Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - IDXX

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$IDXX Risk Factor changes from 00/02/16/23/2023 to 00/02/22/24/2024

Item 1A. Risk Factors.”PRODUCTION AND SUPPLYMany of the instruments that we sell are manufactured by third parties. We rely on third parties in our supply chain to supply us, and our direct suppliers, with certain important components, raw materials, and consumables used in or with our products. In some cases, these third parties are sole or single-source suppliers. From time to time, we seek to qualify alternative suppliers.Instruments and consumables. Significant products supplied by sole and single-source providers include certain Catalyst Dx and Catalyst One consumables (other than electrolyte consumables and the fructosamine, thyroxine, canine C-reactive protein, progesterone, SDMA, and Bile Acid slides), LaserCyte Dx consumables, ProCyte Dx analyzers and consumables, SediVue Dx urinalysis instruments and consumables, and certain components of our internally manufactured analyzers. Significant products supplied by sole and single-source providers include certain Catalyst Dx and Catalyst One consumables (other than electrolyte consumables and the fructosamine, T4, CRP, progesterone, and SDMA, and Bile Acid slides), VetTest slides, VetLyte consumables, LaserCyte Dx consumables, VetAutoread and ProCyte Dx analyzers and consumables, SediVue Dx urinalysis instruments and consumables, and certain components of our internally manufactured analyzers. Certain Catalyst chemistry slides are supplied by Ortho under supply agreements that are currently set to expire in December of 2033. We are required to purchase all of our requirements for our current menu of Catalyst chemistry slides from Ortho to the extent Ortho is able to supply those requirements. The agreements provide for pricing based on purchase volumes and a fixed annual inflationary adjustment. The agreements also prohibit Ortho from promoting and selling these chemistry slides in the veterinary sector, excluding the EU, other than to IDEXX. 11We purchase other analyzers and consumables under supply agreements with terms extending through 2034, which in some cases may be extended at our option. We have minimum purchase obligations under some of these agreements, and our failure to satisfy these obligations may result in loss of some or all of our rights under these agreements. Refer to “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.”Other components. We purchase certain other products, raw materials, and components from sole and single-source suppliers. These products include certain diagnostic imaging systems and certain components used in our SNAP rapid assay and dairy devices, livestock and poultry testing kits and water testing products.We have been successful in ensuring an uninterrupted supply of products purchased from sole and single-source suppliers. However, there can be no assurance that uninterrupted supply can be maintained if these agreements terminate for any reason or our suppliers otherwise are unable to satisfy our requirements for products. Refer to “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.”Product quality and safety. We believe that product quality and safety are essential to our business. We conduct our operations within an Integrated Management System, which encompasses our Quality Assurance program, to help ensure compliance with applicable regulations, product safety requirements and standards, and customer requirements. This Integrated Management System includes strict manufacturing processes and procedures, employee training, ongoing process improvement, product quality risk management procedures, incident investigation and corrective action procedures, and internal and third-party auditing. Our manufacturing and distribution facilities in Westbrook, Maine; Roswell, Georgia; Memphis, Tennessee; and the Netherlands, Switzerland, France, and the United Kingdom are certified to the ISO 9001 quality standard, and certain of our other facilities are certified to the environmental (ISO 14001) and testing and calibration laboratory (ISO 17025) quality standards. Our manufacturing and distribution facilities in Westbrook, Maine; Memphis, Tennessee; and the Netherlands, Switzerland, France and the United Kingdom are certified to the ISO 9001 quality standard, and certain of our other facilities are certified to the environmental (ISO 14001) and testing and calibration laboratory (ISO 17025) quality standards. ISO quality standards are internationally recognized manufacturing standards established by the International Organization for Standardization, which are audited and certified by third-party auditors in addition to our internal self-audits. We also require our key suppliers to have quality management systems that comply with recognized industry standards, such as ISO 9001, and are aligned with our quality requirements, and we regularly conduct audits with our Tier 1 suppliers to verify control systems meet all our requirements. In addition, we make available instructions and other information to help ensure the proper and safe use of our products.BACKLOGWe do not generally maintain a significant backlog of orders and believe that our backlog at any particular date historically has not been indicative of future sales.COMPETITIONWe compete with many companies ranging from large human and animal health pharmaceutical and medical diagnostics companies to small businesses focused on animal health. Our companion animal veterinary diagnostic products and services compete with both reference laboratory service and in-clinic product providers. Our competitors vary in our different business areas and regions. In some cases, academic institutions, governmental agencies, and other public and private research organizations conduct research activities and may commercialize products or services, which could compete with our products, on their own or through joint ventures. Several of our direct and potential competitors have substantially greater financial and managerial resources than us, as well as greater experience in manufacturing, marketing, research and development, and obtaining regulatory approvals than we do. For more information on risks related to our competition, refer to “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors."Competitive factors in our different business areas are detailed below:•Companion animal diagnostic offerings. We compete primarily on the basis of ease of use and speed of our products, diagnostic accuracy, product quality, breadth of our product line and services, differentiated product innovations, fully integrated technology, information management capability, enhancement of veterinary practice efficiency, availability of medical consultation, effectiveness of our sales and distribution channels, quality of our technical and customer service, and our pricing relative to the value of our products and services in comparison with competitive products and services. Our major competitors in most geographic locations in North America are Mars, Incorporated brands Antech Diagnostics and Heska; and Zoetis Inc. Our major competitors in most geographic locations in North America are Antech Diagnostics, a Mars Petcare brand of Mars, Incorporated; Zoetis Inc. (including its wholly-owned subsidiary Abaxis, Inc.). We also compete in certain international geographies with Zoetis Inc. We also compete in certain international geographies with Zoetis, Fujifilm Holdings Corporation, Samsung Electronics, Arkray, Inc. ; Mars, Incorporated brands including Heska, Antech Diagnostics, Scil, and Asia Veterinary Diagnostics; Fujifilm Holdings Corporation; Samsung Electronics, Arkray, Inc.; Mindray; and BioNote, Inc.12•Water, livestock, poultry, and dairy testing products. We compete primarily on the basis of the ease of use, speed, accuracy, product quality, and other performance characteristics of our products and services (including differentiated tests), the breadth of our product line and services, the effectiveness of our sales and distribution channels, the quality of our technical and customer service, our ability to receive regulatory approvals from governing agencies and our pricing relative to the value of our products in comparison with competitive products and services. Our competitors include highly-focused smaller companies and