unable to attract and retain banking customers, we may be unable to continue to grow loan and deposit portfolios and our results of operations and financial condition may otherwise be adversely affected.

Consumers may decide not to use banks to complete their financial transactions.

Technology and other changes are allowing parties to complete financial transactions through alternative methods that historically have involved banks. The activity and prominence of so-called marketplace lenders and other technological financial service companies have grown significantly over recent years and are expected to continue growing. In addition, consumers can now maintain funds that would have historically been held as bank deposits in brokerage accounts, mutual

18

funds, digital wallets or general-purpose reloadable prepaid cards. Consumers can also complete transactions, such as paying bills and/or transferring funds directly without the assistance of banks. The process of eliminating banks as intermediaries, known as “disintermediation,” could result in the loss of fee income, as well as the loss of customer deposits and the related income generated from those deposits. If we are unable to address the competitive pressures that we face, we could lose market share, which could result in reduced net revenue and profitability and lower returns. The loss of these revenue streams and the lower cost of deposits as a source of funds could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Our ability to operate profitably may be dependent on our ability to integrate or introduce various technologies into our operations.

The market for financial services, including banking and consumer finance services, is increasingly affected by advances in technology, including developments in telecommunications, data processing, computers, automation, online banking and tele-banking. Our ability to compete successfully in our market may depend on the extent to which we are able to exploit such technological changes. If we are not able to afford such technologies, properly or timely anticipate or implement such technologies, or effectively train our staff to use such technologies, our business, financial condition or operating results could be adversely affected.

Changes in economic conditions, especially in the areas in which we conduct operations, could materially and negatively affect our business.

Our business is directly impacted by economic conditions, legislative and regulatory changes, changes in government monetary and fiscal policies, and inflation, all of which are beyond our control. A deterioration in economic conditions, whether caused by global, national or local concerns, especially within our market area, could result in the following potentially material consequences: loan delinquencies increasing; problem assets and foreclosures increasing; demand for products and services decreasing; low cost or non-interest bearing deposits decreasing; and collateral for loans, especially real estate, declining in value, in turn reducing customers’ borrowing power, and reducing the value of assets and collateral associated with existing loans. An economic downturn could result in losses that materially and adversely affect our business.

We may be adversely impacted by changes in market conditions.

We are directly and indirectly affected by changes in market conditions. Market risk generally represents the risk that values of assets and liabilities or revenues will be adversely affected by changes in market conditions. As a financial institution, market risk is inherent in the financial instruments associated with our operations and activities, including loans, deposits, securities, short-term borrowings, long-term debt and trading account assets and liabilities. A few of the market conditions that may shift from time to time, thereby exposing us to market risk, include fluctuations in interest rates, equity and futures prices, and price deterioration or changes in value due to changes in market perception or actual credit quality of issuers. Our investment securities portfolio, in particular, may be impacted by market conditions beyond our control, including rating agency downgrades of the securities, defaults of the issuers of the securities, lack of market pricing of the securities, and inactivity or instability in the credit markets. Any changes in these conditions, in current accounting principles or interpretations of these principles could impact our assessment of fair value and thus the determination of other-than-temporary impairment of the securities in the investment securities portfolio.

Our mortgage banking revenue is cyclical and is sensitive to the level of interest rates, changes in economic conditions, decreased economic activity, and slowdowns in the housing market, any of which could adversely impact our profits.

Mortgage banking income, net of commissions, represented approximately 51.91% of total noninterest income for the year ended December 31, 2022. The success of our mortgage company is dependent upon our ability to originate loans and sell them to investors at or near current volumes. Loan production levels are sensitive to changes in the level of interest rates and changes in economic conditions. Any sustained period of decreased activity caused by fewer refinancing transactions, higher interest rates, housing price pressure or loan underwriting restrictions would adversely affect our mortgage

19

originations and, consequently, could significantly reduce our income from mortgage banking activities. As a result, these conditions would also adversely affect our results of operations.

Risk Related to the Company’s Operations

Liquidity risk could impair our ability to fund operations and jeopardize our financial condition.

