Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - SPG

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$SPG Risk Factor changes from 00/02/21/20/2020 to 00/02/24/22/2022

Item 1A. Risk Factors.​Corporate HeadquartersOur corporate headquarters are located at 225 West Washington Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204, and our telephone number is (317) 636-1600.9 Table of ContentsAvailable InformationSimon is a large accelerated filer (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act) and is required, pursuant to Item 101 of Regulation S-K, to provide certain information regarding our website and the availability of certain documents filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. Our Internet website address is www.simon.com.

Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available or may be accessed free of charge through the “About Simon/Investor Relations” section of our Internet website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

Our Internet website and the information contained therein or connected thereto are not, and are not intended to be, incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.The following corporate governance documents are also available through the “About Simon/Investor Relations/ Governance” section of our Internet website or may be obtained in print form by request of our Investor Relations Department: Governance Principles, Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, Audit Committee Charter, Compensation and Human Capital Committees Charter, and Governance and Nominating Committee Charter.In addition, we intend to disclose on our Internet website any amendments to, or waivers from, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that are required to be publicly disclosed pursuant to rules of the SEC and the NYSE.Information about our Executive OfficersThe following table sets forth certain information with respect to Simon’s executive officers as of February 25, 2021.​The executive officers of Simon serve at the pleasure of Simon’s Board of Directors.Mr. Simon has served as the Chairman of Simon’s Board of Directors since 2007, Chief Executive Officer of Simon or its predecessor since 1995 and assumed the position of President in 2019. Mr. Simon has also been a director of Simon or its predecessor since its incorporation in 1993. Mr. Simon was the President of Simon’s predecessor from 1993 to 1996. He is the nephew of Herbert Simon.Mr. Rulli serves as Simon’s Chief Administrative Officer. Mr. Rulli joined Melvin Simon & Associates, Inc., or MSA, in 1988 and held various positions with MSA and Simon thereafter. Mr. Rulli became Chief Administrative Officer in 2007 and was promoted to Senior Executive Vice President in 2011. Mr. Fivel serves as Simon’s General Counsel and Secretary. Prior to rejoining Simon in 2011 as Assistant General Counsel and Assistant Secretary, Mr. Fivel served as Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of Brightpoint, Inc. Mr. Fivel was previously employed by MSA from 1988 until 1993 and then by Simon from 1993 to 1996. Mr. Fivel was promoted to General Counsel and Secretary in 2017.Mr. McDade serves as Simon’s Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer. Mr. McDade joined Simon in 2007 as the Director of Capital Markets and was promoted to Senior Vice President of Capital Markets in 2013. Mr. McDade became Treasurer in 2014 and was promoted to Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in 2018.Mr. Snyder serves as Simon’s Assistant General Counsel and Assistant Secretary. Mr. Snyder joined Simon in 2016 as Senior Deputy General Counsel. Immediately prior to joining Simon, Mr. Snyder was Managing Partner of the Crimson Fulcrum Strategic Institute. Mr. Snyder previously served as Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary for Beechcraft Corporation as well as Chief Counsel Mergers & Acquisitions for Koch Industries, Inc. Mr. Snyder was promoted to Assistant General Counsel and Assistant Secretary in 2017. Mr. Reuille serves as Simon’s Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer and prior to that as Simon’s Vice President and Corporate Controller. Mr. Reuille joined Simon in 2009 and was promoted to Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer in 2018.10 Table of ContentsItem 1A.​​23 Table of Contents.

Risk FactorsThe following factors, among others, could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and presented elsewhere by our management from time to time. These factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, funds from operations, or FFO, and prospects, which we refer to herein as a material adverse effect on us or as materially and adversely affecting us, and you should carefully consider them. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or which are currently not believed to be material may also affect our actual results. We may update these factors in our future periodic reports.Summary of Risk FactorsThe following summarizes our material risk factors. However, this summary is not intended to be a comprehensive and complete list of all risk factors identified by the Company. Refer to the following pages of this section for additional details regarding these summarized risk factors and other additional risk factors identified by the Company.●The ongoing novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and governmental restrictions intended to prevent its spread, as well as other future epidemics, pandemics or public health crises, could have a significant negative impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and liquidity and our ability to access the capital markets, satisfy our debt service obligations and make distributions to our shareholders.●Conditions that adversely affect the general retail environment could materially and adversely affect us.●Some of our properties depend on anchor stores or other large nationally recognized tenants to attract shoppers and we could be materially and adversely affected by the loss of one or more of these anchors or tenants.●We face potential adverse effects from tenant bankruptcies.●We face a wide range of competition that could affect our ability to operate profitably, including e-commerce.We face a wide range of competition that could affect our ability to operate profitably. ●Vacant space at our properties could materially and adversely affect us.●We may not be able to lease newly developed properties to or renew leases and relet space at existing properties with an appropriate mix of tenants, if at all.We may not be able to lease newly developed properties or renew leases and relet space at existing properties. ●Our international activities may subject us to risks that are different from or greater than those associated with our domestic operations.●We face risks associated with the acquisition, development, redevelopment and expansion of properties.●We have a substantial debt burden that could affect our future operations.●The agreements that govern our indebtedness contain various covenants that impose restrictions on us that might affect our ability to operate freely.●Disruption in the capital and credit markets may adversely affect our ability to access external financings for our growth and ongoing debt service requirements.●Adverse changes in our credit ratings could affect our borrowing capacity and borrowing terms.●Simon and certain subsidiaries of the Operating Partnership have elected to be taxed as REITs in the United States. The failure to maintain Simon’s or the Subsidiary REITs’ qualifications as REITs or changes in applicable tax laws or regulations could result in adverse tax consequences.●If the Operating Partnership fails to qualify as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, we would cease to qualify as a REIT and suffer other adverse consequences.●Our ownership of TRSs is subject to certain restrictions, and we will be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on certain income or deductions if our transactions with our TRSs are not conducted on arm’s-length terms.●We have limited control with respect to some properties that are partially owned or managed by third parties, which may adversely affect our ability to sell or refinance them. Risks Relating to Joint VenturesWe have limited control with respect to some properties that are partially owned or managed by third parties, which may adversely affect our ability to sell or refinance them. ●The Operating Partnership guarantees debt or otherwise provides support for a number of joint venture properties. The Operating Partnership guarantees debt or otherwise provides support for a number of joint venture properties. 11 Table of Contents●Some of our properties are subject to potential natural or other disasters.Risks Relating to Retail OperationsThe ongoing novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and governmental restrictions intended to prevent its spread, as well as other future epidemics, pandemics or public health crises, could have a significant negative impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and liquidity and our ability to access the capital markets, satisfy our debt service obligations and make distributions to our shareholders.The COVID-19 pandemic has had a material negative impact on economic and market conditions around the world, and, notwithstanding the fact that vaccines are being administered in the United States and elsewhere, the pandemic continues to adversely impact economic activity in retail real estate. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve and governments and other authorities, including where we own or hold interests in properties, have imposed measures intended to control its spread, including restrictions on freedom of movement, group gatherings and business operations such as travel bans, border closings, business closures, quarantines, stay-at-home, shelter-in-place orders, density limitations and social distancing measures. Governments and other authorities are in varying stages of lifting or modifying some of these measures. However, governments and other authorities have already been forced to, and others may in the future, reinstitute these measures or impose new, more restrictive measures, if the risks, or the tenants’ and consumers' perception of the risks, related to the COVID-19 pandemic worsen at any time. Although tenants and consumers have been adapting to the COVID-19 pandemic, with tenants adding services like curbside pickup, and while consumer risk-tolerance is evolving, such adaptations and evolution may take time, and there is no guarantee that retail will return to pre-pandemic levels even once the pandemic subsides.As of December 31, 2021, we owned or held an interest in 199 income-producing properties in the United States located in 37 states and Puerto Rico. We also own an 80% noncontrolling interest in TRG, which has an interest in 24 regional, super-regional, and outlet malls in the U.S. and Asia. Internationally, as of December 31, 2021, we had ownership interests in 33 properties primarily located in Asia, Europe and Canada and have two international outlet properties under development. We have an interest in a European investee that has interests in 11 Designer Outlet properties, as more fully described