multibillion-dollar companies with livestock and poultry diagnostics and water testing solution franchises. Our competitors include highly-focused smaller companies and multibillion-dollar companies with small livestock and poultry diagnostics and water testing solution franchises. •Veterinary Software, Services and Diagnostic Imaging Systems. We compete primarily on the basis of functionality, system workflows, performance characteristics, effectiveness of our implementation, training process and customer service, information handling capabilities, advances in technologies, enhancement of veterinary practice efficiency, and our pricing relative to the value of our products and services in comparison with competitive products and services. We sell these products primarily in North America and Europe. Our largest competitor in North America and the U.K. is Covetrus, Inc., which offers several systems and leverages its animal health distribution business in sales and service. We also compete with numerous highly-focused smaller companies throughout the geographies in which we offer veterinary software, including those offering cloud-based solutions. Our competitors in the diagnostic imaging systems sector include Sound-Eklin, Antech Diagnostics, FUJIFILM, and Heska.•Human point-of-care medical diagnostic products. We compete primarily on the basis of the ease of use, menu, convenience, international distribution and service, instrument reliability, and our pricing relative to the value of our products. We compete primarily with large human medical diagnostics companies such as Radiometer A/S, Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics, Instrumentation Laboratory Company, Abbott Diagnostics, a division of Abbott Laboratories, and Roche Diagnostics Corporation.GOVERNMENT REGULATIONMany of our products are subject to comprehensive regulation by U.S. and foreign regulatory agencies that relate to, among other things, product approvals, product registrations, manufacturing, import, export, distribution, marketing and promotion, labeling, recordkeeping, testing, quality, storage, product disposal, environmental compliance, and workplace safety. The following is a description of the principal regulations affecting our businesses.Veterinary diagnostic products. Our veterinary diagnostic products including instruments, such as Catalyst One and ProCyte One, as well as their corresponding consumables, are veterinary medical devices under the jurisdiction of the FDA under the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act (the “FDC Act”). Our veterinary diagnostic products including instruments, such as Catalyst One and ProCyte One, as well as their corresponding consumables, are veterinary medical devices regulated by the FDA under the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act (the “FDC Act”). Other products under FDA jurisdiction include our rapid assay products such as SNAP devices and ELISA plates. Other FDA regulated products include our rapid assay products such as SNAP devices and ELISA plates. While the sale of these products does not require premarket approval by the FDA and does not subject us to FDA inspections or the FDA's current Good Manufacturing Practice regulations (“cGMP”), the FDA Act specifies that these products must not be adulterated, mislabeled, or misbranded.A subset of our veterinary diagnostic products, including our diagnostic test kits for companion and food animal infectious diseases, as well as most of our livestock and poultry products and many of our rapid assay products, are licensed and regulated in the U.S. by the Center for Veterinary Biologics within the United States Department of Agriculture (“USDA”) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (“APHIS”). These products must be approved by APHIS before they may be sold in and from the U.S. The APHIS regulatory approval process involves the submission of product validation data, including manufacturing process and facility documentation. Following regulatory licensure to market a product, APHIS requires that each product serial be submitted for test review before release to customers. Following regulatory licensure to market a product, APHIS requires that each lot of product be submitted for test review before release to customers. In addition, APHIS requires special approval to market products where test results are used in part for government-mandated disease management programs. A number of foreign governments accept APHIS approval to support product registration for sale, distribution, and use within their countries. However, compliance with extensive country-specific regulatory processes is required in connection with importing and marketing diagnostic products in Japan, Germany, Canada, Brazil, the Netherlands, China, and many other countries. We are also required to have a facility license from APHIS to manufacture USDA-licensed products. We have a facility license for our manufacturing facility in Westbrook, Maine which also covers our distribution center in Memphis, Tennessee. Our LPD manufacturing facility in Montpellier, France is a USDA-permitted site, and has been approved by APHIS to manufacture specified USDA-licensed products.Water testing products. Our water tests are generally not subject to formal premarket regulatory approval. However, before a test can be used as part of a water quality monitoring program in the U.S. that is regulated by the EPA, the test method must first be approved by the EPA. The EPA approval process involves submission of extensive product performance data in accordance with an EPA-approved protocol, evaluation of the data by the EPA, and publication for public comment of any 13proposed approval in the Federal Register before final approval. Our Colilert, Colilert-18, Colisure, Quanti-Tray, Filta-Max xpress, Enterolert, and SimPlate for heterotrophic plate counts products have been approved by the EPA for use under various regulatory programs. Water testing products are subject to similarly extensive regulatory processes in other countries around the world.Dairy testing products. Dairy products used in National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (“NCIMS”) milk-monitoring programs in the U.S. are regulated by the FDA as veterinary medical devices. Before these products can be sold in the U.S., performance data must be submitted in accordance with an FDA-approved protocol administered by an independent body, such as the Association of Analytical Chemists Research Institute (“AOAC RI”). While some foreign countries accept AOAC RI certification as part of their regulatory approval process, many countries have separate regulatory processes. All test methods used for the drug residue testing require validation by the FDA and acceptance by the NCIMS, and are included on a Memorandum of Interpretation issued by the FDA. IDEXX has two FDA-validated test products, SNAP NBL and SNAP Tetra, for sale in the U.S.Human point-of-care electrolyte and blood gas analyzers. Our OPTI instrument systems are classified by the FDA as Class I and/or Class II medical devices, and their design, manufacture, and marketing are regulated by the FDA. Accordingly, we must comply with cGMP in the manufacture of our OPTI products. The FDA’s Quality System regulations further set forth standards for product design and manufacturing processes, require the maintenance of certain records, and provide for inspections of our facilities by the FDA. New OPTI products fall into FDA classifications that require notification of and review by the FDA via a 510(k) application before marketing or sale of such products. These OPTI products are also subject to the regulations governing the manufacture and marketing of medical devices in other countries in which they are sold, including the EU Medical Device Regulation and In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices Regulation.Human COVID-19 test products. During 2022, OPTI manufactured, sold, and distributed PCR and antibody ELISA test kits for the detection of the virus that causes COVID-19. OPTI manufactures, sells, and distributes PCR and antibody ELISA test kits for the detection of the virus that causes COVID-19. These test kits are subject to regulation by the FDA pursuant to the FDC Act, and more specifically, are sold and distributed pursuant to FDA Emergency Use Authorization. These products are also subject to the regulations