Quiver Quantitative

Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - KTRA

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-Changes in blue
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Item 1A. Risk Factors

Summary of Risk Factors

We have a limited operating history, are not profitable and may never become profitable.

We have expressed substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

We face significant risks related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which could have material and adverse impacts on our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.

Our business is heavily dependent on the successful development, regulatory approval and commercialization of our product candidates.

We will require substantial additional capital to fund our operations, and if we fail to obtain necessary financing, we may not be able to complete the development and commercialization of any of our product candidates.

Our product candidates will face significant competition and may be unable to compete effectively.

Various government regulations could limit or delay our ability to develop and commercialize our products or otherwise negatively impact our business.

The commercial potential of our products is difficult to predict. The market for any product, or for companion animal diagnostics and medical devices overall, is uncertain and may be smaller than we anticipate, which could significantly and negatively impact our revenue, results of operations and financial condition.

Our ability to obtain intellectual property protection for our products is limited.

We will rely on third parties to conduct certain portions of our development activities. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or meet expected deadlines, we may be unable to obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize our product candidates.

We will rely on a third-party manufacturers to produce our products. If we experience problems with any of these suppliers, the manufacturing of our product candidates or products could be delayed.

If we fail to attract and keep key personnel and members of management, we may be unable to successfully develop any of our existing or future product candidates, conduct our in-licensing and development efforts and commercialize any of our existing or future products.

Any failure by us to protect our intellectual property rights or maintain the right to use certain intellectual property may negatively affect our ability to compete.

We expect that the price of our common shares will fluctuate substantially.

Substantial future sales of shares of our common stock could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

Issuance of our common stock upon exercise of convertible securities may depress the price of our common stock.

We have incurred significant costs as a result of operating as a U.S. public company, and our management will continue to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives.

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. In determining whether to purchase our common stock, an investor should carefully consider all of the material risks described below, together with the other information contained in this report before making a decision to purchase our securities. An investor should only purchase our securities if he or she can afford to suffer the loss of his or her entire investment.

Risks Related to Our Business

We have expressed substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended June 30, 2021, our consolidated financial statements for the year ended June 30, 2021, include an explanatory paragraph that such financial statements were prepared assuming that we will continue as a going concern. A going concern basis assumes that we will continue our operations for the foreseeable future and contemplates the realization of assets and the settlement of liabilities in the normal course of business.

For the year ended June 30, 2021, we reported a loss of approximately $38.3 million and a negative cash flow from operations of approximately $18.9 million. We had an accumulated deficit of approximately $111.2 million and had cash and cash equivalents of

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approximately $10.5 million as of June 30, 2021. We are in the clinical stage and have not generated any revenues to-date. We do not have the prospect of achieving revenues until such time that our product candidates are commercialized, or partnered, which may not ever occur. In the near future, we will require additional funding to maintain our clinical studies, research and development projects, and for general operations. These circumstances indicate substantial doubt exists about our ability to continue as a going concern within one year from the date of filing of the consolidated financial statements.

Despite the completion of a registered direct financing subsequent to June 30, 2021 for net proceeds of approximately $13.6 million, we will need additional financing to complete all of our planned operations. Consequently, management is pursuing various financing alternatives to fund our operations so we can continue as a going concern. However, the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic has created significant economic uncertainty and volatility in the credit and capital markets. Management plans to secure the necessary financing through the issue of new equity and/or the entering into of strategic partnership arrangements but the ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our ability to raise additional capital is unknown and will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, including the duration of the COVID-19 outbreak and any new information which may emerge concerning the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic. We may not be able to raise sufficient additional capital and may tailor our drug candidates development programs based on the amount of funding we are able to raise in the future. Nevertheless, there is no assurance that these initiatives will be successful.

The financial statements do not give effect to any adjustments to the amounts and classification of assets and liabilities that may be necessary should we be unable to continue as a going concern. Such adjustments could be material.

We are a clinical stage company, have a history of operating losses, and expect to incur significant additional operating losses.

