Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - TTWO

-New additions in green
-Changes in blue
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
Our business is subject to many risks and uncertainties, which may affect our future financial performance. Because of the risks and uncertainties described below, as well as other factors affecting our operating results and financial condition, past financial performance should not be considered to be a reliable indicator of future performance and our business and financial performance could be harmed and the market value of our securities could decline. These risks are not presented in order of importance or probability of occurrence.
Summary of Risk Factors
Material risks that may affect our business, operating results and financial condition include, but are not necessarily limited to:
Risks relating to our business and industry
Our industry is highly competitive
Uncertainty of achieving market acceptance, delays or disruptions for our products may have an adverse effect
We face development risks and must adapt to changes in software technologies
The development and use of artificial intelligence into our products may present operational and reputational risks
Increased use of mobile devices for gaming will drive future growth of mobile gaming
Increased competition for retailer support could increase expenses
Our ability to develop successful products for current video game platforms
We require approval of hardware licensors to publish titles
Reliance on complex information technology systems and networks and potential adverse impact of security breaches
Potential adverse impact of inadequate consumer data protection
Dependence on key management and product development personnel
Attracting, managing, and retaining our talent is critical to our success
Offensive consumer-created content can harm our results of operations or reputation
We rely on software development arrangements with third parties
The risk of distributors, development, and licensing partners or other third parties being unable to honor their commitments or otherwise putting our brand at risk
Increasing importance of digital sales and free-to-play games exposes us to the risks of that business model
We must compete for advertisements and offers that are incorporated into our free-to-play games
Our acquisitions and investments may not have the anticipated results
International operations risks
The loss of server capacity, lack of sufficient bandwidth, or connectivity issues could cause our business to suffer
Use of open-source software exposes us to risks
Our software is susceptible to errors
The continued ability to acquire and maintain license to intellectual property is key
We may experience fluctuations in the recurring portion of our business
We are dependent on the timing of our product releases
We are dependent on the future success of our Grand Theft Auto products and other “hit” titles
Adverse effects of price protection and returns
A limited number of customers account for a significant portion of our sales
Content policies could negatively affect sales
Entertainment Software Rating Board ratings for our products could negatively affect our ability to distribute and sell
The competitive position and value of our products could be adversely affected by unprotected intellectual property
We have a significant amount of outstanding debt
The value of our virtual items is highly dependent on how we manage the economies in our games
There is potential for unauthorized or fraudulent transactions of accounts and virtual items outside of our games
Risks related to legal or regulatory compliance
Government regulation of the internet can affect our business
Legislation could subject us to claims or otherwise harm our business
Failure to comply with laws and regulations, including data privacy, could harm our business
Adverse effect of alleged or actual infringement on the intellectual property rights of third parties
Risks related to financial and economic condition
Provisions in our charter documents and debt agreements may impede or discourage a takeover
Adverse effects of changes in tax rates and additional tax liabilities
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We are subject to risks and uncertainties of international trade, including foreign currency fluctuations
Potential adverse effects of existing or future accounting standards
Adverse effects of declines in consumer spending and changes in the economy
General Risk Factors
Additional issuances of equity securities would cause dilution and could affect the market price of our common stock
We are subject to risks related to corporate and social responsibility and reputation
Catastrophic events and climate change may have a long-term impact on our business
We may be adversely affected by the effects of inflation
We are and may become involved in legal proceedings that may result in adverse outcomes
Risks relating to our business and industry
The interactive entertainment software industry is highly competitive.