governing the manufacturing and marketing of medical devices in other countries in which they are sold, including the EU Medical Device Regulation and In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices Regulation. As of the first quarter of 2023, we are not actively marketing or promoting these products and services.Other Chemical, Environmental, and Human Health Safety Regulations. All IDEXX products must comply with applicable global product regulations, including those governing consumer product safety and materials requirements such as the Europeans Union's Electromagnetic Compatibility (“EMC”) Directive, the European Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances (“REACH”), the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (“RoHS”) Directive, and the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (“WEEE”) Directive. These complex regulatory requirements create risk to IDEXX’s ability to market and sell our products, our business, and our financial performance. In the European Union, our analyzers and certain associated equipment are subject to the requirements of the RoHS Directive, which regulates and restricts certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment.”In the European Union, our analyzers and certain associated equipment are subject to the requirements of the RoHS Directive, which regulates and restricts certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. Other countries, including China, Russia, the United Arab Emirates, and Turkey, have implemented or anticipate implementing regulatory regimes similar to the RoHS Directive. Our veterinary diagnostic instrument systems are not subject to regulation under the EU Medical Device Regulation or In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Device Regulation, which are both strictly applicable to human use products. Our veterinary diagnostic instrument systems are not subject to regulation under the European Medical Device Directive or the In Vitro Diagnostic Directive, which are both strictly applicable to human use products. However, these systems are required to meet CE certification, which require compliance with the RoHS Directive, the EMC Directive, and other safety requirements. Most countries in which we sell our products impose similar registrations and/or certification requirements.The European Union was among the first to regulate and restrict the use of certain substances that we currently use in our products. These requirements include the Biocidal Products Regulation, which requires the use of only approved biocides in our products imported to or used in the European Union, and REACH, which regulates and restricts the use of certain chemicals in the European Union. Compliance with these regulations (and similar regulations that have been or may be adopted elsewhere, such as Australia, China, Russia, Turkey, Korea, and other countries) may require registration, notification, or certification regarding regulated substances, imposition of import restrictions, or in certain cases the redesign or reformulation of our products. As part of the microplastics restrictions pursuant to REACH, some of our products, including Companion Animal products, may be subject to derogation, such as labeling and reporting.In the U.S., the EPA regulates chemical use similarly to the European Union. In addition, certain states have their own chemical regulations, such as California's Proposition 65, which requires businesses to provide warnings to California residents about significant risk of exposures to chemicals in products that are known to cause cancer, birth defects, or other reproductive 14harm. PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances), which may be contained in certain IDEXX products, are a subject of increasing regulatory attention. The European Union had proposed draft regulations regarding PFAS, which include restrictions and/or phase-out requirements. In the U.S., the EPA has published a PFAS rule under the Toxic Substance Control Act, requiring manufactures of PFAS and importers of products containing PFAS to file certain information from January 1, 2011 including PFAS chemical identity and structure, production, use, byproducts, exposure, disposal, and health and environmental effects. In addition, a number of states, including Maine, where we manufacture many of our products, have also developed product reporting and/or phase-out requirements., a number of states, including Maine, where we manufacture many of our products, have also developed product reporting and/or phase-out requirements. Maine’s statute requires that by January 1, 2025, manufacturers of products with intentionally-added PFAS report the presence of such substances, and specifies that (subject to certain exceptions to be promulgated by the Maine Department of Environmental Protection) no product containing intentionally-added PFAS may be sold in Maine after January 1, 2030. Maine’s statute requires that effective as of January 1, 2023, manufacturers of products with intentionally-added PFAS report the presence of such substances, and specifies that (subject to certain exceptions to be promulgated by the Maine Department of Environmental Protection) no product containing intentionally-added PFAS may be sold in Maine after January 1, 2030. In addition to the foregoing, our business is generally subject to various U.In addition to the foregoing, our business is generally subject to various U. S. and foreign regulatory authorities, including the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (the “FTC”) and other anti-competition authorities, and we are also subject to anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the UK Bribery Act, import and export laws and regulations, including U.S. import and export control and sanctions laws, and laws and regulations governing the collection, use, retention, sharing and security of data such as the EU General Data Protection Regulation. Development or acquisition of new products and technologies may subject us to additional areas of government regulation. These may involve medical device, water-quality and other regulations of the FDA, the EPA, the USDA, the FTC, and other federal agencies, as well as state, local and foreign governments. For more information about the risks associated with various U.S. and foreign government regulation, refer to “Various U.S. and foreign government regulations could limit or delay our ability to market and sell our products or otherwise negatively impact our business” under “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.”HUMAN CAPITALAs innovation and customer focus are important parts of our strategy to create long-term value, we aim to attract, motivate, develop, and retain talented employees at all levels who are aligned with and passionate about our Purpose by:•Building and sustaining an inclusive, ethical culture that values diversity, equity, and inclusion (“DEI”); •Offering competitive and locally relevant compensation and benefits; and •Providing growth and development opportunities. Because our strategy includes developing strong, deep relationships with our veterinary customers, we have focused on growing our companion animal diagnostics field-based organization globally.Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion. We believe that promoting DEI among our employees helps drive both innovation and a better understanding of our increasingly global customer base. We employ inclusive recruitment practices to source diverse candidates and mitigate potential bias. We encourage and promote an inclusive culture at IDEXX, including through executive sponsorship of our employee-led communities that support our employees with diverse backgrounds. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 11,000 regular full-time and part-time employees, with underrepresented minorities representing an estimated 24.4% of our U.7% of our U. S. employees, as follows:(1) Data regarding racial and ethnic background are based on self-identification by our U.S. employees; underrepresented minorities is defined as Black/African American, Asian, Hispanic/Latinx and Other. The percentages provided do not add up to 100% because some U.S. employees declined to specify race and/or ethnicity.