Liquidity is the ability to meet cash flow needs on a timely basis at a reasonable cost. The liquidity of the Company is used to service its debt. The liquidity of the Bank is used to make loans and leases and to repay deposit liabilities as they become due or are demanded by customers. Our overall liquidity position is regularly monitored to ensure that various alternative strategies exist to cover unanticipated events that could affect liquidity. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings and other sources could have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance our activities on terms that are acceptable to us could be impaired by factors that affect us specifically, or the financial services industry or economy in general. Factors that could negatively impact our access to liquidity sources include a decrease in the level of our business activity as a result of an economic downturn in the market area in which our loans are concentrated; adverse regulatory action against us; or our inability to attract and retain deposits. Factors that could negatively impact our access to 20 Table of Contentsliquidity sources include a decrease in the level of our business activity as a result of an economic downturn in the market area in which our loans are concentrated; adverse regulatory action against us; or our inability to attract and retain deposits.

Our ability to borrow could be impaired by factors that are not specific to us or our region, such as a disruption in the financial markets or negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry.

We are dependent on key personnel and the loss of one or more of those key personnel may materially and adversely affect our operations.

We are a relationship-driven organization, and currently depend heavily on the services of a number of key management and business development personnel. These officers have primary contact with our customers and are extremely important in maintaining personalized relationships with our customer base and producing new business, which is a key aspect of our business strategy and earnings momentum. The unexpected loss of key personnel could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

The success of our strategy depends on our ability to identify and retain individuals with experience and relationships in our markets.

In order to be successful, we must identify and retain experienced key management members and sales staff with local expertise and relationships. Competition for qualified personnel is intense and there is a limited number of qualified persons with knowledge of and experience in the community banking and mortgage industry in our chosen geographic market. Even if we identify individuals that we believe could assist us in building our franchise, we may be unable to recruit these individuals away from their current employers. In addition, the process of identifying and recruiting individuals with the combination of skills and attributes required to carry out our strategy is often lengthy. Our inability to identify, recruit and retain talented personnel could limit our growth and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we are unable to successfully implement and manage our growth strategy, our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

We may not be able to successfully implement our growth strategy if we are unable to identify attractive markets, locations or opportunities to expand in the future. In addition, the ability to manage growth successfully depends on whether we can maintain adequate capital levels, cost controls and asset quality, and successfully integrate any acquired branch offices or banks. We cannot assure you that any integration efforts relating to our growth strategy will be successful. In implementing our growth strategy by opening new branches or acquiring branches or banks, we expect to incur increased personnel, occupancy and other operating expenses. In the case of new branches, we must absorb those higher expenses while we begin to generate new deposits; there is also further time lag involved in redeploying new deposits into attractively priced loans and other higher yielding earning assets.

20

We may consider acquiring other businesses or expanding into new product lines that we believe will help us fulfill our strategic objectives. We expect that other banking and financial companies, some of which have significantly greater resources, will compete with us to acquire financial services businesses. This competition could increase prices for potential acquisitions that we believe are attractive. Acquisitions may also be subject to various regulatory approvals. If we fail to receive the appropriate regulatory approvals, we will not be able to consummate acquisitions that we believe are in our best interests.

When we enter into new markets or new lines of business, our lack of history and familiarity with those markets, clients and lines of business may lead to unexpected challenges or difficulties that inhibit our success. Our plans to expand could depress earnings in the short run, even if we efficiently execute a growth strategy leading to long-term financial benefits.

We are subject to a variety of operational risks, including reputational risk, legal and compliance risk, and the risk of fraud or theft by employees or outsiders.21 Table of ContentsWe are subject to a variety of operational risks, including reputational risk, legal and compliance risk, and the risk of fraud or theft by employees or outsiders.

We are exposed to many types of operational risks, including reputational risk, legal and compliance risk, the risk of fraud or theft by employees or outsiders, unauthorized transactions by employees, operational errors, clerical or record-keeping errors, and errors resulting from faulty or disabled computer or communications systems.

Reputational risk, or the risk to our earnings and capital from negative public opinion, could result from our actual or alleged conduct in any number of activities, including lending practices, corporate governance, and from actions taken by government regulators and community organizations in response to those activities. Negative public opinion can adversely affect our ability to attract and keep customers and employees and can expose us to litigation and regulatory action.