We are a clinical stage company with a history of operating losses. For the fiscal years ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, we had net losses of approximately $38.3 million and $9.1 million, respectively and an accumulated deficit of approximately $111 million at June 30, 2021. Our prospects must be considered in light of the uncertainties, risks, expenses, and difficulties frequently encountered by companies in similar stages of operations. For the fiscal years ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, we had net losses of $9.1 million and $8.0 million, respectively and an accumulated deficit of $69.7 million at June 30, 2020. Our prospects must be considered in light of the uncertainties, risks, expenses, and difficulties frequently encountered by companies in similar stages of operations. We expect to incur substantial additional net expenses and losses over the next several years as our research, development, clinical studies, and commercial activities increase.

The amount of future losses and when, if ever, we will achieve profitability are uncertain. Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability will depend on, among other things, successful completion of the preclinical and clinical development of our product candidates; obtaining necessary regulatory approvals from the FDA and international regulatory agencies; successful manufacturing, sales and marketing arrangements; and raising sufficient funds to finance our activities. If we are unsuccessful at some or all of these undertakings, our business, prospects and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

We will need to raise additional capital, which may cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to technologies or product candidates.

Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenues, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of public or private equity offerings, debt financings and/or license and development agreements with collaboration partners. As of June 30, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $10.5 million. We expect the cash available at June 30, 2021, and the cash received from a registered direct financing of approximately $13.6 million in net proceeds received subsequent to June 30, 2021, to fund our planned operations through stage 1 of our GBM AGILE study which could result in graduation to the final confirmatory stage, the potentially NDA enabling portion of the study. We will need to raise additional capital to fund our planned operations. We do not have any committed external source of funds. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, then-existing stockholders’ interests may be materially diluted, and the terms of such securities could include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect their rights as common stockholders. Debt financing and preferred equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include restrictive covenants that limit our ability to take specified actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. In addition, debt financing would result in fixed payment obligations.

If we raise funds through collaborations, strategic partnerships or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or future commercialization efforts or grant rights to develop and market product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves

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Our inability to obtain additional financing could adversely affect our ability to meet our obligations under our planned clinical studies and could negatively impact the timing of our clinical results.

Our ability to meet our obligations and continue the research and development of our product candidates is dependent on our ability to continue to raise adequate financing. We may not be successful in obtaining such additional financing in the amount required at any time, or for any period, or, if available, that it can be obtained on terms satisfactory to us. In the event that we are unable to obtain such additional financing, we may be unable to meet our obligations under our planned clinical studies and we may have to tailor the drug development programs for our drug candidates based on the amount of funding we raise which could negatively impact the timing of our clinical results. In addition, we could be required to cease our operations.

We face significant risks related to the COVID-19 pandemic, or the widespread outbreak of any other communicable disease, which could have material and adverse impacts on our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.

We face risks related to health epidemics or outbreaks of communicable diseases, including the recent outbreak around the world of the highly transmissible and pathogenic coronavirus, COVID-19. The outbreak of such communicable diseases could result in a widespread health crisis that could adversely affect general commercial activity and the economies and financial markets of many countries.

In December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus, COVID-19, was reported to have surfaced in Wuhan, China and on March 11, 2020, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations is unknown and will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, including the duration of the COVID-19 outbreak, new information which may emerge concerning the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, and any additional preventative and protective actions that governments, or we, may determine are needed.

To date, the COVID-19 pandemic has not caused significant disruption to our GBM AGILE or our Phase 2 clinical studies. Each of our Phase 2 clinical studies is now complete. They were conducted at single sites which reduced the risk of disruption. Patient visits took place on schedule at the MD Anderson Cancer Center and Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center during the respective studies. Any disruptions to patient treatments were within allowances under each study protocol. Access to the sites during the Phase 2 studies by our clinical monitors was limited during the COVID-19 pandemic but the recording of study data and patient treatments at both study sites was conducted per protocol. With respect to the REM-001 drug supply, we are currently experiencing some delays in contract manufacturing schedules and supplies which we attribute to COVID-19. The current delays could have an impact on our REM-001 program timeline.

