Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - MNTS

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ITEM 1A. Risk Factors
Investing in our securities involves risks. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before deciding whether to purchase any of our securities. Our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects could also be harmed by risks and uncertainties that are not presently known to us or that we currently believe are not material. If any of these risks actually occur, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. Unless otherwise indicated, references in these risk factors to our business being harmed will include harm to our business, reputation, brand, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. In such event, the market price of our securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this subsection to the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to Momentus and its subsidiaries.
Risks Related to the Business and Industry of Momentus
We have a history of delivering customer satellites into orbit using our service vehicles since 2022, however setbacks experienced during our future missions and other demonstration and commercial missions could have a
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material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation and could harm our reputation.
The success of our in-space infrastructure services business will depend on our ability to successfully and regularly deliver customer satellites to custom orbits. Our initial mission in May 2022 with Vigoride 3 was a hybrid commercial-demonstration mission in which our vehicles would deliver paying customers’ satellites into orbit for the first time. Our initial mission in May 2022 was a hybrid commercial-demonstration mission in which our vehicles would deliver paying customers’ satellites into orbit for the first time. We used a third-party deployer from a partner company to place our first customer satellite in orbit. Our Vigoride spacecraft reached low-earth orbit and was able to deploy two out of nine customer satellites, but certain anomalies relating primarily to its power systems limited our ability to communicate with and control the vehicle. Since that time, the Vigoride spacecraft has deployed five additional customer satellites, but we have been unable to confirm the deployment of the remaining two customer satellites. The issues have also prevented Vigoride from performing orbit change maneuvers and technology demonstrations that were part of our program to validate our technology in space, and to demonstrate end-to-end in-space transfer and service operations. The communication issues have also prevented Vigoride from performing orbit change maneuvers and technology demonstrations that were part of our program to validate our technology in space, and to demonstrate end-to-end in-space transfer and service operations.
We used the Vigoride 5 and Vigoride 6 missions to conduct on-orbit functional testing for the MET and other system elements which were used to assess the performance of the individual components and the overall system. Like the ground test campaigns we conduct, on-orbit tests can be understood as incremental confidence-building measures — meeting key requirements for thrust, specific impulse, firing duration, lifetime and other performance parameters will help Momentus determine whether the MET is performing in accordance with our expectations. Doing so repeatedly, both on the ground and on orbit, will demonstrate the soundness and robustness of the MET design and is expected to contribute to growing customer confidence over time.
We are mindful of the inherent risks involved in the initial use of hardware and complex systems in space given the difficulties of replicating all aspects of the environment and stresses that the system will experience in space during ground-based testing in simulated environments.
While we conducted analysis of the root causes of all anomalies experienced during the three missions, there can be no assurance that we will not experience operational or process failures and other problems any future missions. Any failures, delays, or setbacks, including anomalies experienced in our current or future mission, could harm our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results. Any failures, delays or setbacks, including anomalies experienced in our current or future mission, could harm our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results.
We may not receive all required governmental licenses and approvals.
The FAA denied a payload review application in May 2021 due to interagency concerns related to our foreign ownership and corporate structure. The FAA denial notice indicated that Momentus was engaged in addressing the government’s national security concerns and that the FAA could reconsider the application once that process is complete. As discussed elsewhere in this report, in May 2022 we received a favorable determination from the FAA of its application for payload review for our inaugural Vigoride mission (Vigoride 3).
U.S. government agencies other than the agency to which we apply to for a license or approval may review our applications to the FCC, FAA, or other regulatory authorities, including to evaluate the national security implications of an application, which could result in delays. For example, in November 2020, the Committee for the Assessment of Foreign Participation in the United States Telecommunications Service Sector (the “Committee”) requested to review two of our FCC license applications to determine whether approval posed a risk to the national security or law enforcement interests of the United States. While in that instance, the Committee withdrew its request for review without explanation, it is possible that reviews of applications for licenses or approvals by the Committee or other regulatory bodies may occur in the future. Such reviews could delay the issuance of, or result in a denial of, licenses or approvals.
No assurance can be given that we will obtain FAA or FCC authorizations or other authorizations that may be necessary to our business in a timely manner.No assurance can be given that we will obtain FAA or FCC authorizations or other authorizations that may be necessary to our business in a timely manner, especially in light of the ongoing US government oversight of Momentus discussed under “Business — Regulatory — National Security Agreement” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Moreover, there is no guarantee that the FCC, the FAA and other U.S. government agencies will grant the necessary authorizations to operate our spaceflight business as planned. If we do not receive these approvals in a timely manner, our financial condition, results of operations, backlog and prospects will be materially adversely affected.