Further, if any of our financial, accounting, or other data processing systems fail or have other significant issues, we could be adversely affected. We depend on internal systems and outsourced technology to support these data storage and processing operations. Our inability to use or access these information systems at critical points in time could unfavorably impact the timeliness and efficiency of our business operations. We could be adversely affected if one of our employees causes a significant operational break-down or failure, either as a result of human error or where an individual purposefully sabotages or fraudulently manipulates our operations or systems. We are also at risk of the impact of natural disasters, terrorism and international hostilities on our systems and from the effects of outages or other failures involving power or communications systems operated by others. We may also be subject to disruptions of our operating systems arising from events that are wholly or partially beyond our control (for example, computer viruses or electrical or communications outages), which may give rise to disruption of service to customers and to financial loss or liability. In addition, there have been instances where financial institutions have been victims of fraudulent activity in which criminals pose as customers to initiate wire and automated clearinghouse transactions out of customer accounts. Although we have policies and procedures in place to verify the authenticity of our customers, we cannot guarantee that such policies and procedures will prevent all fraudulent transfers. Such activity can result in financial liability and harm to our reputation.

If any of the foregoing risks materialize, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The soundness of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.

Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty or other relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and we routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial industry. As a result, defaults by, or even rumors or questions about, one or more financial services institutions, or the financial services industry generally, have led to market-wide liquidity problems and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default of our counterparty or client. In addition, our credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral held by us cannot be realized upon or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the financial instrument exposure due us. There is no assurance that any such losses would not materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

21

Failure to maintain effective systems of internal and disclosure control could have a material adverse effect on our results of operation and financial condition.

Effective internal and disclosure controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and effectively prevent fraud and to operate successfully as a public company. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our reputation and operating results would be harmed. As part of our ongoing monitoring of internal control, we may discover material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control that require remediation. A “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of a company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

Our inability to maintain the operating effectiveness of the controls described above could result in a material misstatement to our financial statements or other disclosures, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.22 Table of ContentsOur inability to maintain the operating effectiveness of the controls described above could result in a material misstatement to our financial statements or other disclosures, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, any failure to maintain effective controls or to timely effect any necessary improvement of our internal and disclosure controls could, among other things, result in losses from fraud or error, harm our reputation or cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operation and financial condition.

We depend on the accuracy and completeness of information about clients and counterparties and our financial condition could be adversely affected if we rely on misleading information.

In deciding whether to extend credit or to enter into other transactions with clients and counterparties, we may rely on information furnished to us by or on behalf of clients and counterparties, including financial statements and other financial information, which we do not independently verify. We also may rely on representations of clients and counterparties as to the accuracy and completeness of that information and, with respect to financial statements, on reports of independent auditors. For example, in deciding whether to extend credit to clients, we may assume that a client’s audited financial statements conform with GAAP and present fairly, in all material respects, the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of that client. Our financial condition and results of operations could be negatively impacted to the extent we rely on financial statements that do not comply with GAAP or are materially misleading.

We rely on other companies to provide key components of our business infrastructure.

Third parties provide key components of our business operations such as data processing, recording and monitoring transactions, online banking interfaces and services, internet connections and network access. While we have selected these third party vendors carefully, we do not control their actions. Any problem caused by these third parties, including poor performance of services, failure to provide services, disruptions in communication services proved by a vendor and failure to handle current or higher volumes, could adversely affect our ability to deliver products and services to our customers and otherwise conduct our business, and may harm our reputation. Financial or operational difficulties of a third party vendor could also hurt our operations if those difficulties interface with the vendor’s ability to serve us. Replacing these third party vendors could also create significant delay and expense. Accordingly, use of such third parties creates an unavoidable inherent risk to our business operations.

Our information systems may experience an interruption or breach in security.

In the ordinary course of business, we collect and store sensitive data, including proprietary business information and personally identifiable information of our customers and employees, in systems and on networks. The secure processing, maintenance and use of this information is critical to operations and our business strategy. While we have policies and procedures designed to protect our networks, computers and data from failure, interruption, damage or unauthorized access, there can be no assurance that a breach will not occur or, if it does, that it will be adequately addressed. The occurrence of any failure, interruption, damage or security breach of our communications and information systems could damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny or expose us to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could adversely affect our business.

22

Risk Related to the Company’s Regulatory Environment

Changes in accounting standards could impact reported earnings.