We compete for both licenses to properties and the sale of interactive entertainment software with Sony and Microsoft, each of which is a large developer and marketer of software for its own platforms. We also compete with game publishers, such as Activision Blizzard, Inc., Electronic Arts Inc., Embracer Group AB, Microsoft, Nintendo, Playrix, Playtika, Scopely, Sony, Tencent, and Ubisoft Entertainment S.A. We also face competition from online game developers and distributors who have primarily focused on specific international markets and with high-profile companies with significant online presences with new and expanded mobile gaming offerings, such as Apple, Google, and Microsoft. In addition, the gaming, technology/internet, and entertainment industries have converged in recent years and larger, well-funded technology companies are pursuing and strengthening their interactive entertainment capabilities. In addition, the gaming, technology/internet, and entertainment industries have converged in recent years and larger, well-funded technology companies are pursuing and strengthening their interactive entertainment capabilities, as evidenced, for example, by Microsoft's pending acquisition of Activision Blizzard. As our business is dependent upon our ability to develop hit titles, which require increasing budgets for development and marketing, the availability of significant financial resources has become a major competitive factor in developing and marketing software games. Some of our competitors have greater financial, technical, personnel, and other resources than we do and are able to finance larger budgets for development and marketing, make higher offers to licensors and developers for commercially desirable properties, adopt more aggressive pricing policies to develop more commercially successful video game products than we do, recruit our key creative and technical talent or otherwise disrupt our operations. Some of our competitors have greater financial, technical, personnel, and other resources than we do and are able to finance larger budgets for development and marketing and make higher offers to licensors and developers for commercially desirable properties. Internationally, local competitors may have a greater brand recognition than us in their local country and a stronger understanding of local culture and commerce. They may also offer their products and services in local languages we not offer. Additionally, competitors may develop content that imitates or competes with our best-selling games, potentially reducing our sales or our ability to charge the same prices we have historically charged for our products. These competing products may take a larger share of consumer spending than anticipated, which could cause product sales to fall below expectations. Our titles also compete with other forms of entertainment, such as social media, in addition to motion pictures, television and audio and video products featuring similar themes, online computer programs and other entertainment, which may be less expensive or provide other advantages to consumers. Our titles also compete with other forms of entertainment, such as social media and casual games, in addition to motion pictures, television and audio and video products featuring similar themes, online computer programs and other entertainment, which may be less expensive or provide other advantages to consumers.
A number of software publishers who compete with us have developed and commercialized or are currently developing online and mobile games. Technological advances that significantly increase the availability of online and mobile games could result in a decline in our platform-based software sales and negatively affect sales of such products. Other large companies that to date have not actively focused on mobile and social games may decide to develop mobile and social games or partner with other developers. Some of these current and potential competitors have significant resources for developing or acquiring additional games, may be able to incorporate their own strong brands and assets into their games, have a more diversified set of revenue sources than we do and may be less severely affected by changes in consumer preferences, regulations or other developments that may impact our industry. If, despite testing, errors are found in new products or releases after shipments have been made, we may have to consider suspending distribution of defective products or offering refunds, and we could experience a loss of or delay in timely market acceptance, product returns, loss of revenue, increases in costs relating to the repair of such errors and damage to our reputation.
As there are relatively low barriers to entry to develop a mobile or online game, we expect new game competitors to enter the market and existing competitors to allocate more resources to develop and market competing games and applications. We also compete or will compete with a vast number of small companies and individuals who are able to create and launch games and other content for devices and platforms using relatively limited resources and with relatively limited start-up time or expertise. The proliferation of titles in these open developer channels makes it difficult for us to differentiate ourselves from other developers and to compete for players without substantially increasing our marketing expenses and development costs. Increasing competition could result in loss of players, increasing player acquisition and retention costs, and loss of talent, all of which could harm our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Moreover, current and future competitors may also make strategic acquisitions or establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with others, including our current or future business partners or third-party software providers. By doing so, these competitors may increase their scale, their ability to meet the needs of existing or prospective players and compete for
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similar human capital. If we are unable to compete effectively, successfully and at a reasonable cost against our existing and future competitors, our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition would be adversely impacted.
Additionally, we compete with other forms of entertainment and leisure activities. While we monitor general market conditions, significant shifts in consumer demand that could materially alter public preferences for different forms of entertainment and leisure activities are difficult to predict. Failure to adequately identify and adapt to these competitive pressures could have a negative impact on our business.
The inability of our products to achieve significant market acceptance, the failure to retain existing players, delays in product releases or disruptions following the commercial release of our products may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.The inability of our products to achieve significant market acceptance, delays in product releases or disruptions following the commercial release of our products may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
New products may not achieve significant market acceptance, generate sufficient sales, or be introduced in a timely manner to permit us to recover development, manufacturing and marketing costs associated with these products. New products may not achieve significant market acceptance, generate sufficient sales, or be introduced in a timely manner to permit us to recover development, manufacturing and marketing costs associated with these products. These products or enhancements may not be well-received by consumers, even if well-reviewed and of high quality. The life cycle of a console or PC title generally involves a relatively high level of sales during the first few months after introduction followed by a rapid decline in sales. The life cycle of a title generally involves a relatively high level of sales during the first few months after introduction followed by a rapid decline in sales. Because sales associated with an initial product launch on console or PC generally constitute a high percentage of the total sales associated with the life of a product, delays in product releases or disruptions following the commercial release of one or more new products could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results and therefore cause our operating results to be materially different from our expectations. Because sales associated with an initial product launch generally constitute a high percentage of the total sales associated 10with the life of a product, delays in product releases or disruptions following the commercial release of one or more new products could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results and therefore cause our operating results to be materially different from our expectations.