(2) Other is defined as American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, and two or more races.15In addition, as of December 31, 2023, women represented 58.5% of our global employee population and were represented in leadership as follows: (1) Global Senior Leaders are employees in compensation grades considered Director or above.(2) Global Senior Executives are employees in compensation grades considered Senior Vice President or above.Compensation, Benefits and Well-being. We offer fair, competitive compensation and a wide array of competitive and locally relevant benefits (which vary by country and region) that support our employees’ overall well-being, including comprehensive health and welfare insurance; generous time-off and leave; retirement and financial support. We have recognition programs for the purpose of acknowledging the achievements of individual and team performance. We leverage the insights gained from the survey to develop a roadmap for improving engagement and retention. Our well-being programs have strong utilization by our employee base, and are reviewed to ensure they are achieving the anticipated outcomes. We provide free counseling for employees and their dependents globally through our mental wellness partner. We provide free counseling for employees and their dependents globally through our mental wellness partner and Employee Assistance Program. Interactive holistic well-being resources are available to employees globally, including monthly educational webinars, ergonomic support, team fitness challenges, nutrition programs, and self-guided courses on a broad range of topics. In addition, all employees have access to financial education and our employees, their spouses, and adult dependents in North America, can engage with a financial coach for help reaching their personal financial goals. We continue to strengthen our approach to maximize the contributions of all through our commitment to flexible work options. This allows managers, teams, and employees to work together to identify the most efficient way to accomplish goals. For some teams this consists of 100% onsite work, while others employ remote or hybrid models. Our goal is to promote a positive workplace environment where everyone can contribute to their fullest potential. We strive to build a collaborative culture through in-person and virtual events, including town halls, in-office celebrations, and employee-led communities. Ensuring the health, safety, and well-being of our employees is a top priority at IDEXX.Ensuring the health, safety, and well-being of our employees is a top priority at IDEXX. We provide our employees with the training, tools, and resources they need to safeguard their health and we empower them to put safety first. Our Environmental Health & Safety (“EH&S”) team oversees the IDEXX EH&S management system and our company-wide safety programs, ensuring that all of our locations implement health and safety processes to maintain and improve employee safety, reduce workplace risks, and drive continuous improvement.Growth and Development. We are steadfast in our focus on cultivating the diverse leaders of tomorrow and making career development opportunities more accessible across the company. Much of our training programs are 100% virtual and available in multiple languages. Much of training programs are 100% virtual and available in multiple languages. Our career development programs are designed to build capabilities and enable career progression. We also encourage employees to enhance their career development through job-related courses and degree programs.Employee Turnover and Engagement. We monitor employee turnover and engagement to identify opportunities to strengthen our approach to human capital management. During 2023, our overall voluntary employee turnover rate was approximately 10%. During 2022, our overall voluntary employee turnover rate was 13. Our voluntary turnover among managerial employees was approximately 4. Our voluntary turnover among managerial employees was 6. 5%. We regularly conduct company-wide employee surveys through a third party to collect employee input on our culture, their experiences, and workplace conditions. We regularly conduct company-wide employee surveys through a third party to collect employee inputon our culture, their experiences, and workplace conditions. These survey results provide insights that help us to improve employee engagement. Our most recent global employee survey received a high level of response and we maintained a strong level of engagement, consistent with prior years. Our most recent global employee survey received a high level of response and indicated an 84% engagement level. We leverage the insights gained from the survey to develop a roadmap for improving engagement and retention. 16ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS, SUSTAINABILITY AND CLIMATE CHANGEOur operations are subject to various environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations concerning, among other things, the generation, handling, transportation, and disposal of hazardous substances or wastes, the cleanup of hazardous substance releases, emissions or discharges into the air or water, and occupational safety and health. The ongoing costs of complying with such laws and regulations is significant and may increase in the future, particularly in the European Union, where we are required to comply with increasingly extensive regulations to disclose and address climate change impacts and resource conservation matters. We continue to monitor legislative and regulatory actions and their potential impacts on the areas where we conduct business.In addition to monitoring and managing compliance with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we also strive to reduce our environmental footprint. We recognize that climate change has had and will continue to have significant impacts on our environment and have developed and are implementing a greenhouse gas emissions reduction strategy. To monitor our progress in meeting our environmental goals, we track and publicly report our environmental impact metrics, including greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption. In pursuit of our goals, we have developed initiatives and multi-year projects to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions, integrate sustainability considerations for new product development and design, and reduce the amount of plastic and other material waste from current products and packaging. In addition, concerns about our practices with regard to the collection, use, retention, disclosure, or security of personal data or other privacy-related matters, even if unfounded and even if we are in compliance with applicable laws and regulations, could damage our reputation and harm our business. Our most recent Corporate Responsibility Report, which is available on our website, is aligned with the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board and the Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures frameworks and provides our most recent sustainability highlights for our products and operations.AVAILABLE INFORMATIONOur principal executive offices are located at One IDEXX Drive, Westbrook, Maine 04092, our telephone number is 207-556-0300, and our internet address is www.idexx.com.

References to our website in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are inactive textual references only and the content of our website, including our Corporate Responsibility Report, should not be deemed incorporated by reference for any purpose. References to our website in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are inactive textual references only and the content of our website should not be deemed incorporated by reference for any purpose. We make available free of charge at www.idexx.

com our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such information with, or furnish it to, the SEC. In addition, copies of our reports filed electronically with or furnished electronically to the SEC may be accessed at www. In addition, copies of our reports filed electronically with the SEC may be accessed at www. sec.gov. Our Corporate Governance Guidelines and our Code of Ethics are also available on our website at www.idexx.com.17ITEM 1A.16ITEM 1A.

RISK FACTORSYou should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below in addition to the other information included or incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in evaluating our company and our business.