elsewhere in this Annual Report. As of December 31, 2021, we also owned a 22.4% equity stake in Klépierre SA, or Klépierre, a publicly traded, Paris-based real estate company, which owns, or has an interest in, shopping centers located in 14 countries in Europe.Demand for retail space and the profitability of our properties depends, in part, on the ability and willingness of tenants to enter into and perform obligations under leases. Although the harshest restrictions to prevent the spread of COVID-19 have generally been lifted or reduced, and vaccines are being administered in the United States and elsewhere, the willingness of customers to visit our properties may be reduced and our tenants’ businesses adversely affected, based upon many factors, including local transmission rates, the emergence of new variants, the development, availability, distribution, effectiveness and acceptance of existing and new vaccines, and the effectiveness and availability of cures or treatments. Further, demand could remain reduced due to heightened sensitivity to risks associated with the transmission of COVID-19 or other associated diseases. In addition, some of our properties are located at or within a close proximity to tourist destinations, and these properties and our tenants’ businesses have been, and may be in the future, heavily and adversely impacted by reductions in travel and tourism resulting from travel bans or restrictions and general concern regarding the risk of travel.The continuing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, liquidity and ability to satisfy our debt service obligations and make distributions to our shareholders could depend on additional factors, including:●the financial condition and viability of our tenants, and their ability or willingness to pay rent in full;●state, local, federal and industry-initiated tenant relief efforts that may adversely affect landlords, including us, and their ability to collect rent and/or enforce remedies for the failure to pay rent;●the increased popularity and utilization of e-commerce;●our ability to renew leases or re-lease available space in our properties on favorable terms or at all, including as a result of a deterioration in the economic and market conditions in the markets in which we own properties or due to restrictions intended to prevent the spread of COVID-19, including any additional government mandated closures of businesses that frustrate our leasing activities;12 Table of Contents●a severe and prolonged disruption and instability in the global financial markets, including the debt and equity capital markets, all of which have already been experienced and which may continue to affect our or our tenants' ability to access capital necessary to fund our or their respective business operations or repay, refinance or renew maturing liabilities on a timely basis, on attractive terms, or at all and may adversely affect the valuation of financial assets and liabilities, any of which could affect our and our tenants' ability to meet liquidity and capital expenditure requirements;●a refusal or failure of one or more lenders under our credit facility to fund their respective financing commitment to us may affect our ability to access capital necessary to fund our business operations and to meet our liquidity and capital expenditure requirements;●a reduction in the cash flows generated by our properties and the values of our properties that could result in impairments or limit our ability to dispose of them at attractive prices or obtain debt financing secured by our properties;●the complete or partial closure of one or more of our tenants' manufacturing facilities or distribution centers, temporary or long-term disruption in our tenants' supply chains from local and international suppliers and/or delays in the delivery of our tenants' inventory, any of which could reduce or eliminate our tenants' sales, cause the temporary closure of our tenants' businesses, and/or result in their bankruptcy or insolvency;●a negative impact on consumer discretionary spending caused by high unemployment levels, reduced economic activity or a severe or prolonged recession;●our and our tenants' ability to manage our respective businesses to the extent our and their management or personnel (including on-site employees) are impacted in significant numbers by the COVID-19 pandemic or are otherwise not willing, available or allowed to conduct work, including any impact on our tenants' ability to deliver timely information to us that is necessary for us to make effective decisions; and●our and our tenants' ability to ensure business continuity in the event our or our tenants' continuity of operations plan is (i) not effective or improperly implemented or deployed or (ii) compromised due to increased cyber and remote access activity during the COVID-19 pandemic.To the extent any of these risks and uncertainties adversely impact us in the ways described above or otherwise, they may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described herein.Conditions that adversely affect the general retail environment could materially and adversely affect us.Our concentration in the retail real estate market – our primary source of revenue is retail tenants – means that we could be materially and adversely affected by conditions that materially and adversely affect the retail environment generally, including, without limitation:●levels of consumer spending, changes in consumer confidence, income levels, and fluctuations in seasonal spending in the United States and internationally;●consumers avoiding traveling for shopping due to a heightened level of concern for safety in public places in light of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the potential for civil unrest, including random acts of violence and riots; ●significant reductions in international travel and tourism, resulting in fewer international retail consumers;●consumer perceptions of the convenience and attractiveness of our properties;●the impact on our retail tenants and demand for retail space at our properties from the increasing use of the Internet by retailers and consumers, which has accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic;●the creditworthiness of our retail tenants and the availability of new creditworthy tenants and the related impact on our occupancy levels and lease income;●local real estate conditions, such as an oversupply of, or reduction in demand for, retail space or retail goods, decreases in rental rates and declines in real estate values;●the willingness of retailers to lease space in our properties at attractive rents, or at all;●actual or perceived changes in national and international economic conditions, which can result from global events such as international trade disputes, a foreign debt crisis, foreign currency volatility, natural disasters, war, 13 Table of Contentsepidemics and pandemics, the fear of spread of contagious diseases, civil unrest and terrorism, as well as from domestic issues, such as government policies and regulations, tariffs, energy prices, market dynamics, rising interest rates, inflation and limited growth in consumer income;●changes in regional and local economies, which may be affected by increased rates of unemployment, increased foreclosures, higher taxes, decreased tourism, industry slowdowns, adverse weather conditions, and other factors;●increased operating costs and capital expenditures, whether from redevelopments, replacing tenants or otherwise;●changes in applicable laws and regulations, including tax, environmental, safety and zoning; and●the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and restrictions intended to prevent its spread, which were implemented through a combination of state, local and federal orders and regulations that were put in place with unprecedented speed and with no opportunity for citizens to challenge their legality.Our concentration in the retail real estate market – our primary source of revenue is retail tenants – means that we could be materially and adversely affected by conditions that materially and adversely affect the retail environment generally, including, without limitation:●levels of consumer spending, changes in consumer confidence, income levels, and fluctuations in seasonal spending in the United States and internationally;●consumer perceptions of the safety, convenience and attractiveness of our properties;●the impact on our retail tenants and demand for retail space at our properties from the increasing use of the Internet by retailers and consumers;●the creditworthiness of our retail tenants and the availability of new creditworthy tenants and the related impact on our occupancy levels and lease income;●local real estate conditions, such as an oversupply of, or reduction in demand for, retail space or retail goods, decreases in rental rates and declines in real estate values;●the willingness of retailers to lease space in our properties at attractive rents, or at all;●actual or perceived changes in national and international economic conditions, which can result from global events such as international trade disputes, a foreign debt crisis, foreign currency volatility, natural disasters, war, epidemics and pandemics, the fear of spread of contagious diseases, civil unrest and terrorism, as well as from domestic issues, such as government policies and regulations, tariffs, energy prices, market dynamics, rising interest rates, inflation and limited growth in consumer income;●changes in regional and local economies, which may be affected by increased rates of unemployment, increased foreclosures, higher taxes, decreased tourism, industry slowdowns, adverse weather conditions, and other factors;●increased operating costs and capital expenditures, whether from redevelopments, replacing tenants or otherwise; and●changes in applicable laws and regulations, including tax, environmental, safety and zoning. Additionally, a portion of our lease income is derived from overage rents based on sales over a stated base amount that directly depend on the sales volume of our retail tenants. Accordingly, declines in our tenants’ sales performance could reduce the income produced by our properties.Some of our properties depend on anchor stores or other large nationally recognized tenants to attract shoppers and we could be materially and adversely affected by the loss of one or more of these anchors or tenants.Our properties are typically anchored by department stores and other large nationally recognized tenants. Certain of our anchors and other tenants have ceased their operations, downsized their brick-and-mortar presence or failed to comply with their contractual obligations to us and others, and such actions have become more prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic. Certain of our anchors and other tenants have ceased their operations, downsized their brick-and-mortar presence or failed to comply with their contractual obligations to us and others. Sustained adverse pressure on the results of department stores and other national retailers may have a similarly sustained adverse impact upon our own results. Further, sustained adverse pressure on the results of our department stores and other national retailers may have a similarly sustained