Changes in circumstances surrounding COVID-19, such as additional travel limitations imposed by governmental authorities could result in new patients being unable to be enrolled in our studies, or existing patients being unable to continue to receive treatment, could impact the cost of our studies as we may have to enroll additional patients in order to obtain the data necessary to be able to conclude our studies. We cannot predict whether any of our clinical testing sites will withdraw from participation in any of our studies temporarily, or permanently. In addition, even if we are able to fully enroll and treat all patients in our studies, obtaining full data could be impacted by an inability to ship and analyze samples, or otherwise complete data assessment. Further, if the patients enrolled in our clinical studies become infected with COVID-19, we may have more adverse events and deaths in our clinical studies as a result. We may also face difficulties enrolling patients in our clinical studies if the patient populations that are eligible for our clinical studies are impacted by the coronavirus disease. Vulnerable patients, such as the cancer patients enrolled in our clinical studies, may be at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19 and may experience more severe symptoms from the disease, adversely affecting our chances for regulatory approval, or requiring further clinical studies. The continued spread of COVID-19 globally, and the resulting travel restrictions in place by governments to help stop the spread of COVID-19, could adversely impact our clinical study operations, including the ability of our principal investigators and site staff to travel to our clinical study sites, and our ability to recruit and retain principal investigators and site staff who, as healthcare providers, may have heightened exposure to COVID-19 if an outbreak occurs in their geography.

In addition, the continued impact resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak in areas where we have manufacturing operations for our clinical drug supply, or where our suppliers or distributors operate, or if the COVID-19 outbreak in these areas were to increase in severity, and the measures taken by the governments of countries affected, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations by limiting our ability to manufacture or ship materials, or by forcing temporary closure of facilities that it relies upon.

The spread of COVID-19, which has caused a broad impact globally, may materially affect us economically. While the potential economic impact brought by, and the duration of, COVID-19 may be difficult to assess or predict, a widespread pandemic could result in significant disruption of global financial markets, reducing our ability to access capital, which could in the future negatively affect our liquidity. In addition, a recession or market correction resulting from the spread of COVID-19 could materially affect our business and the value of our Common Stock.

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While our common stock is expected to continue listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market, there is no guarantee as to how long such listing will be maintained.

Our common stock is listed for trading on The Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”). We must satisfy Nasdaq’s continued listing requirements, including, among other things, a minimum closing bid price requirement of $1.00 per share for 30 consecutive business days. If a company’s common stock trades for 30 consecutive business days below the $1.00 minimum closing bid price requirement, Nasdaq will send a deficiency notice, advising that such company has been afforded a “compliance period” of 180 calendar days to regain compliance with the applicable requirements. Thereafter, if such a company does not regain compliance with the bid price requirement, a second 180-day compliance period may be available, provided (i) it meets the continued listing requirement for market value of publicly held shares and all other applicable requirements for initial listing on Nasdaq, including stockholder equity requirements, which we may be unable to satisfy (except for the bid price requirement), and (ii) it provides written notice to Nasdaq of its intention to cure this deficiency during the second compliance period by effecting a reverse stock split, if necessary. In the event the company does not regain compliance with Rule 5550(a)(2) prior to the expiration of the initial 180 calendar day period, and if it appears to the Staff of the Listing Qualifications Department of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (the “Nasdaq Staff”) that the company will not be able to cure the deficiency, or if the company is not otherwise eligible, the Nasdaq Staff will provide the company with written notification that its securities are subject to delisting from Nasdaq. At that time, the company may appeal the delisting determination to a Hearings Panel.