Our future operating results involve a number of risks and uncertainties, and actual events or results may differ materially from those discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, the factors discussed below, as well as those factors discussed elsewhere herein. Any of these factors, in whole or in part, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results, prospects, and stock price. RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS AND INDUSTRYBecause our business lines are highly attractive, they are also highly competitive. Our failure to successfully execute certain strategies within this competitive environment could have a material negative impact on our future growth and profitabilityThe companion animal healthcare industry is highly competitive, and we anticipate increasing levels of competition from both existing competitors and new sector entrants given our performance and the industry’s strong growth and returns. Our ability to maintain or enhance our growth rates and our profitability depends on our successful execution of many elements of our strategy, including:•Developing, manufacturing, and marketing innovative new or improved and cost competitive in-clinic laboratory analyzers that drive sales of IDEXX VetLab instruments, grow our installed base of instruments, and increase demand for related recurring sales of consumable products, services, and accessories;•Developing and introducing new or improved innovative diagnostic tests and services for both our reference laboratories and in-clinic applications that provide valuable medical information to our customers and effectively differentiate our products and services from those of our competitors;•Developing and introducing new or improved innovative, data-insightful software solutions that enable our veterinary customers to improve practice management and efficiency, staff productivity, and client communications and that increase the value to our veterinary customers of our other companion animal products and services by enhancing the integration of the information and transactions of these products and services and supporting the interpretation and management of diagnostic information derived from these products and services;•Maintaining premium pricing, including by effectively implementing price increases, for our products and services through, among other things, effective communication and promotion of the value of our products and services in an environment where many of our competitors promote, market, and sell lesser offerings at prices lower than ours;•Providing our veterinary customers with the medical and business tools, information, and resources that enable them to grow their practices and increase utilization of our diagnostic products and services, through increased pet visits, use of preventive care protocols, enhanced practice of real-time care, and improved practice efficiency;•Achieving cost improvements in our worldwide network of reference laboratories by implementing global best practices, including lean processing techniques, incorporating technological enhancements, including laboratory automation and a global laboratory information management system, employing purchasing strategies to maximize leverage of our global scale, increasing the leverage of existing infrastructure and consolidating testing in high volume laboratory hubs;•Achieving cost improvements in the manufacture and service of our in-clinic laboratory analyzers by employing the benefits of economies of scale in both negotiating supply contracts and leveraging manufacturing overhead, and by improving reliability of our instruments;•Continuing to expand, develop, and advance the productivity of our companion animal diagnostic sales, marketing, customer support, and logistics organizations in the U. Our ability to maintain or enhance our growth rates and our profitability depends on our successful execution of many elements of our strategy, including:•Developing, manufacturing, and marketing innovative new or improved and cost competitive in-clinic laboratory analyzers that drive sales of IDEXX VetLab instruments, grow our installed base of instruments, and increase demand for related recurring sales of consumable products, services, and accessories;•Developing and introducing new or improved innovative diagnostic tests and services for both our reference laboratories and in-clinic applications that provide valuable medical information to our customers and effectively differentiate our products and services from those of our competitors;•Developing and introducing new or improved innovative, data-insightful software solutions that enable our veterinary customers to improve practice management and efficiency, staff productivity, and client communications and that increase the value to our veterinary customers of our other companion animal products and services by enhancing the integration of the information and transactions of these products and services and supporting the interpretation and management of diagnostic information derived from these products and services;•Maintaining premium pricing, including by effectively implementing price increases, for our differentiated products and services through, among other things, effective communication and promotion of the value of our products and services in an environment where many of our competitors promote, market, and sell lesser offerings at prices lower than ours;•Providing our veterinary customers with the medical and business tools, information, and resources that enable them to grow their practices and increase utilization of our diagnostic products and services, through increased pet visits, use of preventive care protocols, enhanced practice of real-time care, and improved practice efficiency;•Achieving cost improvements in our worldwide network of reference laboratories by implementing global best practices, including lean processing techniques, incorporating technological enhancements, including laboratory automation and a global laboratory information management system, employing purchasing strategies to maximize leverage of our global scale, increasing the leverage of existing infrastructure and consolidating testing in high volume laboratory hubs;•Achieving cost improvements in the manufacture and service of our in-clinic laboratory analyzers by employing the benefits of economies of scale in both negotiating supply contracts and leveraging manufacturing overhead, and by improving reliability of our instruments;•Continuing to expand, develop, and advance the productivity of our companion animal diagnostic sales, marketing, customer support, and logistics organizations in the U. S. and international regions in support of, among other things, our all-direct sales strategies;•Attracting, developing, and retaining key leadership and talent necessary to support all elements of our strategy; •Strengthening our sales and marketing activities to continue to grow our profitability both in and outside the U. and international regions in support of, among other things, our all-direct sales strategies;•Attracting, developing, and retaining key leadership and talent necessary to support all elements of our strategy, which is challenging due to the increasingly competitive and tight labor markets in which we operate, as well as public health issues, including pandemics, such as the COVID-19-related pandemic impacts on the workforce; •Strengthening our sales and marketing activities to continue to grow our profitability both in and outside the U. S.; •Identifying, completing, and integrating acquisitions that enhance our existing businesses, create new businesses for us or expand the geographic areas in which we do business;18•Continuing to incorporate AI, machine learning, and automation into our products and services and associated business processes, such as customer support and software development;•Developing and implementing new technology and licensing strategies; and•Continuing to effectively manage our growth and expansion on a global scale through, among other things, designing and implementing cost-effective improvements to our processes, procedures, and infrastructure.; •Identifying, completing, and integrating acquisitions that enhance our existing businesses, create new businesses for us or expand the geographic areas in which we do business;17•Developing and implementing new technology and licensing strategies; and•Continuing to effectively manage our growth and expansion on a global scale through, among other things, designing and implementing cost-effective improvements to our processes, procedures, and infrastructure. If we are unsuccessful in implementing and executing on some or all of these strategies, our rate of growth or profitability may be negatively impacted.Our dependence on third-party suppliers could limit our ability to sell certain products or negatively affect our operating resultsWe rely on third-party suppliers to provide components and raw materials (including biological materials) for our manufactured products, manufacture some of the products that we sell, and perform certain services, including package-delivery services. Actions taken by third-party suppliers in operating their business, as well as any disruptions to their business operations (or their suppliers' business operations), could disrupt our supply chain or operations and materially negatively impact our ability to supply the market, substantially decrease sales, lead to higher costs, and damage our reputation with our customers. Longer-term disruptions could potentially result in the permanent loss of our customers, which