adverse impact upon our own results. Certain department stores and other national retailers have experienced, and may continue to experience for the foreseeable future (given uncertainty with respect to current and future macroeconomic conditions and consumer confidence levels), considerable decreases in customer traffic in their retail stores, increased competition from alternative retail options such as those accessible via the Internet and other forms of pressure on their business models. As pressure on these department stores and other national retailers increases, especially due to the COVID-19 pandemic, their ability to maintain their stores, meet their obligations both to us and to their external lenders and suppliers, withstand takeover attempts or avoid bankruptcy and/or liquidation may be impaired and result in closures of their stores or their seeking of a lease modification with us. As pressure on these department stores and other national retailers increases, their ability to maintain their stores, meet their obligations both to us and to their external lenders and suppliers, withstand takeover attempts or avoid bankruptcy and/or liquidation may be impaired and result in closures of their stores or their seeking of a lease modification with us. Any lease modification could be unfavorable to us as the lessor and could decrease current or future effective rents or expense recovery charges. Certain other tenants are entitled to modify the economic or other terms of, or terminate, their existing leases with us in the event of such closures. Other tenants may be entitled to modify the economic or other terms of, or terminate, their existing leases with us in the event of such closures. Additionally, corporate merger or consolidation activity among department stores and other national retailers typically results in the closure of duplicate or geographically overlapping store locations.If a department store or large nationally recognized tenant were to close its stores at our properties, we may experience difficulty and delay and incur significant expense in re-tenanting the space, as well as in leasing spaces in areas adjacent to the vacant store, at attractive rates, or at all. Additionally, department store or tenant closures may result in decreased customer traffic, which could lead to decreased sales at our properties. If the sales of stores operating in our properties were to decline significantly due to the closing of anchor stores or other national retailers, adverse economic conditions or other reasons, tenants may be unable to pay their minimum rents or expense recovery charges. In the event of any default by a tenant, we may not be able to fully recover, and/or may experience delays and costs in enforcing our rights as landlord to recover, amounts due to us under the terms of our leases with such parties.We face potential adverse effects from tenant bankruptcies.Bankruptcy filings by retailers can occur regularly in the course of our operations.Bankruptcy filings by retailers can occur regularly in the course of our operations, and in recent years, a number of companies in the retail industry, including certain of our tenants, have declared bankruptcy. Although we did not see an increase in tenant bankruptcies in 2021, in previous years a number of companies in the retail industry, including certain of our tenants, have declared bankruptcy, and these numbers have increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic. If a tenant files for bankruptcy, the tenant may have the right to reject and terminate one or more of its leases with us, and we cannot be sure that it will affirm one or more of its leases and continue to make rental payments to us in a timely manner. A 14 Table of Contentsbankruptcy filing by, or relating to, one of our tenants would generally prohibit us from evicting this tenant, and bar all efforts by us to collect pre-bankruptcy debts from that tenant, or from their property, unless we receive an order permitting us to do so from the bankruptcy court. A bankruptcy filing by, or relating to, one of our tenants would generally prohibit us from evicting this tenant, and bar all efforts by us to collect pre-bankruptcy debts from that tenant, or from their property, unless we receive an order permitting us to do so from the bankruptcy court. In addition, we cannot evict a tenant solely because of its bankruptcy. If a lease is assumed by the tenant in bankruptcy, all pre-bankruptcy balances due under the lease must be paid to us in full. If a lease is rejected, the unsecured claim we hold against a bankrupt tenant might be paid only to the extent that funds are available and only in the same percentage as is paid to all other holders of unsecured claims, and there are restrictions under bankruptcy laws that limit the amount of the claim we can make if a lease is rejected. As a result, it is likely that we would recover substantially less than the full value of any unsecured claims we hold. In addition, we may make lease modifications either pre- or post-bankruptcy for certain tenants undergoing significant financial distress in order for them to continue as a going concern. Furthermore, we may be required to incur significant expense in re-tenanting the space formerly leased to the bankrupt tenant. We continually seek to re-lease vacant spaces resulting from tenant terminations. The bankruptcy of a tenant, particularly an anchor tenant or a national tenant with multiple locations, may require a substantial redevelopment of its space, the success of which cannot be assured, and may make the re-tenanting of its space difficult and costly. Any such bankruptcies also make it more difficult to lease the remainder of the space at the affected property or properties. Future tenant bankruptcies may strain our resources and impact our ability to successfully execute our re-leasing strategy and could materially and adversely affect us.We face a wide range of competition that could affect our ability to operate profitably, including e-commerce.We face a wide range of competition that could affect our ability to operate profitably. Our properties compete with other forms of retailing such as pure online retail websites as well as other retail properties such as single user freestanding discounters (Costco, Walmart and Target). In addition, many of our tenants are omni-channel retailers who also distribute their products through online sales. Our business currently is predominantly reliant on consumer demand for shopping at physical stores, and we could be materially and adversely affected if we are unsuccessful in adapting our business to evolving consumer purchasing habits. The increased popularity of digital and mobile technologies has accelerated the transition of a percentage of market share from shopping at physical stores to web-based shopping, and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and restrictions intended to prevent its spread have significantly increased the utilization of e-commerce and may, particularly in certain market segments, accelerate the long-term penetration of pure online retail which has been able to sell non-essential goods during the COVID-19 pandemic. Not only has the temporary closure of our retail properties and the restrictions put in place by state, local and federal officials caused consumers who otherwise would have purchased from retailers at our properties to increase their utilization of pure online retail websites, but consumers whose previous use of online retail was low or non-existent have recently turned to pure online retail as a necessity due to the inability to access our properties and the ability to purchase non-essential goods from these pure online retailers. Although a brick-and-mortar presence may have a positive impact on retailers’ online sales, the increased utilization of pure online shopping may lead to the closure of underperforming stores by retailers, which could impact our occupancy levels and the rates that tenants are willing to pay to lease our space. If an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occurs, we could lose all or a portion of the capital we have invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future revenue it could generate but may remain obligated for any mortgage debt or other financial obligation related to the property. Vacant space at our properties could materially and adversely affect us.Certain of our properties have had vacant space available for prospective tenants, and those properties may continue to experience, and other properties may commence experiencing, such oversupply in the future. Among other causes, (1) there has been an increased number of bankruptcies of anchor stores and other national retailers, as well as store closures, and (2) there has been lower demand from retail tenants for space, due to certain retailers increasing their use of e-commerce websites to distribute their merchandise, with each of (1) and (2) accelerating as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Among other causes, (1) there has been an increased number of bankruptcies of anchor stores and other national retailers, as well as store closures, and (2) there has been lower demand from retail tenants for space, due to certain retailers increasing their use of e-commerce websites to distribute their merchandise. As a result of the increased bargaining power of creditworthy retail tenants, there is downward pressure on our rental rates and occupancy levels, and this increased bargaining power may also result in us having to increase our spend on tenant improvements and potentially make other lease modifications in order to attract or retain tenants, any of which, in the aggregate, could materially and adversely affect us.We may not be able to lease newly developed properties to or renew leases and relet space at existing properties with an appropriate mix of tenants, if at all.We may not be able to lease newly developed properties or renew leases and relet space at existing properties. We may not be able to lease new properties to an appropriate mix of tenants that generates optimal customer traffic. Also, when leases for our existing properties expire, the premises may not be relet or the terms of reletting, including the cost of allowances and concessions to tenants may be less favorable than the current lease terms. If we fail to identify and secure the right blend of tenants at our newly developed and existing properties, our properties may not appeal to the communities they serve. If we elect to pursue a “mixed use” redevelopment we expose ourselves to risks associated with each non-retail use (e.g. office, residential, hotel and entertainment), and the performance of our retail tenants in such 15 Table of Contentsproperties may be negatively impacted by delays in opening and/or the performance of such non-retail uses. office, residential, hotel and entertainment), and the performance of our retail tenants in such properties may be negatively impacted by delays in opening and/or the performance of such non-retail uses. To the extent that our leasing goals are not achieved, we could be materially and adversely affected.Risks Relating to Real Estate Investments and OperationsOur international activities may subject us to risks that are different