If we fail to meet any of the other continued listing requirements, including stockholder equity requirements, our securities may be delisted from Nasdaq and trade on the OTC Markets Group Inc. or other small trading markets, which could reduce the liquidity of our common stock materially and result in a corresponding material reduction in the price of our common stock. In addition, delisting could harm our ability to raise capital through alternative financing sources on terms acceptable to us, or at all, and may result in the potential loss of confidence by investors, employees and business development opportunities. Such a delisting likely would impair your ability to sell or purchase our common stock when you wish to do so. Such a delisting likely would impair your ability to sell or purchase our Common Stock when you wish to do so. Further, if we were to be delisted from Nasdaq, our common stock may no longer be recognized as a “covered security” and we would be subject to regulation in each state in which it offers securities. Thus, delisting from Nasdaq could adversely affect our ability to raise additional financing through the public or private sale of equity securities, would significantly impact the ability of investors to trade our securities and would negatively impact the value and liquidity of our common stock.

The Series C Preferred Stock has rights, preferences and privileges that will not be held by, and will be preferential to, the rights of holders of our common stock, which could adversely affect the liquidity and financial condition of the Company, and may result in the interests of the holders of Series C Preferred Stock differing from those of the holders of our common stock.

The Series C Preferred Stock ranks on parity with the shares of our Series A Preferred Stock with respect to liquidation preferences. Upon any dissolution, liquidation or winding up, whether voluntary or involuntary, holders of Series C Preferred Stock will be entitled to receive distributions out of our assets in an amount per share equal to $1,000 plus all accrued and unpaid dividends, whether capital or surplus before any distributions shall be made on any shares of our common stock.

In addition, holders of Series C Preferred Stock will be entitled to dividends, payable in shares of our common stock at a rate of 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of the number of shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of the Series C Preferred Stock, on the 12th, 24th, 36th and 48th month, anniversary of the initial closing of the Private Placement, which occurred on August 19, 2020. Dividends will be payable in shares of our common stock and will only be payable to those holders that continue to hold Series C Preferred Stock on the respective anniversary dates of August 19, 2020.

These dividend obligations to the holders of Series C Preferred Stock could limit our ability to obtain additional financing, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition. The preferential rights described above could also result in divergent interests between the holders of shares of Series C Preferred Stock and the holders of our common stock.

Any issuance of our common stock upon conversion of the Series C Preferred Stock will cause dilution to our then existing stockholders and may depress the market price of our common stock.

The Series C Preferred Stock accrues dividends in shares of our common stock at an initial rate of 10% per annum and following the forty-eight-month anniversary of the initial closing of the Private Placement which occurred on August 19, 2020, such dividend rate will increase to 25% per annum. Each class of Series C Preferred Stock has a Conversion Price that will be equal to the lesser of (i) the closing price of our common stock on Nasdaq on the date immediately preceding the signing of the applicable binding agreements for the applicable closing date of the Private Placement for which the Series C Preferred Stock is issued or (ii) the average closing price of the our common stock on Nasdaq for the five trading days immediately preceding the signing of the applicable binding agreements for the applicable closing date of the Private Placement for which the Series C Preferred Stock is issued, subject to

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adjustment. The Conversion Prices for the Series C-1 Preferred Stock, Series C-2 Preferred Stock and Series C-3 Preferred Stock are $1.16, $1.214 and $1.15, respectively.

The issuance of our common stock upon conversion of the Series C Preferred Stock and as payment of dividends on the Series C Preferred Stock will result in immediate and substantial dilution to the interests of holders of our common stock, and such dilution will increase over time in connection with the accrual of dividends on the Series C Preferred Stock.

We may incur future indebtedness that will rank senior to the Series C Preferred Stock or issue additional series of preferred stock that rank on a parity with, or senior to, the Series C Preferred Stock as to dividend payments and liquidation preference.