From time to time there are changes in the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. These changes can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. In some instances, we could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in the restatement of prior period financial statements. For information regarding recent accounting pronouncements and their effect on us, see “Recent Accounting Pronouncements” in Note 1 “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” contained in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

We operate in a highly regulated industry and the laws and regulations that govern our operations, corporate governance, executive compensation and financial accounting, or reporting, including changes in them or our failure to comply with them, may adversely affect us.23 Table of ContentsWe operate in a highly regulated industry and the laws and regulations that govern our operations, corporate governance, executive compensation and financial accounting, or reporting, including changes in them or our failure to comply with them, may adversely affect us.

We are subject to extensive regulation and supervision that govern almost all aspects of our operations. These laws and regulations, among other matters, prescribe minimum capital requirements, impose limitations on our business activities, limit the dividends or distributions that we can pay, restrict the ability of institutions to guarantee our debt and impose certain specific accounting requirements that may be more restrictive and may result in greater or earlier charges to earnings or reductions in our capital than GAAP. Compliance with laws and regulations can be difficult and costly, and changes to laws and regulations often impose additional compliance costs.

We are currently facing increased regulation and supervision of our industry as a result of the financial crisis in the banking and financial markets. The Dodd-Frank Act instituted major changes to the banking and financial institutions regulatory regimes. Other changes to statutes, regulations or regulatory policies or supervisory guidance, including changes in interpretation or implementation of statutes, regulations, policies or supervisory guidance, could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways. Such additional regulation and supervision has increased, and may continue to increase, our costs and limit our ability to pursue business opportunities. Further, our failure to comply with these laws and regulations, even if the failure was inadvertent or reflects a difference in interpretation, could subject us to restrictions on our business activities, fines and other penalties, any of which could adversely affect our results of operations, capital base and the price of our securities. Further, any new laws, rules and regulations could make compliance more difficult or expensive or otherwise adversely affect our business and financial condition.

Regulatory capital standards may have an adverse effect on our profitability, lending, and ability to pay dividends on our securities.

We are subject to capital adequacy guidelines and other regulatory requirements specifying minimum amounts and types of capital that we must maintain. From time to time, regulators implement changes to these regulatory capital adequacy guidelines. If we fail to meet these minimum capital guidelines and/or other regulatory requirements, our financial condition would be materially and adversely affected. The Basel III Capital Rules require bank holding companies and their subsidiaries to maintain significantly more capital as a result of higher required capital levels and more demanding regulatory capital risk weightings and calculations. While the Company is exempt from these capital requirements under the Federal Reserve’s SBHC Policy Statement, the Bank is not exempt and must comply. The Bank must also comply with the capital requirements set forth in the “prompt corrective action” regulations pursuant to Section 38 of the FDI Act. Satisfying capital requirements may require us to limit our banking operations, retain net income or reduce dividends to improve regulatory capital levels, which could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Increasing scrutiny and evolving expectations from customers, regulators, investors, and other stakeholders with respect to environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) practices may impose additional costs on us or expose us to new or additional risks.

Companies are facing increasing scrutiny from customers, regulators, investors, and other stakeholders related to ESG practices and disclosure. Investor advocacy groups, investment funds and influential investors are also increasingly focused on these practices, especially as they relate to climate risk, hiring practices, the diversity of the work force, and

23

racial and social justice issues. Increased ESG related compliance costs could result in increases to our overall operational costs. Failure to adapt to or comply with regulatory requirements or investor or stakeholder expectations and standards could negatively impact our reputation, ability to do business with certain partners, and our stock price. New government regulations could also result in new or more stringent forms of ESG oversight and expanding mandatory and voluntary reporting, diligence, and disclosure.

Risk Related to the Company’s Common Stock

Our common stock is thinly traded which may limit the ability of shareholders to sell their shares and may increase price volatility.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “VBFC.” Our common stock is thinly traded and has substantially less liquidity than the average trading market for many other publicly traded companies. Mr. Lehman’s significant share ownership also limits the number of shares available to other investors and the liquidity of our common stock. We cannot assure you that a more active trading market for our common stock will develop or be sustained. The development of a liquid public market depends on the existence of willing buyers and sellers, the presence of which is not within our control. The number of active buyers and sellers of our common stock at any particular time may be limited. Therefore, our shareholders may not be able to sell their shares at the volume, prices, or times that they desire. Shareholders should be financially prepared and able to hold shares for an indefinite period.