In addition, to retain players, we must devote significant resources so that players stay engaged, which could also result in attracting them to our other games. We might not succeed in our efforts to increase monetization rates, particularly if we are unable to retain our paying players. If we fail to grow or sustain the number of our paying players, if the rates at which we attract and retain paying players declines (whether due to financial hardship as a result of an economic downturn or for any other reason), or if the average amount our players pay declines, our financial results could be negatively affected.
We are subject to product development risks which could result in delays and additional costs, and we must adapt to changes in software technologies.
We depend on our internal development studios and third-party software developers to develop new interactive entertainment software within anticipated release schedules and cost projections. The development cycle for new titles generally ranges from 12 months or less for most mobile titles and annual console/PC sports releases, to multiple years for certain of our top-selling titles. The development cycle for new titles generally ranges from 12 months for annual sports releases, to multiple years for certain of our top-selling titles. Therefore, our development costs can be substantial. If we or our third-party developers experience unanticipated development delays, financial difficulties, or additional costs, for example, as a result of unforeseen circumstances, we may not be able to release titles according to our schedule and at budgeted costs. If we or our third-party developers experience unanticipated development delays, financial difficulties, or additional costs, for example, as a result of COVID-19, we may not be able to release titles according to our schedule and at budgeted costs. There can be no assurance that our products will be sufficiently successful so that we can recoup these costs or make a profit on these products. For our products with live services, we are required to support continued development. There can be no assurance that these continued efforts will generate sufficient revenue to offset these costs. There can be no assurance that these strategic investments will achieve expected returns.
Additionally, in order to stay competitive, our internal development studios must anticipate and adapt to rapid technological changes affecting software development, such as cloud-based game streaming, and evolving business models, such as free-to-play and subscription-based access to a portfolio of interactive content. Rapid changes in our industry require us to anticipate, sometimes years in advance, the ways in which our products and services will be competitive in the market. We have invested, and in the future may invest, in new business and marketing strategies, technologies, distribution methods, products, and services. However, forecasting the financial impact of any such strategic investment is inherently uncertain and volatile. Supporting a new technology or business model, for example, may require partnering with a new platform, business, or technology partner, which may be on terms that are less favorable to us than those for traditional technologies or business models. There can be no assurance that these strategic investments will achieve expected returns. Any inability to respond to technological advances and implement new technologies could render our products obsolete or less marketable. Further, the failure to pursue the development of new technology, platforms, or business models that obtain meaningful commercial success in a timely manner may negatively affect our business, resulting in increased production or development costs and more strenuous competition.
Our reputation and brand could also be adversely affected. We also may miss opportunities or fail to respond quickly enough to adopt technology or distribution methods or develop products, services, or new ways to engage with our games that become popular with consumers, which could adversely affect our financial results. In either case, our products and services may be technologically inferior to those of our competitors, less appealing to consumers, or both.
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The development and use of artificial intelligence (“AI”) into our products may present operational and reputational risks.
The growth of AI technologies in our industry has influenced games production for developers and gaming experience for players. The use of this new and emerging technology, which is in its early stages of commercial use, presents social and ethical issues that may result in legal and reputational harm and liability. Further, intellectual property ownership surrounding AI technologies has not been fully addressed by U.S. courts or other federal or state laws or regulations, and the use or adoption of third-party AI technologies into our products and services may result in exposure to claims of copyright infringement or other intellectual property misappropriation.
If the use of mobile devices as game platforms and the proliferation of mobile devices generally do not increase, our business could be adversely affected.