could reduce our recurring revenues and long-term profitability.Our supply chain and our cost of goods also may be adversely impacted by unanticipated price increases due to factors such as inflation (including wage inflation), supply restrictions beyond our control or the control of our suppliers, or regulatory requirements regarding the importation, exportation, composition, or production processes of the goods or materials provided by our suppliers. If current suppliers fail to supply sufficient goods or materials that comply with applicable regulatory requirements to us on a timely basis, or at all, or are unable to comply with any due diligence requests that may be required pursuant to applicable law or regulation, we could experience inventory shortages and disruptions in our supply of goods or materials.For examples of some of the events that could result in disruption to our supply chain or operations, and negatively impact our operating results, refer to “Various U.S. and foreign government regulations could limit or delay our ability to market and sell our products or otherwise negatively impact our business,” “We are increasingly dependent on the continuous and reliable operation of our information technology systems, and a disruption of these systems or significant security breaches could adversely affect our business” and “Factors and events beyond our control could disrupt our operations, supply chain, and logistics network and adversely affect our business” below.In addition, we currently purchase many products, components, and materials from sole or single sources, such as Ortho. Some of these products are proprietary and, therefore, cannot be readily or easily replaced by alternative sources. These products, components, and materials are used in a majority of our instruments, including our Catalyst Dx, Catalyst One, ProCyte Dx, and ProCyte One analyzers; consumables and accessories used in our instruments; livestock and poultry diagnostic tests, dairy testing products; and water testing products. Even if products, components, and materials were to become available to us from alternative suppliers, we likely would incur additional costs and delays in identifying or qualifying replacement materials, and there can be no assurance that replacements would be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. In certain cases, we may be required to obtain regulatory approval to use alternative suppliers, and this process of approval could delay production of our products or development of product candidates indefinitely.We seek to mitigate sole and single-source suppliers risks on a risk-prioritized basis and in a variety of ways, including, when possible, by identifying and qualifying alternative suppliers, developing applicable in-house manufacturing capabilities and expertise, and entering into escrow arrangements for manufacturing information for certain single or sole-sourced products. We also seek to enter into long-term contracts that provide for an uninterrupted supply of products at predictable or fixed prices. However, there can be no assurance that we will successfully implement any of these mitigating activities or that, if implemented, any of them will be effective in preventing any delay or other disruption in our ability to supply our customers. In addition, suppliers may decline to enter into long-term contracts for any number of reasons, which would require us to purchase products, components, or raw materials via short-term contracts or on a purchase order basis. There can be no assurance that suppliers with which we do not have long-term contracts will continue to supply our requirements, will always fulfill their obligations under those contracts, or will not experience disruptions in their ability to supply our requirements. In cases where we purchase sole and single-source products, components, or raw materials under purchase orders, we are more susceptible to unanticipated cost increases or changes in other terms of supply. In addition, under some contracts with suppliers we have minimum purchase obligations, and our failure to satisfy those obligations may result in 19loss of some or all of our rights under these contracts or require us to compensate the supplier. If we are unable to obtain adequate quantities of products, components, or raw materials in the future from sole and single-source suppliers, or if such sole and single-source suppliers are unable to obtain the components or other materials required to manufacture the products, we may be unable to supply our customers, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and damage our reputation, and any longer-term disruptions could potentially result in the permanent loss of customers, which could reduce our recurring revenues and long-term profitability. If we are unable to obtain adequate quantities of products, components, or raw materials in the future from sole and single-source suppliers, or if such sole 18and single-source suppliers are unable to obtain the components or other materials required to manufacture the products, we may be unable to supply our customers, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, and any longer-term disruptions could potentially result in the permanent loss of customers, which could reduce our recurring revenues and long-term profitability. Our biologic products are complex and difficult to manufacture, which could negatively affect our ability to supply our customers Many of our rapid assay, livestock and poultry diagnostic, water, and dairy products are biologic products that include biological materials, such as antibodies, cells, and sera. Manufacturing biologic products is highly complex due to the inherent variability of biological materials and the difficulty of controlling the interactions of these materials with other components of the products, samples, and the environment. There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain adequate sources of biological materials or that we will be able to consistently manufacture biologic products that satisfy applicable product release criteria and regulatory requirements. Further, products that meet release criteria at the time of manufacture may fall out of specification while in customer inventory, which could require us to incur expenses associated with recalling products and providing customers with new products, either of which could damage customer relations and our reputation. Our inability to produce or obtain necessary biological materials or to successfully manufacture biologic products that incorporate such materials could result in our inability to supply our customers with these products, which would have an adverse effect on our results of operations and damage our reputation.Issues in the use of AI in our product offerings may result in reputational harm or liabilityWe have built, and expect to continue to build, AI into many of our product and service offerings, and we expect this element of our business to grow. We envision a future in which responsible AI operating in our devices, applications, and the cloud, helps our customers be more productive in their business activities and interactions with consumers. As with many disruptive innovations, AI presents risks and challenges that could affect its adoption, and therefore our business. AI algorithms and models may be flawed. Datasets may be insufficient or contain information that is non-representative, infringing, or otherwise subject to legal challenge. Potential government regulation related to AI use may also foreclose certain areas of AI use, cause us to modify how we use AI, and increase the burden and cost of research and development in this area, and failure to properly remediate AI usage issues may cause public confidence in AI to be undermined, which could slow adoption of AI in our offerings. The rapid evolution of AI will require the application of resources to develop, test, and maintain our products and services to help ensure that AI is implemented in a manner to minimize unintended, harmful impact and to comply with applicable law. Furthermore, over the last year, there have been multiple class action lawsuits filed against large language model developers in the Northern District of California, the Southern District of New York, and the Middle District of Tennessee concerning alleged copyright and other intellectual property violations with respect to the information used to train AI models. The outcomes of these litigations may impair our ability to provide our AI technologies.Various U.S. and foreign government regulations could limit or delay our ability to market and sell our products or otherwise negatively impact our businessAs a global business, we sell products and services in more than 175 countries and operate in an increasingly complex legal and regulatory environment. In the U.S., the manufacture and sale of certain of our products are regulated by federal agencies, such as the USDA, the FDA, and the EPA. Our diagnostic tests for animal health applications that involve the detection of infectious diseases, including most rapid assay canine and feline SNAP tests and livestock and poultry diagnostic tests, must be approved by the USDA prior to sale in the U.S. Our dairy testing products, as well as the manufacture and sale of our OPTI line of human point-of-care electrolytes and blood gas analyzers, require approval by the FDA before they may be sold commercially in the U.S. The methods used by our water testing products must be approved by the EPA, as a part of its water quality monitoring program, before they can be used by customers in the