We have incurred significant losses since inception, we expect to incur losses in the future, and we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability.
We have incurred significant losses since inception. We incurred operating losses of $68.2 million and $91.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. We incurred operating losses of $91.3 million and $99.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. There is a risk that we may not achieve profitability when expected, or at all, and even if we do, we may not be able to maintain or increase profitability.
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Any failure to increase our revenue sufficiently to keep pace with our investments and other expenses, or if we have future negative cash flow or losses resulting from the operation of our business, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We will require substantial additional funding to finance our operations, but adequate additional financing may not be available when we need it, on acceptable terms or at all.
Momentus had cash and cash equivalents of $2.1 million as of December 31, 2023. Execution of our longer-term business plan will require that the Company raise additional capital. Our ability to raise additional capital is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties outside of our control, such as the state of the capital markets generally, and there can be no assurance that we will be successful at raising additional capital when we need it, on acceptable terms or at all.
To raise additional funding, we may sell equity securities or debt securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner as we may determine from time to time. If we sell any such securities in subsequent transactions, our current investors may be materially diluted. Any debt financing, if available, may involve restrictive covenants and could reduce our operational flexibility or profitability.
During the year ended December 31, 2022, we entered into an at-the-market equity offering sales agreement with a sales agent which allows the Company to sell, through the sales agent, using at-the-market offerings, shares of Class A common stock up to an aggregate offer price of up to $50.0 million. However, as of the date of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we have not sold any shares under the agreement.
We also sold certain shares of Class A common stock, pre-funded warrants, and warrants (in addition to amending the terms thereof in certain cases) in various registered direct offering transactions with an institutional investor. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for additional information. See Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for more information.
We have taken steps and are also exploring additional options that would reduce the Company’s cash expenditures, but regardless of the success of these efforts we will need to raise additional capital in order to execute our longer-term business plan. We have taken steps and are also exploring additional options that would reduce the Company’s cash expenditures, but regardless of the success of these efforts we will need to raise additional capital in order to execute our longer-term business plan. If we cannot raise funds on acceptable terms, or at all, we may not be able to grow our business, respond to competitive pressures or execute our longer-term business plans.
We are dependent on the successful development of our satellite technology Orbital Service Vehicles and related technology.We are dependent on the successful development of our satellite vehicles and related technology.
Our current primary research and development objectives focus on the development of satellites, satellite buses, related satellite technologies such as solar arrays and our existing and future Orbital Service Vehicles and related technology.Our current primary research and development objectives focus on the development of our existing and future vehicles and related technology. If we do not complete development of these vehicles in our anticipated timeframes or at all, our ability to grow our business will be adversely affected. The successful development of our vehicles and related technology involves many uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control, including, but not limited to:
timing in finalizing satellite and Orbital Service Vehicle design and specifications;
successful completion of test programs and demonstration missions;
whether we will receive and the timing of receipt of licenses and government approvals that will allow us to fly our vehicles in space and gather valuable data that will assist in further development of our vehicles;
meeting stated technological objectives and goals for the design on time, on budget and within target cost objectives;
our ability to obtain additional applicable approvals, licenses or certifications from regulatory agencies and maintaining current approvals, licenses or certifications;
our ability to secure slots on our launch providers’ manifests;
performance of our manufacturing facility despite risks that disrupt productions, such as natural disasters;
performance of a limited number of suppliers for certain raw materials and supplied components and their willingness to do business with us;
performance of our third-party contractors that support our research and development activities;
our ability to protect our intellectual property critical to the design and function of our transport vehicles; and
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our ability to continue funding and maintaining our research and development activities.
We may not be successful in developing new technology, and the technology we are successful in developing may not meet the needs of our customers or potential new customers.
The markets in which we operate are characterized by changing technology and evolving industry standards, and we may not be successful in identifying, and marketing products and services that respond to rapid technological change, evolving technical standards and systems developed by others.The markets in which we operate are characterized by changing technology and evolving industry standards, and we may not be successful in identifying, developing and marketing products and services that respond to rapid technological change, evolving technical standards and systems developed by others. Our competitors may develop technology that better meets the needs of our customers. If we do not continue to develop, manufacture, and market innovative technologies or applications that meet customers’ requirements, sales may suffer, and our business may not continue to grow in line with historical rates or at all. If we are unable to achieve sustained growth, we may be unable to execute our business strategy, expand our business, or fund other liquidity needs, and our business prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
We operate in highly competitive industries and in various jurisdictions across the world which may cause us to have to reduce our prices.