from or greater than those associated with our domestic operations.As of December 31, 2021, we held interests in consolidated and joint venture properties that operate in Austria, Canada, France, Italy, Germany, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, Thailand, and the United Kingdom. We also have an equity stake in Klépierre, a publicly traded European real estate company, which operates in 14 countries in Europe. Accordingly, our operating results and the value of our international operations may be impacted by any unhedged movements in the foreign currencies in which those operations transact and in which our net investment in those international operations is held. While we occasionally enter into hedging agreements to manage our exposure to changes in foreign exchange rates, these agreements may not eliminate foreign currency risk entirely. We may pursue additional investment, ownership, development and redevelopment/expansion opportunities outside the United States. Such international activities carry risks that are different from those we face with our domestic properties and operations. These risks include, but are not limited to:●adverse effects of changes in exchange rates for foreign currencies;●changes in foreign political and economic environments, regionally, nationally, and locally;●impact from international trade disputes and the associated impact on our tenants’ supply chain and consumer spending levels;●challenges of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws, including corporate governance, operations, taxes and litigation;●the risk that we, our employees and/or agents could violate anti-bribery, anti-corruption and international trade laws in the U. These risks include, but are not limited to:●adverse effects of changes in exchange rates for foreign currencies;●changes in foreign political and economic environments, regionally, nationally, and locally;●impact from international trade disputes and the associated impact on our tenants’ supply chain and consumer spending levels;●challenges of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws, including corporate governance, operations, taxes and litigation;●differing lending practices;●differences in cultures and consumer retail behavior;●changes in applicable laws and regulations in the United States that affect international operations;●changes in applicable laws and regulations in these foreign jurisdictions;●difficulties in managing international operations;13 Table of Contents●obstacles to the repatriation of earnings and cash; and●labor discord, political or civil unrest, acts of terrorism, epidemics and pandemics, the fear of spread of contagious diseases, or the threat of international boycotts. S., such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and certain foreign countries, such as the U. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or the FCPA, which generally prohibits U. K. Bribery Act, which could result in criminal or civil sanctions and/or fines, negatively impact our reputation, or require us to incur significant expenses to investigate;●differing lending practices;●differences in cultures and consumer retail behavior;●changes in applicable laws and regulations in the United States that affect international operations;●changes in applicable laws and regulations in these foreign jurisdictions;●difficulties in managing international operations;●obstacles to the repatriation of earnings and cash; and●labor discord, political or civil unrest, acts of terrorism, epidemics and pandemics, including COVID-19, the fear of spread of contagious diseases, or the threat of international boycotts.Our international activities represented approximately 7.1% of consolidated net income and 8.5% of our net operating income, or NOI, for the year ended December 31, 2021. To the extent that we expand our international activities, the above risks could increase in significance, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on us.We face risks associated with the acquisition, development, redevelopment and expansion of properties.We regularly acquire and develop new properties and redevelop and expand existing properties, and these activities are subject to various risks. We may not be successful in pursuing acquisition, development or redevelopment/expansion opportunities. In addition, newly acquired, developed or redeveloped/expanded properties may not perform as well as expected, impacting our anticipated return on investment. We are subject to other risks in connection with any acquisition, development and redevelopment/expansion activities, including the following:●acquisition or construction costs of a project may be higher than projected, potentially making the project unfeasible or unprofitable;16 Table of Contents●development, redevelopment or expansions may take considerably longer than expected, delaying the commencement and amount of income from the property;●we may not be able to obtain financing or to refinance loans on favorable terms, or at all;●we may be unable to obtain zoning, occupancy or other governmental approvals;●occupancy rates and rents may not meet our projections and the project may not be accretive; and●we may need the consent of third parties such as department stores, anchor tenants, mortgage lenders and joint venture partners, and those consents may be withheld. We are subject to other risks in connection with any acquisition, development and redevelopment/expansion activities, including the following:●acquisition or construction costs of a project may be higher than projected, potentially making the project unfeasible or unprofitable;●development, redevelopment or expansions may take considerably longer than expected, delaying the commencement and amount of income from the property;●we may not be able to obtain financing or to refinance loans on favorable terms, or at all;●we may be unable to obtain zoning, occupancy or other governmental approvals;●occupancy rates and rents may not meet our projections and the project may not be accretive; and●we may need the consent of third parties such as department stores, anchor tenants, mortgage lenders and joint venture partners, and those consents may be withheld. If a development or redevelopment/expansion project is unsuccessful, either because it is not meeting our expectations when operational or was not completed according to the project planning, we could lose our investment in the project. Further, if we guarantee the property’s financing, our loss could exceed our investment in the project.In the event that these risks were realized at the same time at multiple properties, we could be materially and adversely affected.Real estate investments are relatively illiquid.Our properties represent a substantial portion of our total consolidated assets. These investments are relatively illiquid. As a result, our ability to sell one or more of our properties or investments in real estate in response to any changes in economic, industry, or other conditions may be limited. The real estate market is affected by many factors, such as general economic conditions, availability and terms of financing, interest rates and other factors, including supply and demand for space, that are beyond our control. If we want to sell a property, we cannot assure you that we will be able to dispose of it in the desired time period, or at all, or that the sales price of a property will be attractive at the relevant time or exceed the carrying value of our investment. Moreover, if a property is mortgaged, we may not be able to obtain a release of the lien on that property without the payment of the associated debt and/or a substantial prepayment penalty, which could restrict our ability to dispose of the property, even though the sale might otherwise be desirable.Risks Relating to Debt and the Financial MarketsWe have a substantial debt burden that could affect our future operations.As of December 31, 2021, our consolidated mortgages and unsecured indebtedness, excluding related premium, discount and debt issuance costs, totaled $25.4 billion.2 billion. As a result of this indebtedness, we are required to use a substantial portion of our cash flows for debt service, including selected repayment at scheduled maturities, which limits our ability to use those cash flows to fund the growth of our business. We are also subject to the risks normally associated with debt financing, including the risk that our cash flows from operations will be insufficient to meet required debt service or that we will be able to refinance such indebtedness on acceptable terms, or at all. Our debt service costs generally will not be reduced if developments at the applicable property, such as the entry of new competitors or the loss of major tenants, cause a reduction in the income from the property. Our debt service costs generally will not be reduced if developments at the applicable property, such as the entry of new competitors or the loss of major tenants, 14 Table of Contentscause a reduction in the income from the property. Our indebtedness could also have other adverse consequences on us, including reducing our access to capital or increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic, industry and market conditions. In addition, if a property is mortgaged to secure payment of indebtedness and income from such property is insufficient to pay that indebtedness, the property could be foreclosed upon by the mortgagee resulting in a loss of income and a decline in our total asset value. If any of the foregoing occurs, we could be materially and adversely affected.The agreements that govern our indebtedness contain various covenants that impose restrictions on us that might affect our ability to operate freely.We have a variety of unsecured debt, including the Credit Facilities, senior unsecured notes and commercial paper, and secured property level debt. Certain of the agreements that govern our indebtedness contain covenants, including, among other things, limitations on our ability to incur secured and unsecured indebtedness, sell all or substantially all of our assets and engage in mergers and certain acquisitions. In addition, certain of the agreements that govern our indebtedness contain financial covenants that require us to maintain certain financial ratios, including certain coverage ratios. These covenants may restrict our ability to pursue certain business initiatives or certain transactions that might otherwise be advantageous to us. In addition, our ability to comply with these provisions might be affected by events beyond our control. Failure to comply with any of our financing covenants could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could accelerate the related indebtedness as well as other of our indebtedness, which could have a material adverse effect on us.17 Table of ContentsDisruption in the capital and credit markets may adversely affect our ability to access external financings for our growth and ongoing debt service requirements.Disruption in the capital and credit markets may adversely affect our ability to access external financings for our growth and ongoing debt service requirements. We depend on external financings, principally debt financings, to fund the growth of our business and to ensure that we can meet ongoing maturities of our outstanding debt. Our access to financing depends on our credit ratings, the willingness of lending institutions and other debt investors to grant credit to us and conditions in the capital markets in general. An economic recession may cause extreme volatility and disruption in the capital and credit markets. We rely upon the Credit Facilities as sources of funding for numerous transactions. Our access to these funds is dependent upon the ability of each of the participants to the Credit Facilities to meet their funding commitments to us. When markets are volatile, access to capital and credit markets could be disrupted over an extended period of time and one or more financial institutions may not have the available capital to meet their previous commitments to us. The failure of one or more participants to the Credit Facilities to meet their funding commitments to us could have a material adverse effect on us, including as a result of making it difficult to obtain the financing we may need for future growth and/or meeting our debt service requirements. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain the financing we need for the future growth of our business or to meet our debt service requirements, or that a sufficient amount of financing will be available to us on favorable terms, or at all.Adverse changes in our credit ratings could affect our borrowing capacity and borrowing terms.The Operating Partnership’s outstanding senior unsecured notes, the Credit Facilities, the Commercial Paper program, and Simon’s preferred stock are periodically rated by nationally recognized credit rating agencies. The credit ratings are based on our operating performance, liquidity and leverage ratios, financial condition and prospects, and other factors viewed by the credit rating agencies as relevant to us and our industry and the economic outlook in general. Our credit ratings can affect the amount of capital we can access, as well as the terms of any financing we obtain. Since we depend primarily on debt financing to fund the growth of our business, an adverse change in our credit ratings, including actual changes and changes in outlook, or even the initiation of a review of our credit ratings that could result in an adverse change, could have a material adverse effect on us.An increase in interest rates would increase our interest costs on variable rate debt and could adversely impact our ability to refinance existing debt on attractive terms, or at all; our hedging interest rate protection arrangements may not effectively limit our interest rate risk.As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately $2.0 billion of outstanding consolidated indebtedness that bears interest at variable rates, and we may incur more variable rate indebtedness in the future.1 million of outstanding consolidated indebtedness that bears interest at variable rates, and we may incur more variable rate indebtedness in the future. If interest rates increase, then so would the interest costs on our unhedged variable rate debt, which could adversely affect our cash flows and our ability to pay principal and interest on our debt and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders. Further, rising interest rates could limit our ability to refinance existing debt when it matures or significantly increase our future interest expense.We selectively manage our exposure to interest rate risk by a combination of interest rate protection agreements to effectively fix or cap all or a portion of our variable rate debt. In addition, we refinance fixed rate debt at times when we believe rates and other terms are appropriate. Our efforts to manage these exposures may not be successful.Our use of interest rate hedging arrangements to manage risk associated with interest rate volatility may expose us to additional risks, including a risk that a counterparty to a hedging arrangement may fail to honor its obligations or that we could be required to fund our contractual payment obligations under such arrangements in relatively large amounts or on short notice.15 Table of ContentsOur use of interest rate hedging arrangements to manage risk associated with interest rate volatility may expose us to additional risks, including a risk that a counterparty to a hedging arrangement may fail to honor its obligations or that we could be required to fund our contractual payment obligations under such arrangements in relatively large amounts or on short notice. Developing an effective interest rate risk strategy is complex and no strategy can completely insulate us from risks associated with interest rate fluctuations. There can be no assurance that our hedging activities will have the desired beneficial impact on our results of operations, liquidity and financial condition. Termination of these hedging agreements typically involves costs, such as transaction fees or breakage costs.We may be adversely affected by developments in the London Inter-bank Offered Rate (LIBOR) market, changes in the methods by which LIBOR is determined or the use of alternative reference rates.As of December 31, 2021, approximately 2.As of December 31, 2019, approximately 2. 0% or $501.4 million of our debt outstanding was indexed to LIBOR.4% or $573 million of our debt outstanding was indexed to LIBOR. In 2021 we amended the Credit Facility and the Supplemental Facility to transition the borrowing rates from LIBOR to successor benchmark indexes. In 2017, the U. In July 2017, the U. K. Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”) announced that it intends to phase out LIBOR, and in 2021, it announced that all LIBOR settings will either cease to be provided by any administrator or no longer be representative immediately after December 31, 2021, in the case of 1 week and 2 month USD setting, and immediately after June 30, 2023, in the case of the remaining USD settings. The U.S. Federal Reserve (the “Federal Reserve”) has also advised banks to cease entering into new contracts that use USD LIBOR as a reference rate. The Alternative Refinance Rate Committee, a committee convened by the Federal Reserve that includes major market 18 Table of Contentsparticipants, has identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements, backed by U.S. Treasury securities, as its preferred alternative rate for LIBOR in the U.S. Working groups formed by financial regulators in other jurisdictions, including the U.K., the European Union, Japan and Switzerland, have also recommended alternatives to LIBOR denominated in their local currencies. Although SOFR appears to be the preferred replacement rate for USD LIBOR, it is unclear if other benchmarks may emerge or if other rates will be adopted outside of the United States. At this time, it is not possible to predict how markets will respond to SOFR or other alternative reference rates as the transition away from the LIBOR benchmark is anticipated in coming years. Accordingly, the outcome of these reforms is uncertain and any changes in the methods by which LIBOR is determined or regulatory activity related to LIBOR’s phaseout could cause LIBOR to perform differently than in the past or cease to exist. The consequences of these developments cannot be entirely predicted, and there can be no assurance that they will not result in financial market disruptions, significant increases in benchmark interest rates, substantially higher financing costs or a shortage of available debt financing, any of which could have an adverse effect on us, which currently would be limited by our relatively low exposure to variable rate LIBOR-based debt. As a result, there can be no assurance that any of the aforementioned developments or changes will not result in financial market disruptions, significant increases in benchmark interest rates, substantially higher financing costs or a shortage of available debt financing, any of which could have an adverse effect on us, which currently would be limited by our relatively low exposure to variable rate LIBOR-based debt. Risks Relating to Income TaxesSimon and certain subsidiaries of the Operating Partnership have elected to be taxed as REITs in the United States. The failure to maintain Simon’s or the Subsidiary REITs’ qualifications as REITs or changes in applicable tax laws or regulations could result in adverse tax consequences. In the United States, Simon and certain subsidiaries of the Operating Partnership have elected to be taxed as REITs under Sections 856 through 860 of the Internal Revenue Code. We believe that Simon and these subsidiaries, or the Subsidiary REITs, have been organized and have operated in a manner which allows them to qualify for taxation as REITs under the Internal Revenue Code. We intend to continue to operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as REITs depend upon the ability of Simon and the Subsidiary REITs to satisfy several requirements (some of which are outside our control), including tests related to our annual operating results, asset diversification, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. The various REIT qualification tests required by the Internal Revenue Code are highly technical and complex. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that Simon or any of the Subsidiary REITs has operated in accordance with these requirements or will continue to operate in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT.If Simon or any of the Subsidiary REITs fail to comply with those provisions, Simon or any such Subsidiary REIT may be subject to monetary penalties or ultimately to possible disqualification as REITs. If such events occur, and if available relief provisions do not apply:●Simon or any such subsidiary will not be allowed a deduction for distributions to stockholders in computing taxable income;●Simon or any such subsidiary will be subject to corporate-level income tax on taxable income at the corporate rate; ●Simon or any such Subsidiary REIT could be subject to the federal alternative minimum tax for taxable years prior to 2018; and●unless entitled to relief under relevant statutory provisions, Simon or any such subsidiary will also be disqualified from treatment as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification was lost. If such events occur, and if available relief provisions do not apply:●Simon or any such subsidiary will not be allowed a deduction for distributions to stockholders in computing taxable income;16 Table of Contents●Simon or any such subsidiary will be subject to corporate-level income tax on taxable income at the corporate rate; ●Simon or any such Subsidiary REIT could be subject to the federal alternative minimum tax for taxable years prior to 2018; and●unless entitled to relief under relevant statutory provisions, Simon or any such subsidiary will also be disqualified from treatment as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification was lost. Any such corporate tax liability could be substantial and would reduce the amount of cash available for, among other things, our operations and distributions to stockholders. In addition, if Simon fails to qualify as a REIT, it will not be required to make distributions to our stockholders. Moreover, a failure by any subsidiary of the Operating Partnership that has elected