Following our acquisition of Zynga, an increased percentage of our operations consists of mobile gaming. The number of people using mobile Internet-enabled devices has increased dramatically over time, and we expect that this trend will continue. However, the mobile market, particularly the market for mobile games, may not grow in the way we anticipate. Our future success is substantially dependent upon the continued growth of the market for mobile games. In addition, we do not currently offer our games on all mobile devices. If the mobile devices on which our games are available decline in popularity or become obsolete faster than anticipated, we could experience a decline in revenue and bookings and may not achieve the anticipated return on our development efforts. Any such declines in the growth of the mobile market or in the use of mobile devices for games could harm our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Increased competition for limited shelf space and promotional support from retailers could affect the success of our business and require us to incur greater expenses to market our titles.
While digital sales are increasingly important to our business, for physical sales, retailers have limited shelf space and promotional resources. Competition is intense among newly introduced interactive entertainment software titles for adequate levels of shelf space and promotional support, with most and highest quality shelf space devoted to those products expected to be best sellers. We cannot be certain that our new products will consistently achieve bestseller status. Competition for retail shelf space is expected to continue to increase, which may require us to increase our marketing expenditures to maintain desirable sales levels of our titles. Competitors with more extensive lines and more popular titles may have greater bargaining power with retailers. Accordingly, we may not be able, or we may have to pay more than our competitors, to achieve similar levels of promotional support and shelf space. Similarly, as digital sales increase in importance to our business, there is increasing competition for premium placements of products on websites. Such placement is subject to many risks similar to the physical shelf space risks discussed above. Such placement is subject to many similar risks as physical shelf space discussed above.
Our business is subject to our ability to develop commercially successful products for the current video game platforms.
We derive a significant portion of our revenue from the sale of products made for video game platforms manufactured by third parties, such as Sony's PlayStation consoles and Microsoft's Xbox consoles, which comprised 40.5% of our net revenue by product platform for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2024. The success of our business is subject to the continued popularity of these platforms and our ability to develop commercially successful products for these platforms. We derive most of our revenue from the sale of products made for video game platforms manufactured by third parties, such as Sony's PS4 and PS5 and Microsoft's Xbox One and Xbox Series X|S, which comprised 72.2% of our net revenue by product platform for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2022. The success of our business is subject to the continued popularity of these platforms and our ability to develop commercially successful products for these platforms. We also rely on the availability of an adequate supply of these video game consoles (which sometimes has been negatively affected by supply chain issues) and the continued support for these consoles by their manufacturers, including our ability to reach consumers via the online networks operated by these console manufacturers. If the consoles for which we develop new software products or modify existing products do not attain significant consumer acceptance, we may not be able to recover our development costs, which could be significant and may further incur expense to adjust our products and development efforts in response to changing consumer preferences.
Historically, when next generation consoles are announced or introduced into the market, consumers have typically reduced their purchases of products for prior-generation consoles in anticipation of purchasing a next-generation console and products for that console. Historically, when next generation consoles are announced or introduced into the market, consumers have typically reduced their purchases of products for prior-generation consoles in anticipation of purchasing a next-generation console and products for that console. During these periods, sales of the products we publish may decline until new platforms achieve wide consumer acceptance. Console transitions may have a comparable impact on sales of downloadable content, amplifying the impact on our revenues. This decline may not be offset by increased sales of products for the next-generation consoles. In addition, as console hardware moves through its life cycle, hardware manufacturers typically enact price reductions, and decreasing prices may put downward pressure on software prices. During console transitions, we may simultaneously incur costs both in continuing to develop and market new titles for prior-generation video game platforms, which may not sell at premium prices, and also in developing products for next-generation platforms, which may not generate immediate or near-term revenues. As a result, our business and operating results may be more volatile and difficult to predict during console transitions than during other times.