We may incur substantial amounts of additional debt and other obligations that will rank senior to the Series C Preferred Stock, and the terms of the Series C Preferred Stock do not limit the amount of such debt or other obligations that we may incur. The terms of the Series C Preferred Stock will not prohibit us from issuing additional series of preferred stock that would rank on parity with the Series C Preferred Stock. The Articles allow for the board of directors to create new series of preferred stock without further approval by its stockholders, which could adversely affect the rights of the holders of the Series C Preferred Stock and common stock. The issuances of other series of preferred stock could have the effect of reducing the amounts available to the Series C Preferred Stock in the event of liquidation. If we issue preferred stock with voting rights that dilute the voting power of our common stock, the market price of our common stock could decrease, adversely affecting the value of the Series C Preferred Stock. Additional issuances and sales of preferred stock, or the perception that such issuances and sales could occur, may cause prevailing market prices for our common stock to decline and may adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital in the financial markets at times and prices favorable to it.

If we are unable to effectively maintain a system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial results and our stock price could be adversely affected.

Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and related regulations require us to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of the end of each fiscal year, and to include a management report assessing the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for that fiscal year. Any failure to implement new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in the implementation or operation of these controls, could harm our operations, decrease the reliability of our financial reporting, and cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which could adversely affect our business and reduce our stock price. Any failure to implement new or improved controls necessary to remedy the material weaknesses described above, or difficulties encountered in the implementation or operation of these controls, could harm our operations, decrease the reliability of our financial reporting, and cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which could adversely affect our business and reduce our stock price.

We are subject to state laws in California that require gender and diversity quotas for boards of directors of public companies headquartered in California.

In September 2018, California enacted SB 826, requiring public companies headquartered in California to maintain minimum female representation on their boards of directors as follows: by December 31, 2019, public company boards must have a minimum of one female director; by December 31, 2021, public company boards with five members will be required to have at least two female directors, and public company boards with six or more members will be required to have at least three female directors.

Additionally, on September 30, 2020, California enacted AB 979, requiring public companies with principal executive offices in California to each have at least one director from an underrepresented community based on ethnicity and sexual orientation by December 31, 2021. By December 31, 2022, each of these companies will be required to have at least two directors from such underrepresented communities if such company has more than four but fewer than nine directors, or at least three directors from underrepresented communities if the company has nine or more directors.

We cannot assure that we can recruit, attract and/or retain qualified members of the board and continue to meet gender and diversity quotas as required by California law (provided that such laws are not repealed before the compliance deadlines), which may cause certain investors to divert their holdings in our securities and expose us to financial penalties and/or reputational harm.

We are a clinical stage company and may never achieve commercialization of our product candidates or profitability.

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We are a clinical stage of development and commercialization of our technologies and product candidates. We have not yet begun to market any products and, accordingly, have not begun or generate revenues from the commercialization of our products. Our products will require significant additional clinical testing and investment prior to commercialization. A commitment of substantial resources by us and, potentially, our partners to conduct time-consuming research and clinical studies will be required if we are to complete the development of our product candidates. There can be no assurance that our product candidates will meet applicable regulatory standards, obtain required regulatory approvals, be capable of being produced in commercial quantities at reasonable costs or be successfully marketed. Our product candidates are not expected to be commercially available for several years, if at all.

We are currently focused on the development of two product candidates.

Our product development efforts are currently focused on two product candidates: VAL-083 for GBM and REM-001 for CMBC. If either VAL-083 or REM-001 fail to achieve clinical endpoints or exhibit unanticipated toxicity or if a superior product is developed by a competitor, our prospects for obtaining regulatory approval and commercialization for either candidate may be negatively impacted. In the long-term, we hope to establish a pipeline of multiple product candidates. However, at this time we do not have any formal agreements granting us any rights to such additional product candidates.

Even if we are able to commercialize any product candidate that we develop, the product may become subject to unfavorable pricing regulations, third-party payor reimbursement practices or healthcare reform initiatives that could harm our business.

The commercial success of our current or future product candidates will depend substantially, both domestically and abroad, on the extent to which the costs of our product candidates will be paid by health maintenance, managed care, pharmacy benefit and similar healthcare management organizations, or reimbursed by government health administration authorities (such as Medicare and Medicaid), private health coverage insurers and other third-party payors. If reimbursement is not available, or is available only to limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize our products. Even if coverage is provided, the approved reimbursement amount may not be high enough to allow us to establish and maintain pricing sufficient to realize a meaningful return on our investment.