to be taxed as a REIT to qualify as a REIT would also cause Simon to fail to qualify as a REIT, and the same adverse consequences would apply to it and its stockholders. Failure by Simon or any of the Subsidiary REITs to qualify as a REIT also could impair our ability to expand our business and raise capital, which could materially and adversely affect us.Additionally, we are subject to certain income-based taxes, both domestically and internationally, and other taxes, including state and local taxes, franchise taxes, and withholding taxes on dividends from certain of our international 19 Table of Contentsinvestments. We currently follow local tax laws and regulations in various domestic and international jurisdictions. Should these laws or regulations change, the amount of taxes we pay may increase accordingly.If the Operating Partnership fails to qualify as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, we would cease to qualify as a REIT and suffer other adverse consequences.We believe that the Operating Partnership is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. As a partnership, the Operating Partnership is not subject to federal income tax on its income. Instead, each of its partners, including us, is allocated, and may be required to pay tax with respect to, such partner’s share of its income. We cannot assure you that the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, will not challenge the status of the Operating Partnership or any other subsidiary partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest as a disregarded entity or partnership for federal income tax purposes, or that a court would not sustain such a challenge. If the IRS were successful in treating the Operating Partnership or any such other subsidiary as an entity taxable as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, we would fail to meet the gross income tests and certain of the asset tests applicable to REITs and, accordingly, we would likely cease to qualify as a REIT. Also, the failure of the Operating Partnership or any subsidiary partnerships or limited liability company to qualify as a disregarded entity or partnership for applicable income tax purposes could cause it to become subject to federal and state corporate income tax, which would reduce significantly the amount of cash available for debt service and for distribution to its partners or members, including us.Our ownership of TRSs is subject to certain restrictions, and we will be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on certain income or deductions if our transactions with our TRSs are not conducted on arm’s-length terms.We own securities in taxable REIT subsidiaries, or TRSs, and may acquire securities in additional TRSs in the future. A TRS is a corporation other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. If a TRS owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a TRS. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a TRS may generally engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT. A TRS is subject to federal income tax as a regular C corporation. In addition, a 100% excise tax will be imposed on certain transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT that are not conducted on an arm’s length basis.A REIT’s ownership of securities of a TRS is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset tests applicable to REITs. Not more than 25% of the value of Simon’s or any Subsidiary REIT’s total assets may be represented by securities (including securities of TRSs), other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test, and not more than 20% of the value of our total assets or the assets of any Subsidiary REIT may be represented by securities of TRSs. We anticipate that the aggregate value of the stock and securities of any TRS and other nonqualifying assets that Simon or each such Subsidiary REIT owns will be less than 25% (or 20%, as applicable) of the value of Simon’s or such subsidiary’s total assets, and we will monitor the value of these investments to ensure compliance with applicable ownership limitations. In addition, we intend to structure transactions with any TRSs that we own to ensure that they are entered into on arm’s length terms to avoid incurring the 100% excise tax described above. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to comply with the above limitations or to avoid application of the 100% excise tax discussed above.Dividends payable by REITs generally do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends, which may negatively affect the value of our shares.17 Table of ContentsDividends payable by REITs generally do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends, which may negatively affect the value of our shares. Income from “qualified dividends” payable to U.S. stockholders that are individuals, trusts and estates are generally subject to tax at preferential rates, currently at a maximum federal rate of 20%. Dividends payable by REITs, however, generally are not eligible for the preferential tax rates applicable to qualified dividend income. Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the TCJA, however, U.S. stockholders that are individuals, trusts and estates generally may deduct up to 20% of the ordinary dividends (e.g., dividends not designated as capital gain dividends or qualified dividend income) received from a REIT for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. Although this deduction reduces the effective tax rate applicable to certain dividends paid by REITs (generally to 29.6% assuming the shareholder is subject to the 37% maximum rate), such tax rate is still higher than the tax rate applicable to corporate dividends that constitute qualified dividend income. Accordingly, investors who are individuals, trusts and estates may perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay dividends, which could materially and adversely affect the value of the shares of REITs, including the per share trading price of our common stock.The tax imposed on REITs engaging in “prohibited transactions” may limit our ability to engage in transactions which would be treated as sales for U.S. federal income tax purposes.A REIT’s net income from prohibited transactions is subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, prohibited transactions 20 Table of Contentsare sales or other dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. In general, prohibited transactions are sales or other dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. Although we do not intend to hold any properties that would be characterized as held for sale to customers in the ordinary course of our business, unless a sale or disposition qualifies under certain statutory safe harbors, such characterization is a factual determination and no guarantee can be given that the IRS, would agree with our characterization of our properties or that we will always be able to make use of the available safe harbors.REIT distribution requirements could adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to execute our business plan.In order for Simon and the Subsidiary REITs to qualify to be taxed as REITs, and assuming that certain other requirements are also satisfied, Simon and each such Subsidiary REIT generally must distribute at least 90% of their respective REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding any net capital gains, to their respective equity holders each year. To this point, Simon and each such Subsidiary REIT have historically distributed at least 100% of its taxable income and thereby avoided income tax altogether. To the extent that Simon or any such Subsidiary REIT satisfies this distribution requirement and qualifies for taxation as a REIT, but distributes less than 100% of its REIT taxable income, Simon or such subsidiary will be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on its undistributed net taxable income and could be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax if the actual amount that is distributed to equity holders in a calendar year is less than the minimum required distribution amount. We intend to make distributions to the equity holders of Simon and the Subsidiary REITs to comply with the REIT requirements of the Internal Revenue Code.From time to time, Simon and the Subsidiary REITs might generate taxable income greater than their respective cash flow as a result of differences in timing between the recognition of taxable income and the actual receipt of cash or the effect of nondeductible capital expenditures, the creation of reserves, or required debt or amortization payments. If Simon or the Subsidiary REITs do not have other funds available in these situations, Simon or such subsidiaries could be required to access capital on unfavorable terms (the receipt of which cannot be assured), sell assets at disadvantageous prices, distribute amounts that would otherwise be invested in future acquisitions, capital expenditures or repayment of debt, or make taxable distributions of capital stock or debt securities to make distributions sufficient to enable them to pay out enough of their respective REIT taxable income to satisfy the REIT distribution requirement and avoid corporate income tax and the 4% excise tax in a particular year. These alternatives could increase costs or reduce our equity. Further, amounts distributed will not be available to fund the growth of our business. Thus, compliance with the REIT requirements may adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to execute our business plan.Complying with REIT requirements might cause us to forgo otherwise attractive acquisition opportunities or liquidate otherwise attractive investments.To qualify to be taxed as REITs for U.S. federal income tax purposes, Simon and the Subsidiary REITs must ensure that, at the end of each calendar quarter, at least 75% of the value of their respective assets consist of cash, cash items, government securities and “real estate assets” (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code), including certain mortgage loans and securities. The remainder of their respective investments (other than government securities, qualified real estate assets and securities issued by a TRS) generally cannot include more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer or more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. The remainder of their respective investments (other than government securities, qualified real estate assets and securities issued by a TRS) generally cannot include more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one 18 Table of Contentsissuer or more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. Additionally, in general, no more than 5% of the value of Simon’s and the Subsidiary REITs’ total assets (other than government securities, qualified real estate assets and securities issued by a TRS) can consist of the securities of any one issuer, and no more than 20% of the value of their respective total assets can be represented by securities of one or more TRSs. If Simon or any of the Subsidiary REITs fails to comply with these requirements at the end of any calendar quarter, Simon or any such Subsidiary REIT must correct the failure within 30 days after the end of the calendar quarter