In addition, thinly traded stocks can be more volatile than more widely traded stocks. Our stock price has been volatile in the past and several factors could cause the price to fluctuate substantially in the future. These factors include, but are not limited to, changes in analysts’ recommendations or projections, developments related to our business, operations, stock performance of other companies deemed to be peers, news reports of trends, concerns, irrational exuberance on the part of investors, and other issues related to the financial services industry. Our stock price may fluctuate significantly in the future, and these fluctuations may be unrelated to our performance. General market declines or market volatility in the future, especially in the financial institutions sector of the economy, could adversely affect the price of our common stock, and the current market price may not be indicative of future market prices.

Our ability to pay dividends is limited, and we may be unable to pay future dividends.

Our ability to pay dividends is limited by regulatory restrictions and our need to maintain sufficient capital. The ability of the Bank to pay dividends to the Company also will be limited by the Bank's obligations to maintain sufficient capital, earnings and liquidity and by other general restrictions on its dividends under federal and state bank regulatory requirements. Under Virginia law, a bank may not declare a dividend in excess of its accumulated retained earnings without approval by the BFI. Any future financing arrangements that we enter into may also limit our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders. If we do not satisfy these regulatory requirements or arrangements, we will be unable to pay dividends on our common stock. Further, even if we have earnings and available cash in an amount sufficient to pay dividends to our shareholders, the board of directors, in its sole discretion, may decide to retain them and therefore not pay dividends in the future.

If we fail to pay interest on or otherwise default on our subordinated notes and subordinated debt securities, we will be prohibited from paying dividends or distributions on our common stock.

As of December 31, 2022, we had $5,692,000 of net subordinated notes and $8,764,000 of subordinated debt securities outstanding. The agreements under which the subordinated notes and subordinated debt securities were issued prohibit us from paying any dividends on our common stock or making any other distributions to our shareholders upon our failure to make any required payment of principal or interest or during the continuance of an event of default under the applicable agreement. Events of default generally consist of, among other things, certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or liquidation relating to us. If we were to fail to make a required payment of principal or interest on our subordinated notes or subordinated debt securities, it could have a material adverse effect on the market value of our common stock.

24

Our governing documents and Virginia law contain anti-takeover provisions that could negatively impact our shareholders.

Our articles of incorporation and bylaws and the Virginia Stock Corporation Act contain certain provisions designed to enhance the ability of our board of directors to deal with attempts to acquire control of the Company. These provisions, among others, provide that a plan of merger, share exchange, sale of all or substantially all of our assets, or similar transaction must be approved and recommended by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the directors in office or by the affirmative vote of 80% or more of all of the votes entitled to be cast on such transaction by each voting group entitled to vote, and limit the ability of shareholders to call a special meeting. These provisions and the ability to set the voting rights, preferences and other terms of any series of preferred stock that may be issued, may be deemed to have an anti-takeover effect and may discourage takeovers (which certain shareholders may deem to be in their best interest). To the extent that such takeover attempts are discouraged, temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock resulting from actual or rumored takeover attempts may be inhibited. These provisions also could discourage or make more difficult a merger, tender offer or proxy contest, even though such transactions may be favorable to the interests of shareholders, and could potentially adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

Our largest shareholder, Kenneth R. Lehman, has significant influence over our business through his share ownership and his interests may not align with the interests of other holders of our common stock.

According to the Form 4 filed by Mr. Lehman with the SEC on December 16, 2020, Mr. Lehman owns 768,379 shares, or approximately 51.82%, of the Company’s outstanding common stock. Due to this ownership, he is able to influence the outcome of any matter submitted to a vote of our shareholders. In addition, Mr. Lehman previously served on the boards of directors of the Company and the Bank and management regularly seeks guidance and perspective from him given his extensive industry experience. Mr. Lehman owns significant shares of other financial institutions, some of which may compete with us. These affiliations may create conflicts of interest that could incentivize him to take or approve actions with respect to other institutions that may have a negative impact on us (e.g. marketing efforts, product pricing, lending policies, business combination transactions, etc.). While we believe Mr. Lehman’s significant investment in the Company provides some protection in this regard, Mr. Lehman’s interests may not directly align with the interests of other holders of our common stock.

If Mr. Lehman acquires more than 66.67% of the Company’s outstanding shares of common stock, it will cause the acceleration of benefits under certain of our employment and benefit agreements, which will cause us to incur additional compensation expenses.