There is significant uncertainty related to third-party payor coverage and reimbursement of newly approved drugs. Marketing approvals, pricing and reimbursement for new drug products vary widely from country to country. Some countries require approval of the sale price of a drug before it can be marketed. In many countries, the pricing review period begins after marketing or product licensing approval is granted. In some non-U.S. markets, prescription pharmaceutical pricing remains subject to continuing governmental control even after initial approval is granted. As a result, we might obtain marketing approval for a product in a particular country, but then be subject to price regulations that delay commercial launch of the product, possibly for lengthy time periods, which may negatively impact the revenues we are able to generate from the sale of the product in that country. Adverse pricing limitations may hinder our ability to recoup our investment in one or more product candidates, even if our product candidates obtain marketing approval.

Our ability to commercialize VAL-083, REM-001, or any other product candidates will depend in part on the extent to which coverage and reimbursement for these products and related treatments will be available from government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations. Government authorities and third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which medications they will cover and establish reimbursement levels. The healthcare industry is acutely focused on cost containment, both in the United States and elsewhere. Government authorities and third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications, which could affect our ability to sell our product candidates profitably. These payors may not view our products, if any, as cost-effective, and coverage and reimbursement may not be available to our customers, or may not be sufficient to allow our products, if any, to be marketed on a competitive basis. Cost-control initiatives could cause us to decrease the price we might establish for products, which could result in lower than anticipated product revenues. If the prices for our products, if any, decrease or if governmental and other third-party payors do not provide adequate coverage or reimbursement, our prospects for revenue and profitability will suffer.

There may also be delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved drugs, and coverage may be more limited than the indications for which the drug is approved by the FDA or comparable non- U.S. regulatory authorities. Moreover, eligibility for reimbursement does not imply that any drug will be paid for in all cases or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, manufacture, sale and distribution. Reimbursement rates may vary, by way of example, according to the use of the drug and the clinical setting in which it is used. Reimbursement rates may also be based on reimbursement levels already set for lower cost drugs or may be incorporated into existing payments for other services.

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In addition, increasingly, third-party payors are requiring higher levels of evidence of the benefits and clinical outcomes of new technologies and are challenging the prices charged. We cannot be sure that coverage will be available for any product candidate that we, or third-parties, commercialize and, if available, that the reimbursement rates will be adequate. Further, the net reimbursement for drug products may be subject to additional reductions if there are changes to laws that presently restrict imports of drugs from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the United States. An inability to promptly obtain coverage and adequate payment rates from both government-funded and private payors for any of our product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, our ability to raise capital needed to commercialize products and our overall financial condition.

Pursuant to the terms of our converted Series B Preferred Stock, the Valent Technologies, LLC (“Valent”) Patent Assignment Agreement, and the St. Cloud Agreement we may be required to pay royalties.

Pursuant to the terms of the Valent Patent Assignment Agreement and our Series B Preferred Stock Certificate of Designation and the related Series B Preferred Royalty Agreement, we will be required to pay royalties if we receive revenue or milestone payments from product sales, or the partnering of VAL-083. If we obtain FDA or EMA approval of VAL-083, and/or if we generate sales of such products, or we receive any proceeds from the licensing or other disposition of VAL-083, we are required to pay to the holders of our common stock received upon conversion of our Series B Preferred Stock, a single-digit royalty. In addition, we are also required to pay a future royalty on all revenues derived from the development and commercialization of VAL-083 to Valent. The royalty payment rights will expire when the patents covering the applicable product expire.