or qualify for certain statutory relief provisions to avoid losing its REIT qualification and suffering adverse tax consequences. As a result, we might be required to liquidate or forgo otherwise attractive investments. These actions could have the effect of reducing our income and amounts available for distribution to equity holders. Moreover, if Simon or the Subsidiary REITs are compelled to liquidate their investments to meet any of the asset, income or distribution tests, or to repay obligations to lenders, Simon or such subsidiaries may be unable to comply with one or more of the requirements applicable to REITs or may be subject to a 100% tax on any resulting gain if such sales constitute prohibited transactions.In addition to the asset tests set forth above, to qualify to be taxed as REITs, Simon and the Subsidiary REITs must continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the sources of their respective income, the amounts they distribute to equity holders and the ownership of their respective shares. We might be unable to pursue investments that would be otherwise advantageous to us in order to satisfy the source-of-income or asset-diversification requirements for qualifying as REITs. Thus, compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder our ability to make certain attractive investments.21 Table of ContentsPartnership tax audit rules could have a material adverse effect on us.The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 changed the rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships. Under the rules, among other changes and subject to certain exceptions, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, or penalties attributable thereto could be assessed and collected, at the partnership level. Absent available elections, it is possible that a partnership in which we directly or indirectly invest, could be required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of these partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest, and penalties even though Simon and the Subsidiary REITs, as REITs, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate-level taxes had they owned the assets of the partnership directly. The partnership tax audit rules apply to the Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries that are classified as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The changes created by these rules are sweeping and, accordingly, there can be no assurance that these rules will not have a material adverse effect on us. Legislative, administrative, regulatory or other actions affecting REITs, including positions taken by the IRS, could have a material adverse effect on us and our investors.The rules dealing with U.S. federal income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process, and by the IRS and the U.S. Department of the Treasury, or the Treasury. Changes to the tax laws or interpretations thereof by the IRS and the Treasury, with or without retroactive application, could materially and adversely affect us and our investors. New legislation (including the TCJA, and any technical corrections legislation), Treasury regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions could significantly and negatively affect the ability of Simon and certain subsidiaries of the Operating Partnership to qualify to be taxed as REITs and/or the U.S. federal income tax consequences to us and our investors of such qualification.The TCJA has significantly changed the U.S. federal income taxation of U.S. businesses and their owners, including REITs and their stockholders. A change made by the TCJA that could affect us and our stockholders is that it generally limits the deduction for net business interest expense in excess of 30% of a business’s adjusted taxable income except for taxpayers that engage in certain real estate businesses and elect out of this rule (provided that such electing taxpayers must use an alternative depreciation system for certain property). Risks Relating to Joint VenturesWe have limited control with respect to some properties that are partially owned or managed by third parties, which may adversely affect our ability to sell or refinance them.As of December 31, 2021, we owned interests in 101 income-producing properties with other parties. Of those, 17 properties are included in our consolidated financial statements. We apply the equity method of accounting to the other 84 properties (the joint venture properties) and our investments in Klépierre (a publicly traded, Paris-based real estate company) and The Taubman Realty Group, LLC, or TRG, as well as our investments in certain entities involved in retail operations, such as J.C. Penney and SPARC Group; intellectual property and licensing ventures, such as Authentic Brands Group, LLC, or ABG, and Eddie Bauer Ipco; and an e-commerce venture Rue Gilt Groupe, or RGG, (collectively, our other platform investments). We serve as general partner or property manager for 53 of these 84 joint venture properties; however, certain major decisions, such as approving the operating budget and selling, refinancing, and redeveloping the properties, require the consent of the other owners. We serve as general partner or property manager for 57 of these 82 joint venture properties; however, certain major decisions, such as approving the operating budget and selling, refinancing, and redeveloping the properties, require the consent of the other owners. Of the joint venture properties for which we do not serve as general partner or property manager, 23 are in our international joint ventures. These international properties are managed locally by joint ventures in which we share control of the properties with our partner. The other owners have participating rights that we consider substantive for purposes of determining control over the joint venture properties’ assets. The remaining joint venture properties, Klépierre, TRG, and our joint ventures with ABG, J. The remaining joint venture properties, Klépierre, and our joint ventures with Aéropostale, ABG, HBS, and RGG, are managed by third parties. C. Penney, RGG, and SPARC Group are managed by third parties.These investments, and other future similar investments, could involve risks that would not be present were a third party not involved, including the possibility that partners or other owners might become bankrupt, suffer a deterioration in their creditworthiness, or fail to fund their share of required capital contributions. If one of our partners or other owners in these investments were to become bankrupt, we may be precluded from taking certain actions regarding our investments without prior court approval, which at a minimum may delay the actions we would or might want to take. Additionally, partners or other owners could have economic or other business interests or goals that are inconsistent with our own business interests or goals, and could be in a position to take actions contrary to our policies or objectives.These investments, and other future similar investments, also have the potential risk of creating impasses on 22 Table of Contentsdecisions, such as a sale, financing or development, because neither we nor our partner or other owner has full control over the partnership or joint venture.These investments, and other future similar investments, also have the potential risk of creating impasses on decisions, such as a sale, financing or development, because neither we nor our partner or other owner has full control over the partnership or joint venture. Disputes between us and partners or other owners might result in litigation or arbitration that could increase our expenses and prevent Simon’s officers and/or directors from focusing their time and efforts on our business. Consequently, actions by, or disputes with, partners or other owners might result in subjecting properties owned by the partnership or joint venture to additional risk. In addition, we risk the possibility of being liable for the actions of our partners or other owners. The Operating Partnership guarantees debt or otherwise provides support for a number of joint venture properties.Joint venture debt is the liability of the joint venture and is typically secured by a mortgage on the joint venture property, which is non-recourse to us. Nevertheless, the joint venture’s failure to satisfy its debt obligations could result in the loss of our investment therein. As of December 31, 2021, the Operating Partnership guaranteed joint venture-related mortgage indebtedness of $209.9 million.8 million). A default by a joint venture under its debt obligations would expose us to liability under a guaranty. We may elect to fund cash needs of a joint venture through equity contributions (generally on a basis proportionate to our ownership interests), advances or partner loans, although such fundings are not typically required contractually or otherwise. Risks Relating to Environmental MattersAs owners of real estate, we can face liabilities for environmental contamination, and our efforts to identify environmental liabilities may not be successful.Many of our properties contain, or at one time contained, asbestos containing materials or underground storage tanks (primarily related to auto service center establishments or emergency electrical generation equipment), and as a result we may be subject to regulatory action in connection with U.S. federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to hazardous or toxic substances. We may also be held liable to third parties for personal injury or property damage incurred by the parties in connection with any such substances. The costs of investigation, removal or remediation of hazardous or toxic substances, and related liabilities, may be substantial and could materially and adversely affect us. The presence of hazardous or toxic substances, or the failure to remediate the related contamination, may also adversely affect our ability to sell, lease or redevelop a property or to borrow money using a property as collateral.Although we believe that our portfolio is in substantial compliance with U.S. federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations regarding hazardous or toxic substances, this belief is based on limited testing. Nearly all of our properties have been subjected to Phase I or similar environmental audits. These environmental audits have not revealed, nor are we aware of, any environmental liability that we believe is reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on us. However, we cannot assure you that:●previous environmental studies with respect to the portfolio reveal all potential environmental liabilities;●any previous owner, occupant or tenant of a property did not create any material environmental condition not known to us;●the current environmental condition of the portfolio will not be affected by tenants and occupants, by the condition of nearby properties, or by other unrelated third parties; or●future uses or conditions (including, without limitation, changes in applicable environmental laws and regulations or the interpretation thereof) will not result in environmental liabilities.We face risks associated with climate change.Due to changes in weather patterns caused by climate change, our properties in certain markets could