Additionally, we derive a significant portion of our revenue from distribution of our games on the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store, and the virtual items we sell in our games are purchased using the payment processing systems of
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these platform providers. In the fiscal year ended March 31, 2024, we derived 95.0% of our mobile revenue on Apple and Google platforms. We are subject to the standard policies and terms of service of third-party platforms, which govern the promotion, distribution, content and operation generally of games on the platform. Each platform provider has broad discretion to change and interpret its terms of service and other policies with respect to us and other developers, and those changes may be unfavorable to us. A platform provider may also change its fee structure, add fees associated with access to and use of its platform, alter how we are able to advertise on the platform, change how the personal information of its users is made available to application developers on the platform, limit the use of personal information for advertising purposes, or restrict how players can share information with their friends on the platform or across platforms. For example, in April 2021, Apple began requiring developers to get explicit permission from users, on an app-by-app basis, to use the identifier-for-advertisers, a device identifier assigned by Apple to each of its devices and used by advertisers to attribute app installs to advertising campaigns, target users through user acquisition, and deliver targeted ads. These requirements are known as Apple's AppTracking Transparency framework and have been maintained in subsequent versions of Apple iOS. Additionally, in February 2022, Google announced plans to make privacy-focused changes to its Android advertising identifiers after a two-year process, taking into account feedback from developers, regulators and other interested parties. Also, beginning January 2024, Google began requiring publishers and developers using certain Google advertising products to serve ads in the U.K. or European Union (E.U.) to use a Google certified consent management platform. We are continuing to evaluate how these rules or changes may affect our business, operations and financial results.
In addition, third-party platforms also impose certain file size limitations, which may limit the ability of players to download some of our larger games in over-the-air updates. Aside from these over-the-air file size limitations, a larger game file size could cause players to delete our games once the file size grows beyond the capacity of their devices’ storage limitations or could reduce the number of downloads of these games.
Such changes of terms of use with third-party platforms may decrease the visibility or availability of our games, limit our distribution capabilities, prevent access to our existing games, reduce the amount of revenue and bookings we may recognize from in-game purchases, increase our costs to operate on these platforms or result in the exclusion or limitation of our games on such platforms. Any such changes could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Moreover, if we violate, or a platform provider believes we have violated, its terms of service (or if there is any change or deterioration in our relationship with these platform providers), that platform provider could limit or discontinue our access to the platform. A platform provider could also limit or discontinue our access to the platform if it establishes more favorable relationships with one or more of our competitors or it determines that we are a competitor. Any limit or discontinuation of our access to any platform could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Furthermore, obtaining and maintaining high ratings of our games on the third-party platforms on which we operate are important as they help drive players to find our games. If the ratings of any of our games decline or if we receive significant negative reviews that result in a decrease in our ratings, our games could be more difficult for players to find or recommend. In addition, we may be subject to negative review campaigns or defamation campaigns intended to harm our ratings. Any such decline may lead to loss of players and revenues, additional advertising and marketing costs, and reputation harm.
We also rely on the continued popularity, customer adoption, and functionality of third-party platforms. In the past, some of these platform providers have been unavailable for short periods of time or experienced issues with their in-app purchasing functionality. If either of these events recurs on a prolonged, or even short-term, basis or other similar issues arise that impact players’ ability to access our games, access social features or purchase a license to virtual items, our business, financial condition, results of operations or reputation may be harmed.
We cannot publish our titles without the approval of hardware licensors that are also our competitors, and we rely on a limited number of channel partners, some of whom influence the fee structures for online distribution of our games on their platforms.
We are required to obtain licenses from certain of our competitors, including Sony and Microsoft, to develop and publish titles for their respective hardware platforms. Our existing platform licenses require that we obtain approval for the publication of new titles on a title-by-title basis. As a result, the number of titles we are able to publish for these hardware platforms, our ability to manage the timing of the release of these titles, and, accordingly, our net revenue from titles for these hardware platforms, may be limited. If a licensor chooses not to renew or extend our license agreement at the end of its current term, or if a licensor were to terminate our license for any reason or does not approve one or more of our titles, we may be unable to publish that title as well as additional titles for that licensor's platform. During or following a console transition, like the one that occurred in 2020, hardware platform manufacturers may seek to change the terms governing our relationships with them. Termination of any such agreements or disapproval of titles could seriously hurt our business and prospects. We may be unable to continue to enter into license agreements for certain current generation platforms on satisfactory terms or at all. Failure to enter into any such agreement could also seriously hurt our business. In addition, because our products compete with
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a vast array of other interactive entertainment software products that also are available on these hardware platforms, a hardware platform manufacturer may give priority to those competing products.
In addition, platform providers, such as Sony and Microsoft, control the networks over which consumers purchase digital products and services for their platforms and through which we provide online game capabilities for our products. The control that these platform providers have over consumer access to our games, the fee structures and/or retail pricing for products and services for their platforms and online networks and the terms and conditions under which we do business with them could impact the availability of our products or the volume of purchases of our products made over their networks and our profitability. The networks provided by these platform providers are the exclusive means of selling and distributing our content on these platforms. If the platform provider establishes terms that restrict our offerings on its platform, significantly alters the financial terms on which these products or services are offered, or does not approve the inclusion of content on its platform, our business could be negatively impacted. Increased competition for digital “shelf space” has put channel partners in more favorable bargaining positions in relation to such terms of distribution.