U.S. Delays in obtaining regulatory approvals for new products or product upgrades could have a negative impact on our growth and profitability.We are also subject to chemical regulation in the U.S., such as California’s Proposition 65, which requires businesses to provide warnings to California residents about significant risk of exposures to chemicals in products that are known to cause cancer, birth defects, or other reproductive harm. In addition, governmental authorities in the U.S. are increasingly focused on preventing environmental contamination from per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (“PFAS”), which may be contained in certain IDEXX products. For example, current law in Maine will require reporting of intentionally-added PFAS in products beginning in January 2025, and the sale in Maine of any product containing intentionally-added PFAS will be prohibited after 20January 1, 2030 (subject to certain exceptions to be promulgated by the Maine Department of Environmental Protection). For example, the state of Maine requires reporting of intentionally-added PFAS in products, and the sale in Maine of any product containing intentionally-added PFAS will be prohibited after January 1, 2030 (subject to certain exceptions to be promulgated by the Maine Department of Environmental Protection). In addition, federal and state governments and agencies are in various stages of considering and/or implementing laws and regulations requiring the reporting, restriction and/or phase-out of PFAS in products.The manufacture, import, and sale of our products, as well as our research and development processes, are subject to similar and sometimes more stringent laws in many foreign countries. For example, the European Union regulates the use of certain substances that we currently use in our products or processes. These regulations include, but are not limited to, the Biocidal Products Regulation, which requires the use of approved biocides in our products prior to being manufactured, used, or sold in the European Union; the European Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances, or REACH, which regulates and restricts the use of chemicals in the European Union; the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (“RoHS”) Directive, which regulates and restricts certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment; the Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive; and the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive. In addition, European Union regulatory authorities and certain European countries are contemplating regulations to restrict and phase-out PFAS. Compliance with these and similar laws, directives and regulations in the U.S. and abroad may require registration of the applicable substances, performance of due diligence across our supply chain and reporting thereon, and/or the redesign or reformulation of our products, and may reduce or eliminate the availability of certain parts and components used in our products and services or lead us to change our suppliers in the event our suppliers are unable to comply with our due diligence requests or the applicable regulations in a timely and cost-effective manner. In extreme situations, compliance with these laws, directives and regulations may require us to eliminate or discontinue the use of a part or component in one or more products, but the redesign or reformulation of such products without such parts or components may not be possible, or cause us to relocate the production of certain products. In extreme situations, compliance with these laws, 19directives and regulations may require us to eliminate or discontinue the use of a part or component in one or more products, but the redesign or reformulation of such products without such parts or components may not be possible. Any redesign or reformulation, change in our suppliers, restrictions in our supply of parts and components, or relocation may negatively affect the availability or performance of our products and services, add testing lead-times for products and reformulated products, reduce our margins, result in additional costs, or have other similar effects. Any redesign or reformulation, change in our suppliers, or restrictions in our supply of parts and components may negatively affect the availability or performance of our products and services, add testing lead-times for products and reformulated products, reduce our margins, result in additional costs, or have other similar effects. Any inability to redesign or reformulate one or more of our products may preclude us from marketing and selling such products in the applicable regions. In addition, the costs to comply with these regulations may be significant. Any of these could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations. These legal and regulatory requirements are complex and subject to change, and we continue to evaluate their impact.In addition, some foreign governments require us to register or certify our products before they can be distributed or sold, and these product registration requirements, which vary among the applicable jurisdictions and change from time to time, are often complex and require us to engage in lengthy and costly processes and provide confidential, proprietary information about those products to foreign regulatory agencies. For example, compliance with extensive country-specific regulatory processes is required in connection with importing, marketing, and selling our diagnostic products in Japan, Germany, Canada, Brazil, the Netherlands, China, and many other countries. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain or maintain any product registration required by one or more foreign governments. Any inability to obtain or maintain a required product registration in a jurisdiction could adversely affect our ability to market and sell the applicable product in that jurisdiction, which could have a negative effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. There can also be no assurance that confidential, proprietary information provided to foreign regulatory agencies may not be accessed by unauthorized persons or otherwise stolen, which could negatively impact our ability to protect our proprietary rights in our innovative products and our future success. For more information about the risks related to the protection of our proprietary rights in our products and services, refer to “Our success is heavily dependent on our continued differentiated product and service innovation” below.There has been a recent focus on laws and regulations related to artificial intelligence, including the current U.S. presidential administration, the U.S. Congress, and U.S. regulators, which cover, among other things, algorithm accountability, privacy, and transparency. For example, the Biden Administration issued an Executive Order aimed at establishing new standards for AI safety and security, privacy, consumer and employee protection and innovation and competition associated with the use of AI. Further, use of artificial intelligence and machine learning may be subject to laws and evolving regulations regarding, among other things, data bias and anti-discrimination. For example, the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) enforces consumer protection laws such as Section 5 of the FTC Act, which prohibits unfair and deceptive practices. AI-related legislation has also been introduced in a number of U.S. state legislatures. In December 2023 the European Parliament and Council reached agreement on the European Union Artificial Intelligence Act, which will establish requirements for the provision and use of products that leverage artificial intelligence, machine learning, and similar technologies, and is expected to take effect in stages throughout 2025 and 2026. Additionally, other countries have proposed legal frameworks to regulate artificial intelligence, which is a trend that may continue to increase. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with such requirements could have an adverse impact on our business.21We are also subject to a variety of federal, state, local, and international laws and regulations governing our global business practices. For example, jurisdictions in which we operate prohibit bribery and corruption, anti-competitive behavior, and money laundering; impose trade compliance requirements and restrictions, such as prohibitions on doing business with certain entities or individuals; determine rules impacting the importation and exportation of our products; and regulate immigration and travel. These legal, regulatory, and sometimes politically motivated requirements differ among jurisdictions around the world and are rapidly changing and increasingly complex. The costs associated with compliance with these legal and regulatory requirements and adjusting to changing legal and political environments are significant and likely to increase in the future.Any failure by us to comply with applicable legal and regulatory requirements, or to adjust to changing legal and political environments, could result in fines, penalties, and sanctions; product recalls; suspensions or discontinuations of, or limitations or restrictions on, our ability to design, manufacture, market, import, export or sell our products; and damage to our reputation. Any of these could negatively impact our business.Our success is heavily dependent on our continued differentiated product and service innovation We believe our future success significantly depends on our ability to continue, on a cost-effective and timely basis, to enhance our existing differentiated product and service