experience increases in storm intensity and rising sea levels.To the extent climate change causes changes in weather patterns, our properties in certain markets could experience increases in storm intensity and rising sea levels. Over time, climate change could result in volatile or decreased demand for retail space at certain of our properties or, in extreme cases, our inability to operate the properties at all. Over time, these conditions could result in volatile or decreased demand for retail space at certain of our properties or, in extreme cases, our inability to operate the properties at all. Climate change may also have indirect effects on our business by increasing the cost of (or making unavailable) insurance on favorable terms, or at all, increasing the cost of energy at our properties or requiring us to spend funds to repair and protect our properties against such risks. Moreover, compliance with new laws or regulations related to climate change, including compliance with “green” building codes, may require us to make improvements to our existing properties or increase taxes and fees assessed on us or our properties.23 Table of ContentsSome of our properties are subject to potential natural or other disasters.A number of our properties are located in areas subject to a higher risk of natural disasters such as earthquakes, fires, hurricanes, floods, tornados, hail or tsunamis. The occurrence of natural disasters, which could become more intense and more volatile in light of climate change, can adversely impact operations and development/redevelopment projects at our properties, increase investment costs to repair or replace damaged properties, increase future property insurance costs and negatively impact the tenant demand for lease space. The occurrence of natural disasters can adversely impact operations and development/redevelopment projects at our properties, increase investment costs to repair or replace damaged properties, increase future property insurance costs and negatively impact the tenant demand for lease space. If insurance is unavailable to us or is unavailable on acceptable terms, or our insurance is not adequate to cover losses from these events, we could be materially and adversely affected.Other Factors Affecting Our BusinessSome of our potential losses may not be covered by insurance.We maintain insurance coverage with third-party carriers who provide a portion of the coverage for specific layers of potential losses, including commercial general liability, fire, flood, extended coverage and rental loss insurance on all of our properties in the United States as well as cyber coverage. The initial portion of coverage, excess of policy deductibles, not provided by third-party carriers is either insured through our wholly-owned captive insurance company or other financial arrangements controlled by us. The initial portion of coverage not provided by third-party carriers is either insured through our wholly-owned captive insurance company or other financial arrangements controlled by us. A third party carrier has, in turn, agreed to provide, if required, evidence of coverage for this layer of losses under the terms and conditions of the carrier’s policy. A similar policy either written through our captive insurance company or other financial arrangements controlled by us also provides initial coverage for property insurance and certain windstorm risks at the properties located in coastal windstorm locations.There are some types of losses, including lease and other contract claims, which generally are not insured or are subject to large deductibles. If an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occurs, we could lose all or a portion of the capital we have invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future revenue it could generate but may remain obligated for any mortgage debt or other financial obligation related to the property.We currently maintain insurance coverage against acts of terrorism on all of our properties in the United States on an “all risk” basis in the amount of up to $1 billion. Despite the existence of this insurance coverage, any threatened or actual terrorist attacks where we operate could materially and adversely affect our property values, revenues, consumer traffic and tenant sales. Despite the existence of this insurance coverage, any threatened or actual terrorist attacks where we operate could materially and adversely affect us. We face risks associated with security breaches through cyber‑attacks, cyber intrusions or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of our information technology (IT) networks and related systems.21 Table of ContentsWe face risks associated with security breaches through cyber‑attacks, cyber intrusions or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of our information technology (IT) networks and related systems. Our IT networks and related systems are essential to the operation of our business and our ability to perform day-to-day operations and, in some cases, may be critical to the operations of certain of our tenants. We face risks associated with security breaches, whether through cyber-attacks or cyber intrusions over the Internet, malware, computer viruses, hardware or software corruption or failure or poor product or vendor/developer selection (including a failure of security controls incorporated into or applied to such hardware or software), service provider error or failure, intentional or unintentional actions by employees (including the failure to follow our security protocols) and other significant disruptions of our IT networks and related systems. Although we make efforts to maintain the security and integrity of these types of IT networks and related systems, and we have implemented various measures to manage the risk of a security breach or disruption, there can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Even the most well protected information, networks, systems and facilities remain potentially vulnerable because the techniques used in such attempted security breaches evolve and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, and in some cases are designed not to be detected and, in fact, may not be detected. Accordingly, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures, and thus it is impossible for us to entirely mitigate this risk.The risk of a security breach or significant disruption has generally increased due to our increased reliance on technology, a rise in the number, intensity, and sophistication of attempted attacks globally, and the remote working environment throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.The risk of a security breach or significant disruption has generally increased due to our increased reliance on technology and due to a rise in the number, intensity, and sophistication of attempted attacks globally. A breach or significant and extended disruption in the functioning of our systems, including our primary website, could damage our reputation and cause us to lose customers, tenants and revenues, generate third party claims, cause operational disruption, result in the unintended and/or unauthorized public disclosure or the misappropriation of proprietary, personal identifying and confidential information, and require us to incur significant expenses to address and remediate or otherwise resolve these kinds of issues. We may not be able to recover these expenses in whole or in any part from our service providers or responsible parties, or their or our insurers. Additionally, cyber-attacks perpetrated against our tenants, including unauthorized access to customers’ credit card data and other confidential information, could diminish consumer confidence and spending and materially and adversely affect us.24 Table of ContentsOur success depends, in part, on our ability to attract and retain talented employees, and the loss of any one of our key personnel could adversely impact our business.Our success depends, in part, on our ability to attract and retain talented employees, and the loss of any one of our key personnel could adversely impact our business. The success of our business depends, in part, on the leadership and performance of our executive management team and key employees, including our CEO, who operate without the existence of employment agreements.The success of our business depends, in part, on the leadership and performance of our executive management team and key employees, and our ability to attract, retain and motivate talented employees could significantly impact our future performance. Many of our senior executives have extensive experience and strong reputations in the real estate industry, which aid us in identifying opportunities and negotiating with tenants. Our ability to attract, retain and motivate talented employees could significantly impact our future performance. Competition for these individuals is intense, and we cannot assure you that we will retain our executive management team and other key employees or that we will be able to attract and retain other highly qualified individuals for these positions in the future. Losing any one or more of these persons could adversely affect our business, diminish our opportunities and weaken our relationships with lenders, business partners, existing and prospective tenants and others, which could have a material adverse effect on us.Provisions in Simon’s charter and by‑laws and in the Operating Partnership’s partnership agreement could prevent a change of control.Simon’s charter contains a general restriction on the accumulation of shares in excess of 8% of its capital stock. The charter permits the members of the Simon family and related persons to own up to 18% of Simon’s capital stock. Ownership is determined by the lower of the number of outstanding shares, voting power or value controlled. Simon’s Board of Directors may, by majority vote, permit exceptions to those levels in circumstances where Simon’s Board of Directors determines that Simon’s ability to qualify as a REIT will not be jeopardized. These restrictions on ownership may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control that might otherwise be in the best interest of Simon’s stockholders or the Operating Partnership’s unitholders or preferred unitholders. Other provisions of Simon’s charter and by-laws could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control even if some of Simon’s stockholders or the Operating Partnership’s unitholders or preferred unitholders deem such a change to be in their best interests. These include provisions preventing holders of Simon’s common stock from acting by written consent and requiring that up to four directors in the aggregate may be elected by holders of Class B common stock. In addition, certain provisions of the Operating Partnership’s partnership agreement could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control. These include a provision requiring the consent of a majority in interest of units in order for Simon, as general partner of the Operating Partnership, to, among other matters, engage in a merger transaction or sell all or substantially all of its assets. Item 1B. Item 1B. Unresolved Staff CommentsNone.​​25 Table of Contents.
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