We also derive significant revenues from distribution on third‑party mobile and web platforms, such as the Apple App Store, the Google Play Store, and Facebook, which are also our direct competitors and, in some cases, the exclusive means through which our content reaches gamers on those platforms, and most of the virtual currency we sell is purchased using these platform providers’ payment processing systems. We also derive significant revenues from distribution on third‑party mobile and web platforms, such as the Apple App Store, the Google Play Store, and Facebook, which are also our direct competitors and in some cases the exclusive means through which our content reaches gamers on those platforms, and most of the virtual currency we sell is purchased using these platform providers’ payment processing systems. Because of the significant use of our games on mobile devices, our application must remain interoperable with these and other popular mobile app stores and platforms, and related hardware. We are subject to the standard policies and terms of service of these platforms. These policies and terms of service govern the availability, promotion, distribution, content, and operation of applications and experiences on such platforms. Each provider of these platforms has broad discretion to change and interpret its terms of service and policies with respect to our games and those changes may be unfavorable to us. If these platforms deny access to our games, or modify their current discovery mechanisms, communication channels available to developers, operating systems, or other policies and terms of service (including fees), our business could be negatively impacted. If these platforms deny access to our games, modify their current discovery mechanisms, communication channels available to developers, operating systems, terms of service, or other policies (including fees), our business could be negatively impacted. For example, at any time, the platform providers can change their policies on how we operate on their operating system or in their application stores by applying content moderation for applications and advertising or imposing technical or code requirements. These actions by the platform providers may affect our ability to collect, process, and use data as desired and could negatively impact our ability to leverage data about the experiences our games provide to players, which in turn could impact our resource planning and feature development planning for our products. These platform providers or their services may be unavailable, may not function as intended, or may experience issues with their in‑app purchasing functionality. These platform providers or their services may be unavailable or may not function as intended or may experience issues with their in‑app purchasing functionality.
Some of these platforms have retained the right to change the fee structures for online distribution of both paid content and free content (including patches and corrections), and their ability to set or influence royalty rates may increase costs, which could negatively affect our operating margins. We rely on a limited number of channel partners, some of whom have retained the right to change the fee structures for online distribution of both paid content and free content (including patches and corrections) that we license to them for distribution on their platforms. Further, if we are unable to distribute our content in a cost-effective or profitable manner through such distribution channels, it could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results. We may be unable to distribute our content in a cost-effective or profitable manner through such distribution channel, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results. There is no guarantee that new devices, platforms, systems and software application stores will continue to support our games or that we will be able to maintain the same level of service on these new systems. If it becomes more difficult for our players to access and engage with our games, our business and player retention, growth, and engagement could be significantly harmed.
We rely on complex information technology systems and networks to operate our business. Any significant system or network disruption or cyberattack could have a negative impact on our business. Any significant system or network disruption could have a negative impact on our business.
We rely on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of complex information technology systems and networks, some of which are within Take-Two and some of which are managed or hosted by third-party providers. We rely on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of complex information technology systems and networks, some of which are within Take-Two and some of which are managed or hosted by third-party providers. The supply chain of hardware needed to maintain this technological infrastructure has been disrupted and geopolitical events, including the Russia-Ukraine war and the Israel-Hamas war and any indirect effects, may further complicate existing supply chain constraints. All information technology systems and networks are potentially vulnerable to damage or interruption from a variety of sources, including but not limited to cyberattacks, computer viruses, malicious software, security breaches, energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war, and telecommunication failures. We securely store the source code for our interactive entertainment software products as it is created. We securely store the source code for our interactive entertainment software products as it is created. A breach, whether physical, electronic, or otherwise, of the systems on which such source code and other sensitive data are stored could lead to damage or piracy of our software. In addition, certain parties with whom we do business are given access to our sensitive and proprietary information in order to provide services and support our team. These third parties may misappropriate our information and engage in unauthorized use of it. A data intrusion into a server for a game with online features or for our proprietary online gaming service could also disrupt the operation of such game or platform. Further, the risk of such a breach may be heightened by world events, such as the Russia-Ukraine war and the Israel-Hamas war. Further, the risk of such a breach may be heightened by world events, such as the current conflict between Russia and Ukraine. Further, the risk of such a breach may be heightened by world events, such as the current conflict between Russia and Ukraine. If we or these third parties are subject to data security breaches, we may have a loss in sales or increased costs arising from the restoration or implementation of additional security measures which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results. Any theft and/or unauthorized use or publication of our trade secrets and other confidential business information because of such an event could adversely affect our competitive position, reputation,
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brand, and future sales of our products. Our business could be subject to significant disruption, and we could suffer monetary and other losses and reputational harm, in the event of such incidents and claims.