We operate in highly competitive industries and many of our competitors are larger and have substantially greater resources than we have.We operate in highly competitive industries and in various jurisdictions across the world which may cause us to have to reduce our prices.
We may also face competition in the future from emerging low-cost competitors. Competition in the rocket launch, satellite and satellite component businesses is highly diverse, and while our competitors offer different products and services, there is often competition for contracts.
In addition, some of our foreign competitors currently benefit from, and others may benefit in the future from, protective measures by their home countries where governments are providing financial support, including significant investments in the development of new technologies. Government support of this nature greatly reduces the commercial risks associated with rocket launch, satellite and satellite component development activities for these competitors. This market environment may result in increased pressures on our pricing and other competitive factors.
Momentus’ limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate its future prospects and the risks and challenges it may encounter.
We have been focused on developing satellite technology and space transportation and infrastructure services since 2017. This limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate Momentus’ future prospects and the risks and challenges we may encounter.We have been focused on developing space transportation and infrastructure services since 2017. This limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate Momentus’ future prospects and the risks and challenges we may encounter. Risks and challenges Momentus has faced or expects to face include our ability to:
forecast revenue and budget for and manage expenses;
attract new customers and retain existing customers;
effectively manage growth and business operations, including planning for and managing capital expenditures for current and future vehicles and services, and managing the supply chain and supplier relationships related to current and future vehicles and services;
comply with existing and new or modified laws and regulations applicable to our business, including export control regulations;
anticipate and respond to macroeconomic changes and changes in the markets in which we operate;
maintain and enhance the value of our reputation and brand;
develop and protect intellectual property; and
integrate and retain talented people at all levels of our organization.
If Momentus fails to address the risks and difficulties that we face, including those associated with the challenges listed above as well as those described elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected. Further, because Momentus has limited historical financial data and operates in a rapidly evolving market, any predictions about our future revenue and expenses may not be as accurate as they would be if we had a longer operating history or operated in a more developed market. Momentus has encountered in the past, and will encounter in the future, risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by companies with limited operating histories in rapidly changing industries. If Momentus’ assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties, which we use to plan and operate our business, are incorrect or change, or if we do not
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address these risks successfully, our results of operations could differ materially from our expectations and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
The market for in-space infrastructure services has not been established with precision, is still emerging and may not achieve the growth potential we expect.
The markets for in-space infrastructure services have not been established with precision as the commercialization of space is a relatively new development and is rapidly evolving. Our estimates for the total addressable markets for in-space infrastructure services are based on a number of internal and third-party estimates, assumed prices at which we can offer services, assumed frequency of service, our ability to leverage our current manufacturing and operational processes and general market conditions. Our estimates for the total addressable markets for in-space infrastructure services are based on a number of internal and third-party estimates, including our current backlog, assumed prices at which we can offer services, assumed frequency of service, our ability to leverage our current manufacturing and operational processes and general market conditions. While we believe our assumptions and the data underlying our estimates are reasonable, these assumptions and estimates may not be correct and the conditions supporting our assumptions or estimates may change at any time, thereby reducing the predictive accuracy of these underlying factors. As a result, our estimates of the annual total addressable markets for in-space infrastructure services, as well as the expected growth rate for the total addressable market for that experience, may prove to be incorrect.
We may not be able to convert our customer contracts into revenue.We may not be able to convert our orders in backlog into revenue.
Our customer contracts are cancellable by customers for convenience. If a customer cancels a contract before it is required to pay the last deposit prior to launch, we may not receive all potential revenue from these orders, except for an initial non-refundable deposit which is typically due at the time the contract is signed. In certain situations, Momentus may decide to refund customers for their deposits, even though it is not contractually required, to maintain goodwill with customers.
In addition, if we do not receive regulatory approvals in a timely manner, or our future missions experience anomalies in addition to the issues experienced by our inaugural Vigoride mission (Vigoride 3), our prospects will be materially adversely affected.
Our future revenue and operating results are dependent on our ability to generate a sustainable order rate for our products and services and develop new technologies to meet the needs of our customers or potential new customers.23Table of ContentsOur future revenue and operating results are dependent on our ability to generate a sustainable order rate for our products and services and develop new technologies to meet the needs of our customers or potential new customers.
Our financial performance is dependent on our ability to generate a sustainable order rate for our services. This can be challenging and may fluctuate on an annual basis as the number of contracts awarded varies. If we are unable to win new awards or execute existing contracts as expected, our business, results of operations, and financial position could be further adversely affected.