Certain of our employment and benefit agreements include customary provisions that provide for additional or accelerated compensation in the event of a change of control of the Company. If Mr. Lehman acquires more than 66.67% of the Company’s outstanding shares of common stock, it will cause the acceleration of benefits under some of these agreements. As described above, to the Company’s knowledge, Mr. Lehman owned approximately 51.82% of our outstanding common stock as of December 31, 2022.

Our stock incentive plan provides for “single-trigger” acceleration of change of control benefits, which means certain employees will receive benefits upon a change of control of the Company, regardless of whether the change of control affects their employment with the Company or any successor. These change of control benefits include accelerated vesting of restricted stock awards. If Mr. Lehman’s ownership of the Company’s common stock had exceeded 66.67% as of December 31, 2022, we would have recognized approximately $1,035,000 in related compensation expenses in 2022.

Our change of control agreements provide for “double-trigger” acceleration of change of control benefits, which means the benefits are only payable if the employee experiences a qualifying termination of employment in connection with a change of control. Mr. Lehman’s acquisition of more than 66.67% of the Company’s outstanding common stock would not automatically result in the payment or acceleration of change of control benefits under these agreements. However, under certain circumstances, if the Company were to terminate these employees or the employees were to voluntarily resign following Mr. Lehman’s acquisition of more than 66.67% of the Company’s outstanding common stock, the Company would incur significant additional expenses.

25

The economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and measures intended to reduce the spread of the virus could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operations.

Global health and economic concerns relating to the COVID-19 pandemic and government actions taken to reduce the spread of the virus have significantly disrupted the macroeconomic environment in the United States. Although the domestic and global economies have begun to recover from the COVID-19 pandemic as many health and safety restrictions have been lifted and vaccine distribution has increased, certain adverse consequences of the pandemic continue to impact the macroeconomic environment and may persist for some time, including labor shortages and disruptions of global supply chains. The growth in economic activity and in the demand for goods and services, coupled with labor shortages and supply chain disruptions, has also contributed to rising inflationary pressures and the risk of recession. Further, the COVID-19 pandemic could have long-lasting impacts on consumer behavior and business practices, including on remote work and business travel. The COVID-19 pandemic and related adverse economic consequences could cause adverse effects on the Company due to a number of operational factors impacting it or its customers or business partners, including but not limited to:

loan losses resulting from financial stress experienced by our customers;
collateral for loans, especially real estate, may decline in value, which could cause loan losses to increase;
operational failures, disruptions, or inefficiencies due to changes in our normal business practices;
business disruptions experienced by our vendors and business partners in carrying out critical services that support our operations;
decreased demand for our products and services;
potential financial liability, loan losses, litigation costs, or reputational damage resulting from our origination of loans as a participating lender in the PPP; and
heightened levels of cybersecurity risks and payment fraud due to disruption brought about by the pandemic, remote work and increased online activity.

The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic and related economic consequences impact our business, liquidity, financial condition, and operations will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and are difficult to predict, including, but not limited to, if and when the virus can be fully controlled and abated and the extent of its lasting impacts on economic and operating conditions. The impact of the removal of most pandemic related economic stimulus programs is also unknown. To the extent any of the foregoing risks or other factors that develop as a result of COVID-19 and related economic consequences materialize, it could exacerbate the other risk factors discussed in this section, or otherwise materially and adversely affect our business, liquidity, financial condition, and results of operations.

Climate change and related legislative and regulatory initiatives may result in operational changes and expenditures that could significantly impact our business.

The current and anticipated effects of climate change are creating an increasing level of concern for the state of the global environment. As a result, political and social attention to the issue of climate change has increased. Federal and state legislatures and regulatory agencies have continued to propose and advance numerous legislative and regulatory initiatives seeking to mitigate the effects of climate change. These climate-related initiatives could include increasing supervisory expectations with respect to banks’ risk management practices, accounting for the effects of climate change in stress testing scenarios and systemic risk assessments, revising expectations for credit portfolio concentrations based on climate-related factors and encouraging investment by banks in climate-related initiatives and lending to communities disproportionately impacted by the effects of climate change. These climate-related initiatives could include increasing supervisory expectations with respect to banks’ risk management practices, accounting for the effects of climate change in stress testing 26 Table of Contentsscenarios and systemic risk assessments, revising expectations for credit portfolio concentrations based on climate-related factors and encouraging investme