We have faced, and in the future could face, sophisticated attacks, including attacks referred to as advanced persistent threats, which are cyberattacks aimed at compromising our intellectual property and other commercially sensitive information, such as the source code and game assets for our software or confidential customer or employee information, which remain undetected for prolonged periods of time. We may also face sophisticated attacks, referred to as advanced persistent threats, which are cyber-attacks aimed at compromising our intellectual property and other commercially sensitive information, such as the source code and game assets for our software or confidential customer or employee information, which remain undetected for prolonged periods of time. In September 2022, we experienced a network intrusion in which an unauthorized third party illegally accessed and downloaded confidential information from Rockstar Games’ systems, including early development footage for the next Grand Theft Auto. Subsequently, also in September 2022, an unauthorized third party illegally accessed credentials for a vendor platform that 2K Games uses to provide help desk support to its customers. The unauthorized third party sent a communication to certain players containing a malicious link. 2K Games immediately notified all affected users and took steps to restrict further unauthorized activity until service was restored. In connection with this activity (the “Cybersecurity Incident”), we have incurred certain immaterial incremental one-time costs related to consultants, experts and data recovery efforts and expect to incur additional costs related to cybersecurity protections in the future. We have implemented and will continue to implement a variety of measures to enhance further our cybersecurity protections. See “Part II, Item 7 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Cybersecurity Incident” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2023 for further discussion. Our software supply chain may also be subject to attacks, which would result in future security incidents and breaches.
Information technology system disruptions, network failures, or security breaches (including the Cybersecurity Incident and similar incidents) have negatively affected, and in the future could negatively affect our business continuity, operations, financial results, and the reliability and stability of our products and services. These risks extend to the networks and e-commerce sites of console platform providers and other partners who sell or host our content online. The risk of such threats is heightened by events outside of our control, such as the extended period of remote work arrangements due to COVID-19, the Russia-Ukraine war and the Israel-Hamas war. The risk could also be affected by events within our control, such as the migration of data among data centers and to third-party hosted environments, and the performance of upgrades and maintenance on our systems. Along with our partners, we have expended, and expect to continue to expend, financial and operational resources to implement certain systems, processes, and technologies to guard against cyber risks and to help protect our data and systems. However, the techniques used to exploit, disable, damage, disrupt or gain access to our networks, our products and services, supporting technological infrastructure, intellectual property and other assets change frequently, continue to evolve in sophistication and volume, and may not be detected for long periods of time.
Our systems, processes and technologies, and the systems, processes and technologies of our business partners or our third-party service providers, have not been and in the future may not be adequate against all eventualities. We do not have redundancy for all our systems and our disaster recovery planning may not account for all outcomes. As our digital business grows, we will require an increasing amount of internal and external technical infrastructure, including network capacity and computing power to continue to satisfy the needs of our players. It is possible that we may fail to scale effectively and grow this technical infrastructure to accommodate increased demands, which may adversely affect the reliable and stable performance of our games and services, therefore negatively impacting our business. In addition, the costs to respond to, mitigate, or notify affected parties of cyberattacks and other security vulnerabilities are significant. Failures to prevent or mitigate security breaches or cyber risks, or detect or respond adequately to a security breach or cyber risk, could result in a loss of anticipated revenue, interruptions to our products and services, our having to incur significant remediation and notification costs, a degradation of the user experience, causing consumers to lose confidence in our products and services, prompting regulatory inquiries and significant legal and financial costs. Any failure to prevent or mitigate security breaches or cyber risks, or detect or respond adequately to a security breach or cyber risk, could result in a loss of anticipated revenue, interruptions to our products and services, our having to incur significant remediation and notification costs, degrade the user experience, cause consumers to lose confidence in our products and services, and significant legal and financial costs. Additionally, applicable insurance policies may be insufficient to reimburse us for all such losses, and it is uncertain whether we will be able to maintain the current level of insurance coverage in the future on reasonable terms or at all.