The cyclical nature of the space industry could negatively impact our ability to accurately forecast customer demand. We may not be able to maintain adequate gross margins or profits in these markets. Our growth is dependent on the growth in the sales of services provided by our customers, our customers’ ability to anticipate market trends, and our ability to anticipate changes in the businesses of our customers and to successfully identify and enter new markets. If we fail to anticipate such changes in demand, our business, results of operations, and financial position could be adversely affected.
We have previously experienced, and may experience in the future, delays or other complications in the design, manufacture and commercialization of new rocket launch services, mission services, satellites, satellite components and related technology. If we fail to develop and successfully commercialize new technologies, if we fail to develop such technologies before our competitors, or if such technologies fail to perform as expected, or are inferior to those of our competitors, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially and adversely impacted.
We may experience a total loss of our satellites and Orbital Service Vehicle and our customers’ payloads during the launch into space, and any insurance we have may not be adequate to cover our loss.25Table of ContentsWe may experience a total loss of our vehicle and our customers’ payloads during the launch into space, and any insurance we have may not be adequate to cover our loss.
Although there have been and will continue to be technological advances in spaceflight, it is still an activity with inherent risk. Explosions and other accidents on launch or during the flight have occurred and will likely occur in the future. If such incidents should occur, we will likely experience a total loss of our vehicle and our customers’ payloads. The total or partial loss of one or more vehicles or customer payloads could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. For some missions, we can elect to buy launch insurance, which can reduce our monetary losses from the launch failure, but it may not cover all losses associated with launch failure and possible further losses incurred from the inability to test our technology from the result of such failure.
Depending on the circumstances and market conditions, launch insurance may be extremely expensive, and we cannot assure that we will be able to acquire it on favorable terms, or at all. While we are not procuring launch
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insurance at this time, we are compliant with third party on orbit liability insurance requirements as required by certain countries where certain of our customers domicile.
Our business involves significant risks and uncertainties that may not be covered by insurance.
A significant portion of our business relates to designing, developing, and manufacturing advanced space technology products and services. New technologies may be untested or unproven. Failure of some of these products and services could result in extensive property damage. Accordingly, we may incur liabilities that are unique to our products and services.
The amount of insurance coverage that we maintain may not be adequate to cover all claims or liabilities. Existing coverage may be canceled while we remain exposed to the risk and it is not possible to obtain insurance to protect against all operational risks, natural hazards and liabilities.
We have insured against liability to third parties from launch activities as required by law to the extent that insurance was available on acceptable premiums and other terms. The insurance coverage for third-party damages may not be sufficient to cover the liability. The insurance coverage for third- party damages may not be sufficient to cover the liability. Although the U.S. government may pay claims for third-party damages to the extent they exceed our insurance coverage, this depends on a government appropriation and is subject to a statutory limit. In addition, this insurance will not protect us against our own losses, including to our launch support operations, complex and satellites.
The price and availability of insurance fluctuate significantly. Insurance market conditions or factors outside our control, such as failure of launch vehicles and satellites, could cause premiums to be significantly higher than current estimates and could reduce amounts of available coverage. The cost of our insurance has been increasing and may continue to increase. Higher premiums on insurance policies will reduce our operating income by the amount of such increased premiums. If the terms of insurance policies become less favorable than those currently available, there may be limits on the amount of coverage that we can obtain, or we may not be able to obtain insurance at all.
In addition, even though we carry business interruption insurance policies, any business interruption losses could exceed the coverage available or be excluded from our insurance policies. Any disruption of our ability to operate our business could result in a material decrease in our revenues or significant additional costs to replace, repair, or insure our assets, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our customers and suppliers face similar threats. Customer or supplier proprietary, classified, or sensitive information stored on our networks is at risk. Assets, intellectual property and products in customer or supplier environments are also inherently at risk. We also have risk where we have access to customer and supplier networks and face risks of breach, disruption, or loss as well.
Satellites are subject to manufacturing and launch delays, damage, or destruction during pre-launch operations, launch failures and incorrect orbital placement, the occurrence of which can materially and adversely affect our operations.
Delays in the manufacturing of satellites, launch delays, damage, or destruction during pre-launch operations, launch failures or incorrect orbital placement could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.Delays in the manufacturing of satellites, launch delays, damage or destruction during pre-launch operations, launch failures or incorrect orbital placement could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The loss of, or damage to, a satellite due to a launch failure could result in significant delays in anticipated revenue to be generated by that satellite. Any significant delay in the commencement of service of a satellite would delay or potentially permanently reduce the revenue anticipated to be generated by that satellite. In addition, if the loss of a satellite were to occur, we may not be able to accommodate affected customers with our other satellites until a replacement satellite is available, and we may not have on hand, or be able to obtain in a timely manner, the necessary funds to cover the cost of any necessary satellite replacement. Any launch delay, launch failure, underperformance, delay, or perceived delay could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, business prospects and financial condition. Any launch delay, 26Table of Contentslaunch failure, underperformance, delay, or perceived delay could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.