In addition, under our St. Cloud agreement, we must pay to St. Cloud and Steven Rychnovsky, PhD, in the aggregate, a royalty fee of six percent (6%) of net sales during the royalty term on a country-by-country and product-by-product basis with St. Cloud receiving a royalty rate of four and eight tenths percent (4.8%) and Steven Rychnovsky, PhD, receiving a royalty of one and two tenths percent (1.2%). The royalty term for a product commences on the first commercial sale of the product, such as REM-001 Therapy, in any country, and the royalty fee must be paid within 30 days of each calendar quarter during which revenue is collected. The royalty term terminates on the later of (i) the invalidation, revocation, lapse or expiration of the last to expire valid claim on any patent acquired in the St. Cloud Agreement that would be infringed by the sale of the product in the country where the commercial sale takes place or (ii) the expiration of the period for which we hold exclusive marketing rights of the product in the country, if we are granted those rights under the St. Cloud Agreement.

We are dependent on obtaining certain patents and protecting our proprietary rights.

Our success will depend, in part, on our ability to obtain patents, maintain trade secret protection and operate without infringing on the proprietary rights of third parties or having third parties circumvent our rights. We have filed and are actively pursuing patent applications for our products. The patent positions of biotechnology, biopharmaceutical and pharmaceutical companies can be highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions. Thus, there can be no assurance that any of our patent applications will result in the issuance of patents, that we will develop additional proprietary products that are patentable, that any patents issued to us or those that already have been issued will provide us with any competitive advantages or will not be challenged by any third parties, that the patents of others will not impede our ability to do business or that third parties will not be able to circumvent our patents. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that others will not independently develop similar products, duplicate any of our products not under patent protection, or, if patents are issued to us, design around the patented products we developed or will develop.

We may be required to obtain licenses from third parties to avoid infringing patents or other proprietary rights. No assurance can be given that any licenses required under any such patents or proprietary rights would be made available, if at all, on terms we find acceptable. If we do not obtain such licenses, we could encounter delays in the introduction of products or could find that the development, manufacture or sale of products requiring such licenses could be prohibited.

A number of pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and research and academic institutions have developed technologies, filed patent applications or received patents on various technologies that may be related to or affect our business. Some of these technologies, applications or patents may conflict with our technologies or patent applications. Such conflict could limit the scope of the patents, if any, that we may be able to obtain or result in the denial of our patent applications. In addition, if patents that cover our activities are issued to other companies, there can be no assurance that we would be able to obtain licenses to these patents at a reasonable cost or be able to develop or obtain alternative technology. If we do not obtain such licenses, we could encounter delays in the introduction of products, or could find that the development, manufacture or sale of products requiring such licenses could be prohibited. In addition, we could incur substantial costs in defending ourselves in suits brought against us on patents it might infringe or in filing suits against others to have such patents declared invalid.

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Patent applications in the U.S. are maintained in secrecy and not published if either: (i) the application is a provisional application or (ii) the application is filed and we request no publication, and certify that the invention disclosed “has not and will not” be the subject of a published foreign application. Otherwise, U.S. applications or foreign counterparts, if any, publish 18 months after the priority application has been filed. Since publication of discoveries in the scientific or patent literature often lag behind actual discoveries, we cannot be certain that we or any licensor were the first creator of inventions covered by pending patent applications or that we or such licensor was the first to file patent applications for such inventions. Moreover, we might have to participate in interference proceedings declared by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (the “USPTO”) to determine priority of invention, which could result in substantial cost to us, even if the eventual outcome were favorable to us. There can be no assurance that our patents, if issued, would be held valid or enforceable by a court or that a competitor’s technology or product would be found to infringe such patents.

Moreover, we may be subject to third-party preissuance submissions of prior art to the USPTO, or become involved in opposition, derivation, reexamination, inter partes review, post-grant review or interference proceedings challenging our patent rights or the patent rights of others. An adverse determination in any such submission, proceeding or litigation could reduce the scope of, or invalidate, our patent rights, allow third parties to commercialize our technology or products and compete directly with us, without payment to us, or result in our inability to manufacture or commercialize products without infringing third-party patent rights.