Successful exploitation of our systems can have other negative effects upon the products, services and user experience we offer. In particular, the virtual economies that we have established in many of our games are subject to abuse, exploitation and other forms of fraudulent activity that can negatively affect our business. Virtual economies involve the use of virtual currency or virtual assets that can be used or redeemed by a player within a particular game or service. Although we have implemented and continue to develop programs reasonably designed to prevent such negative impacts, the abuse or exploitation of our virtual economies can include the illegitimate generation and sale of accounts and/or virtual items in black markets. These kinds of activities and the steps that we take to address and prevent these issues may result in a loss of anticipated revenue, interfere with players’ enjoyment of a balanced game environment and cause reputational harm.
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Our business could be adversely affected if our consumer data protection measures are not seen as adequate or there are breaches of our security measures or unintended disclosures of our consumer data.
We are collecting and storing consumer information, including personal information. We take measures to protect our consumer information from unauthorized access or disclosure. It is possible that our security controls over consumer information may not prevent the improper access or disclosure of personal information. In addition, due to the high-profile nature of our products, we may draw a disproportionately higher amount of attention and attempts to breach our security controls than companies with lower profile products. A security incident, such as the Cybersecurity Incident, that leads to disclosure of consumer information (including personal information) could harm our reputation, compel us to comply with disparate breach notification laws in various jurisdictions and otherwise subject us to liability under laws that protect personal information, any of which could result in increased costs or loss of revenue. A security incident that leads to disclosure of consumer information (including personal information) could harm our reputation, compel us to comply with disparate breach notification laws in various jurisdictions and otherwise subject us to liability under laws that protect personal information, any of which could result in increased costs or loss of revenue. A resulting perception that our products or services do not adequately protect personal information could result in a loss of current or potential consumers and business partners. A resulting perception that our products or services do not adequately protect the privacy of personal information could result in a loss of current or potential consumers and business partners. In addition, if any of our business partners experience a security incident that leads to disclosure of consumer information, our reputation could be harmed, resulting in loss of revenue.
In addition, certain of our products include online functionality. In addition, certain of our products are online enabled. The ability of our products to enable this functionality, and our ability to offer content through a video game platform's digital distribution channel, is dependent upon the continued operation and security of such platform's online network. The ability of our products to offer online functionality, and our ability to offer content through a video game platform's digital distribution channel, is dependent upon the continued operation and security of such platform's online network. These third-party networks, as well as our own internal systems and websites, and the related security measures may be breached as a result of third-party action, including intentional misconduct by computer hackers, employee error, malfeasance or otherwise, and result in someone obtaining unauthorized access to our customers' information or our data, including our intellectual property and other confidential business information, or our information technology systems. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, or to sabotage systems, change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Further, the risk of such a breach may be heightened by world events, such as the Russia-Ukraine war and the Israel-Hamas war. Further, the risk of such a breach may be heightened by world events, such as the current conflict between Russia and Ukraine. Further, the risk of such a breach may be heightened by world events, such as the current conflict between Russia and Ukraine. If an actual or perceived breach of our safeguards occurs, we may lose business, suffer irreparable damage to our reputation, and/or incur significant costs and expenses relating to the investigation and possible litigation of claims relating to such event.
We depend on our key management and product development personnel.
Our continued success will depend to a significant extent on our senior management team and our relationship with ZMC Advisors, L. Our continued success will depend to a significant extent on our senior management team and our relationship with ZelnickMedia Corporation ("ZelnickMedia"). P. ("ZMC"). Our Executive Chairman/Chief Executive Officer and President are partners of ZMC. We are also highly dependent on the expertise, skills and knowledge of our key creative personnel responsible for content creation and development, such as of our Grand Theft Auto and other hit titles. We may not be able to continue to retain these personnel at current compensation levels or at all. Our industry is generally characterized by a high level of employee mobility, competitive compensation programs, and aggressive recruiting among competitors for employees with technical, marketing, sales, engineering, product development, creative, and/or management skills.