If our spacecraft fail to operate as intended, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The manufacturing, testing, launching and operation of a spacecraft involves complex processes and technology. Our satellites employ advanced technologies and sensors that are exposed to severe environmental stresses that have and could affect the performance of satellites. Hardware component problems and software issues could lead to deterioration in performance or loss of functionality of a spacecraft. In addition, human operators may execute improper commands that may negatively impact a spacecraft’s performance. Exposure of our spacecraft to an unanticipated catastrophic event, such as collision with space debris, could reduce the performance of, or completely destroy, the affected spacecraft.
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For example, the inaugural flight of our Vigoride spacecraft (Vigoride 3) reached LEO and was able to deploy two out of nine customer satellites, but certain anomalies relating primarily to its communication and power systems limited our ability to communicate with the vehicle. Since that time, the Vigoride spacecraft has deployed five additional customer satellites, but we have been unable to confirm the deployment of the remaining two customer satellites. The communication issues have also prevented Vigoride 3 from performing orbit change maneuvers and technology demonstrations that were part of our program to validate our technology in space, and to demonstrate end-to-end in-space transfer and service operations.
During any period of time in which a spacecraft is not operational, we may lose most or all of the revenue that otherwise would have been derived from it. Our inability to repair or replace a defective type of spacecraft or correct any other technical problem in a timely manner could result in a significant loss of revenue. If a spacecraft experiences a significant anomaly such that its type is no longer operational, it would significantly impact our business, prospects, and profitability. Additionally, any satellite failures could damage our reputation and ability to obtain future customers for our launch services, prevent us from receiving any payments contingent on a successful launch and increase our insurance rates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects.
We cannot provide assurances that our satellites will continue to operate successfully in space throughout their expected operational lives. Even if a satellite is operated properly, technical flaws in that satellite’s sensors or other technical deficiencies or anomalies could significantly hinder its performance.
We may experience other problems with our satellites that may reduce their performance. During any period of time in which a satellite is not fully operational, we may lose most or all of the revenue that otherwise would have been derived from that satellite. Our inability to repair or replace a defective satellite or correct any other technical problem in a timely manner could result in a significant loss of revenue. If a satellite experiences a significant anomaly such that it becomes impaired or is no longer functional, it would significantly impact our business, prospects and profitability.
Space is a harsh and unpredictable environment where our products and service offerings are exposed to a wide and unique range of environmental risks, including, among others, coronal mass ejections, solar flares and other extreme space weather events and potential collision with space debris or another spacecraft, which could adversely affect our launch vehicle and spacecraft performance.
Space weather, including coronal mass ejections and solar flares have the potential to impact the performance and controllability of launch vehicles and spacecraft on orbit, including completely disabling our launch vehicles or spacecraft on orbit. Although we have some ability to actively maneuver our satellites to avoid potential collisions with space debris or other spacecraft, this ability is limited by, among other factors, uncertainties and inaccuracies in the projected orbit location of and predicted conjunctions with debris objects tracked and cataloged by the U.S. government. Additionally, some space debris is too small to be tracked and therefore its orbital location is completely unknown; nevertheless, this debris is still large enough to potentially cause severe damage or a failure of our launch vehicles or satellites should a collision occur.
Increased congestion from the proliferation of low-earth orbit constellations could materially increase the risks of potential collision with space debris or another spacecraft and limit or impair our launch flexibility and/or access to our own orbital slots.
Recent years have seen increases in the number of satellites deployed to low-Earth orbits, and publicly announced plans call for many thousands of additional satellite deployments over the next decade.Recent years have seen increases in the number of satellites deployed to low-earth orbits, and publicly announced plans call for many thousands of additional satellite deployments over the next decade. The proliferation of these low-earth orbit constellations could materially increase the risks of potential collision with space debris or another spacecraft and affect our ability to effectively access sufficient orbital slots to support the expected growth across our business. The proliferation of these low-earth orbit constellations could materially increase the risks of potential collision with space debris or another 27Table of Contentsspacecraft and affect our ability to effectively access sufficient orbital slots to support the expected growth across our business.