Even if our patent applications issue as patents, they may not issue in a form that will provide us with any meaningful protection, prevent competitors from competing with us, or otherwise provide us with any competitive advantage. Our competitors may be able to circumvent our patents by developing similar or alternative technologies or products in a non-infringing manner.

The issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its inventorship, scope, validity or enforceability, and our patents may be challenged in courts or patent offices in the United States and abroad. Such challenges may result in loss of exclusivity or freedom to operate, or in patent claims being narrowed, invalidated or held unenforceable, in whole or in part, which could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology and products, or limit the duration of the patent protection of our technology and products. Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new product candidates, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. As a result, our owned and licensed patent portfolio may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours.

In addition, the protection of intellectual property rights in China (where one of our clinical product candidates, VAL-083, is manufactured pursuant to a collaboration agreement with the only manufacturer presently licensed by the CFDA to manufacture VAL-083 for the China market, and where VAL-083 is approved for the treatment of CML and lung cancer) is relatively weak compared to the United States, which may negatively affect our ability to generate royalty revenue from sales of VAL-083 in China.

Much of our know-how and technology may not be patentable. To protect our rights, we require employees, consultants, advisors and collaborators to enter into confidentiality agreements. There can be no assurance, however, that these agreements will provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets, know-how or other proprietary information in the event of any unauthorized use or disclosure. Further, our business may be adversely affected by competitors who independently develop competing technologies, especially if we obtain no, or only narrow, patent protection.

We do not hold any patents covering our laser light source or light delivery device for REM-001.

Our laser light source and light delivery device are not currently covered by any patents; We do not have any patents pending, and do not currently intend to seek patent protection for these devices. As a result, competitors may be able to offer and sell products or drug delivery technology, as the case may be, using the same technology as our laser light source and/or light delivery devices, so long as these competitors do not infringe any other valid patents that it or third-parties hold.

While we plan to protect our proprietary information related to our laser light source and light delivery device as trade secrets through certain agreements with our employees, consultants, agents and other organizations to which we have disclosed our proprietary information, we cannot give any assurance that these agreements will provide effective protection for our proprietary information in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of such information. If other laser light sources or light delivery devices are approved and marketed, we will be unable to prevent them from competing with REM-001 Therapy in the marketplace using a different drug molecule that is not encompassed by any of our owned or licensed patents. We expect that the presence of one or more competing products would reduce our market share and could negatively impact price levels and third-party reimbursement policies for REM-001 Therapy, any of which would materially affect our business.

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We may be unable to protect our patents and proprietary rights.

Our future success will depend to a significant extent on our ability to:

obtain and keep patent protection for our products and technologies on an international basis;

enforce our patents to prevent others from using our inventions;

maintain and prevent others from using our trade secrets; and

operate and commercialize products without infringing on the patents or proprietary rights of others.

We can provide no assurance that our patent rights will afford any competitive advantages and these rights may be challenged or circumvented by third parties. Further, patents may not be issued on any of our pending patent applications in the U.S. or abroad. Because of the extensive time required for development, testing and regulatory review of a product candidate, it is possible that before a product candidate can be commercialized, any related patent may expire, or remain in existence for only a short period following commercialization, reducing or eliminating any advantage of the patent.

If we sue others for infringing on our patents, a court may determine that such patents are invalid or unenforceable. Even if the validity of our patent rights is upheld by a court, a court may not prevent the alleged infringement of our patent rights on the grounds that such activity is not covered by our patent claims.

In addition, third parties may sue us for infringing on their patents. In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we may be required to:

defend litigation or administrative proceedings;

pay substantial damages;

stop using our technologies and methods;

stop certain research and development efforts;

develop non-infringing products or methods; and

obtain one or more licenses from third parties.

If required, we can provide no assurance that we will be able to obtain such licenses on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are sued for infringement, we could encounter substantial delays in development, manufacture and commercialization of our product candidates. Any litigation, whether to enforce our patent rights or to defend against allegations that we infringed third-party rights, will be costly, time consuming, and may distract management from other important tasks.

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