Our revenue, results of operations and reputation may be negatively impacted if our products contain defects or fail to operate in the expected manner.
We sell complex and technologically advanced products and services, including rocket launch services, mission services, satellites and satellite components. Sophisticated software used in our products and services, including software developed by us, may contain defects that can unexpectedly interfere with the software’s intended operation. Defects may also occur in components and products that we manufacture or purchase from third parties. Most of the launch vehicles, satellites and satellite components we have developed must function under demanding and unpredictable operating conditions and in harsh and potentially destructive environments. Our products and services may not be successfully implemented, pass required acceptance criteria, or operate or give the desired output, or we may not be able to detect and fix all defects in the launch vehicles, satellites, satellite components and systems we sell and/or use.
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We employ sophisticated design and testing processes and practices, which include a range of stringent factory and on-site acceptance tests with criteria and requirements that are jointly developed with customers. Our systems may not be successfully implemented, pass required acceptance criteria, or operate or give the desired output, or we may not be able to detect and fix all defects in the satellites, products, hardware, and software we sell or resolve any delays or availability issues in the launch services we procure. Failure to do so could result in increased costs, lost revenue and damage to our reputation and may adversely affect our ability to win new contract awards.
Fluctuations in foreign exchange rates or future hedging activities could in the future have a negative impact on our business.
We are exposed to foreign exchange risk as certain of our expenses and liabilities are required to be paid in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We generally maintain our cash and cash equivalents in U.S. dollars or investments denominated in U.S. dollars. Fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, which can be unpredictable, could result in disproportion increases in our expenses and future liabilities as compared to our revenue and current assets. We do not currently, but may in the future, use hedging strategies or seek to maintain a greater portion of our cash and cash equivalents in foreign currencies or investments denominated in foreign currencies to manage and minimize the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on our consolidated financial statements. If we decide to hedge our foreign currency exchange rate exposure, we may not be able to hedge effectively due to lack of experience, unreasonable costs, or illiquid markets.
We rely on a limited number of suppliers for certain raw materials, specialized labor, and supplied components.We rely on a limited number of suppliers for certain raw materials and supplied components. We may not be able to obtain sufficient raw materials, specialized labor, or supplied components to meet our manufacturing and operating needs or obtain such materials on favorable terms or at all, which could impair our ability to fulfill our orders in a timely manner or increase our costs of production. We may not be able to obtain sufficient raw materials or supplied components to meet our manufacturing and operating needs or obtain such materials on favorable terms or at all, which could impair our ability to fulfill our orders in a timely manner or increase our costs of production.
Our ability to produce our current and future satellite and vehicle systems and other components of operation is dependent upon sufficient availability of raw materials, specialized subcontracted labor, and supplied components, which we secure from a limited number of suppliers.Our ability to produce our current and future vehicle systems and other components of operation is dependent upon sufficient availability of raw materials and supplied components, which we secure from a limited number of suppliers.
Our reliance on suppliers to secure these raw materials, specialized labor, and supplied components exposes us to volatility in the prices and availability of these items.Our reliance on suppliers to secure these raw materials and supplied components exposes us to volatility in the prices and availability of these materials. We may not be able to obtain sufficient supplies of raw materials or supplied components on favorable terms or at all, which could result in delays in the manufacture of our vehicles or increased costs.
In addition, we have in the past experienced and may in the future experience delays in manufacturing or operation as we go through the requalification process with any replacement third-party supplier, as well as the limitations imposed by the ITAR, the EAR, or other restrictions on transfer of sensitive technologies and limitations. Moreover, the imposition of tariffs on such raw materials or supplied components could have a material adverse effect on our operations. Prolonged disruptions in the supply of any of our key raw materials or components, difficulty qualifying new sources of supply, implementing use of replacement materials or new sources of supply or any volatility in prices could have a material adverse effect on our ability to operate in a cost-efficient, timely manner and could cause us to experience cancellations or delays of scheduled missions, customer cancellations or reductions in our prices and margins, any of which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our satellites, vehicles, and related equipment may have shorter useful lives than we anticipate.Our vehicles and related equipment may have shorter useful lives than we anticipate.
A number of factors will impact the useful lives of our satellites and vehicles, including, among other things, the quality of their design and construction, the durability of their component parts and availability of any replacement components, and the occurrence of any anomaly or series of anomalies or other risks affecting the vehicles during launch and in orbit. A number of factors will impact the useful lives of our vehicles, including, among other things, the quality of their design and construction, the durability of their component parts and availability of any replacement components, and the occurrence of any anomaly or series of anomalies or other risks affecting the vehicles during launch and in orbit. In addition, any improvements in technology may make obsolete our existing vehicles or any component of our vehicles prior to the end of its life. If our vehicles and related equipment have shorter useful lives than we currently anticipate, this may lead to delays in increasing the rate of our commercial payloads, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We expect to face intense competition in satellite production, satellite transport, and related services and other services which we may develop in the space transportation industry.We expect to face intense competition in satellite transport and related services and other services which we may develop in the space transportation industry.
The space transportation industry is still developing and evolving, but we expect it to be highly competitive. Currently, our primary competitors in delivering small satellites into a specific orbit are small launch vehicle providers such as Firefly and Rocket Lab, as well as orbital transfer and service vehicle providers such as D-Orbit, Exotrail, Impulse Space, Launcher and Quantum Space. Currently, our primary competitors in delivering small satellites into a specific orbit are small launch vehicle providers such as Astra, Firefly and Rocket Lab, as well as orbital transfer and service vehicle providers such as D-Orbit, Exolaunch, Exotrail, Impulse Space, Launcher, Quantum Space, and Spaceflight Industries. Some companies, such as Rocket Lab and Firefly Aerospace, are developing both small launch vehicles and transfer vehicles.
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A number of significant competitors produce satellites, buses, and related technologies in the same class as those offered by Momentus. Significant competitors for satellites, buses, and related technologies include York Space, Terran Orbital, Raytheon Blue Canyon, and Airbus. Many of our current and potential competitors are larger and may have substantially greater resources than we have or may expect to have in the future.Many of our current and potential competitors are larger and may have substantially greater resources than we have or may expect to have in the future. They may also be able to devote greater resources to the development of their current and future technologies or the promotion of their offerings or offer lower prices. Our current and potential competitors may also establish cooperative or strategic relationships among themselves or with third parties that may further enhance their resources and offerings. Further, it is possible that domestic or foreign companies or governments, some with greater experience in the aerospace industry or greater financial resources than we possess, will seek to provide products or services that compete directly or indirectly with ours in the future. Further, it is possible that domestic or foreign companies or 29Table of Contentsgovernments, some with greater experience in the aerospace industry or greater financial resources than we possess, will seek to provide products or services that compete directly or indirectly with ours in the future. Any such foreign competitor, for example, could benefit from subsidies from, or other protective measures by, its home country.
We believe our ability to compete successfully in delivering satellites to custom orbit at significantly reduced cost to customers depends on a number of factors, which may change in the future due to increased competition, our ability to meet our customers’ needs and the frequency and availability of our offerings. If we are unable to compete successfully, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
If we fail to adequately protect our intellectual property rights or our intellectual property applications for registration fail to become issued or registered, our competitive position could be impaired.
Our success depends, in significant part, on our ability to protect our intellectual property rights, including our water-based propulsion technology and certain other methodologies, practices, tools, technologies and technical expertise we utilize in designing, developing, implementing, and maintaining applications and processes used in our vehicles and related technologies. To date, we have relied primarily on trade secrets and other intellectual property laws, non-disclosure agreements with our employees, consultants and other relevant persons and other measures to protect our intellectual property and intend to continue to rely on these and other means. We also try to protect our intellectual property by filing patent applications related to our technology, inventions and improvements that are important to the development of our business. The steps we take to protect our intellectual property may be inadequate.
As of December 31, 2023 we have eight issued patents, and six patent applications across U.S., European, and Patent Cooperation Treaty (“PCT”) patent systems. Our pending patent applications may not result in patents being issued, which may have a material adverse effect on our ability to prevent others from commercially exploiting products similar to ours. Momentus cannot be certain that it is the first inventor of the subject matter to which it has filed a particular patent application, or if it is the first party to file such a patent application. If another party has filed a patent application to the same subject matter as Momentus, Momentus may not be entitled to the protection sought by the patent application. If another party has filed a patent application to the same subject matter as Momentus has, Momentus may not be entitled to the protection sought by the patent application. Momentus also cannot be certain whether the claims included in a patent application will ultimately be allowed in the applicable issued patent. As a result, Momentus cannot be certain that the patent applications that it files will be issued. Further, the scope of protection of issued patent claims is often difficult to determine.
Patents, if issued, may be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented. If our patents are invalidated or found to be unenforceable, we will lose the ability to exclude others from making, using or selling the inventions claimed. Moreover, an issued patent does not guarantee us the right to use the patented technology or commercialize a product using that technology. Third parties may have blocking patents that could be used to prevent us from developing our product. Thus, patents that we may own in the future may not allow us to exploit the rights conferred by our intellectual property protection. Even if issued, they may not be issued with claims sufficiently broad to protect our technologies or may not provide us with a competitive advantage against competitors with similar technologies. Despite our precautions, it may be possible for unauthorized third parties to copy our technology and use information that we regard as proprietary to create technology that competes with ours. Further, the laws of some countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights in some foreign countries may be inadequate. Momentus’ competitors may also design around Momentus’ issued patents, which may adversely affect Momentus’ business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
In addition, although we enter into nondisclosure and invention assignment agreements with our employees, enter into non-disclosure agreements with consultants and other parties with whom we have strategic relationships and business alliances and enter into intellectual property assignment agreements with our consultants and vendors, no assurance can be given that these agreements will be effective in controlling access to and distribution of our technology and proprietary information. Further, these agreements do not prevent our competitors from independently developing technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our products.
Protecting and defending against intellectual property claims may have a material adverse effect on our business.
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Our success depends in part upon successful prosecution, maintenance, enforcement and protection of our owned intellectual property. To protect our intellectual property rights, we may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect these rights. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights and to protect our trade secrets. Such litigation could be costly, time consuming and distracting to management and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property. Furthermore, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights. Our inability to protect our technology, as well as any costly litigation or diversion of our management’s attention and resources, could disrupt our business, as well as have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. The results of intellectual property litigation are difficult to predict and may require us to stop using certain technologies or offering certain services or may result in significant damage awards or settlement costs. There is no guarantee that any action to defend, maintain or enforce our owned or licensed intellectual property rights will be successful, and an adverse result in any such proceeding could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
In addition, we may from time-to-time face allegations that we are infringing, misappropriating, or otherwise violating the intellectual property rights of third parties, including the intellectual property rights of our competitors. We may be unaware of the intellectual property rights that others may claim cover some or all of our technology or services. Irrespective of the validity of any such claims, we could incur significant costs and diversion of resources in defending against them, and there is no guarantee any such defense would be successful, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, contracts, financial condition, operating results, liquidity and prospects.
Even if these matters do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor or without significant cash settlements, these matters, and the time and resources necessary to litigate or resolve them, could divert the time and resources of our management team and harm our business, our operating results and our reputation.
We may experience warranty claims for failures, schedule delays or other problems with existing or new products.
Many of the products we develop and manufacture are technologically advanced systems that must function under demanding operating conditions. The sophisticated and rigorous design, manufacturing and testing processes and practices we employ do not entirely prevent the risk that we may not be able to successfully launch or manufacture our products on schedule or that our products may not perform as intended.
If our products fail to perform adequately, some of our contracts require us to forfeit a portion of our expected profit, receive reduced payments, provide a replacement product or service or reduce the price of subsequent sales to the same customer. Performance penalties may also be imposed if we fail to meet delivery schedules or other measures of contract performance. Performance penalties may also be imposedif we fail to meet delivery schedules or other measures of contract performance. We do not generally insure against potential costs resulting from any required remedial actions or costs or loss of sales due to postponement or cancellation of scheduled operations or product deliveries.
We are exposed to risks related to geopolitical and economic factors, laws and regulations and our international business subjects us to numerous political and economic factors, legal requirements, cross-cultural considerations and other risks associated with doing business globally.
Our international business is subject to both U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, including, without limitation, laws and regulations relating to export/import controls, sanctions, technology transfer restrictions, government contracts and procurement, data privacy and protection, anti-corruption laws, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the anti-boycott provisions of the U.S. Antiboycott Act of 2018, Part II of the Export Control Reform Act security restrictions and intellectual property. Failure by us, our employees, affiliates, partners or others with whom we work to comply with applicable laws and regulations could result in administrative, civil, commercial or criminal liabilities, including suspension or debarment from government contracts or suspension of our export/import privileges. New regulations and requirements, or changes to existing ones in the various countries in which we operate can significantly increase our costs and risks of doing business internationally.
Changes in laws, regulations, political leadership and environment, and/or security risks may dramatically affect our ability to obtain any required regulatory approvals and conduct or continue to conduct business in international markets, including sales to customers and purchases from suppliers outside the United States. We may also be impacted by U.S. and foreign national policies and priorities, political decisions and geopolitical relationships, any of which may be influenced by changes in the threat environment, political leadership, geopolitical uncertainties, world events, bilateral and multi-lateral relationships and economic and political factors, and any of which could impact our operations and/or export authorizations, impair our ability to obtain any required regulatory approvals or delay purchasing decisions or payments and the provision of supplies, goods and services including, without
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