offerings, to continue to incorporate AI, machine learning and automation into our products and services and associated business processes and to develop and introduce new and innovative differentiated products and services.Our success is heavily dependent on our continued differentiated product and service innovation We believe our future success significantly depends on our ability to continue, on a cost-effective and timely basis, to enhance our existing differentiated product and service offerings and to develop and introduce new and innovative differentiated products and services. As a result, we invest substantial funds and efforts into R&D, investigating new products and technologies being developed by third parties, and obtaining certain such new products and technologies through licenses or acquisitions. There can be no assurance that our R&D, licensing, or acquisition efforts will achieve expected results, when or whether any of our products or services now under development will be launched, or whether we may be able to develop, license or otherwise acquire new products or technologies or successfully incorporate AI capabilities into our products, services or associated business processes. There can be no assurance that our R&D, licensing, or acquisition efforts will achieve expected results, when or whether any of our products or services now under development will be launched, or whether we may be able to develop, license or otherwise acquire new products or technologies. We also cannot predict whether any product or service offering, once launched, will achieve market acceptance, or achieve sales and revenue consistent with our expectations. We rely on a combination of patent, trade secret, trademark, and copyright laws to protect our proprietary rights. We also license patents and technologies from third parties to enable the use of third-party technologies in the development, production, and provision of our products and services. If we do not have adequate protection of our proprietary rights or are unable to license third-party patents and technologies on reasonable terms, our business may be adversely affected by competitors who utilize substantially equivalent technologies to compete with us.We cannot ensure that we will obtain issued patents, that any patents issued or licensed to us will remain valid, or that any patents owned or licensed by us will provide protection against competitors with similar technologies. Even if our patents cover products or services sold by our competitors, the time and expense of litigating to enforce our patent rights could be substantial and could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. In addition, expiration of patent rights could result in substantial new competition for products or services previously covered by those patent rights.In the past, we have received notices claiming that our products or services infringe third-party patents, and we may receive such notices in the future. Patent litigation is complex and expensive, and the outcome of patent litigation can be difficult to predict. We cannot ensure that we will win a patent litigation case or negotiate an acceptable resolution of such a case. If we lose, we may be prohibited from selling certain products or services and/or we may be required to pay damages and/or ongoing royalties as a result of the lawsuit. Any such result could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. Increased competition from and technological advances by our competitors could negatively affect our operating resultsWe face intense competition, and we expect that future competition will become even more intense as new products, services and technologies become available, the use of AI and machine learning expands, and new competitors enter the space. Increased competition from and technological advances by our competitors could negatively affect our operating resultsWe face intense competition, and we expect that future competition will become even more intense as new products, services and technologies become available and new competitors enter the space. Our competitors in the veterinary diagnostic sector in the United States and abroad include companies that develop, manufacture, and sell veterinary diagnostic tests and commercial veterinary reference laboratories, certain large and well-funded animal health pharmaceutical companies, as well as corporate hospital chains that operate reference laboratories that serve both their hospitals and unaffiliated hospitals, such as VCA Inc., which is wholly owned by Mars, Incorporated, another operator of corporate hospital chains. Consolidation among our competitors and our customers may intensify the competition we face. While we believe that our offerings are competitively differentiated due to our innovative products and services that offer an integrated, comprehensive diagnostic solution and the quality of our technical and customer service, there can be no assurance that increased consolidation among our competitors or customers (as well as any resulting reference laboratory 22vertical integration among our customers) would not have a negative impact on our ability to compete successfully. While we believe that our offerings are competitively differentiated due to our innovative products and services (such as the IDEXX SDMA test and VetConnect Plus) that offer an integrated, comprehensive diagnostic solution and the quality of our technical and customer service, there can be no assurance that increased consolidation among our competitors or customers (as well as any resulting reference laboratory vertical integration among our customers) would not have a negative impact on our ability to compete successfully. For more information regarding the risks presented by consolidation and reference laboratory vertical integration among our customers, refer to “Consolidation in our customer base, including through increased corporate hospital ownership, and prevalence of buying consortiums could negatively affect our business” below.Competition could negatively affect our sales and profitability in a number of ways. New competitors may emerge through the development of innovative new technology (such as the use of AI and machine learning), the acquisition of rights to use existing technologies or the use of existing technologies when patents protecting such existing technologies expire. New competitors may emerge through the development of innovative new technology, the acquisition of rights to use existing technologies or the use of existing technologies when patents protecting such existing technologies expire. New or existing competitors may introduce new, innovative, and competitive products and services more quickly, successfully and effectively, and these products and services could be superior, or be perceived by our customers to be superior, to our products and services or lead to the obsolescence of one or more of our products or services. New or existing competitors may introduce new, innovative, and competitive products and services, which could be superior, or be perceived by our customers to be superior, to our products and services or lead to the obsolescence of one or more of our products or services. Business combinations and mergers among our competitors may result in competitors that are better positioned to create, market, and sell more compelling product and service offerings. While an important aspect of our strategy is to continue, on a cost-effective and timely basis, to enhance our existing products and services (including through the incorporation of AI capabilities) and to develop and introduce new and innovative products and services, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully develop or introduce such products and services or that those products or services will be superior to our competitors’ products or services or otherwise achieve customer acceptance. While an important aspect of our strategy is to continue, on a cost-effective and timely basis, to enhance our existing products and services and to develop and introduce new and innovative products and services, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully develop such products and services or that those products or services will be superior to our competitors’ products or services or otherwise achieve customer acceptance. Some of our competitors and potential competitors may choose to differentiate themselves by offering products and services perceived in the eyes of customers as similar, at substantially lower sales prices, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations through loss of sales and/or revenues or a decision to lower our own sales prices to remain competitive. In addition, our ability to attract and retain customers depends on the effectiveness of our customer marketing and incentive programs, and multiple competitors could bundle product and service offerings through co-marketing or other arrangements, which could enhance their ability to compete with our broad product and service offerings. In addition, our ability to attract and retain customers depends on the effectiveness of our customer marketing and incentive programs and multiple competitors could bundle product and service offerings through co-marketing or other arrangements, which could enhance their ability to compete with our broad product and service offerings. Certain of our competitors and potential competitors, including large diagnostic and pharmaceutical companies, also have substantially greater financial and managerial resources than us, as well as greater experience in manufacturing, marketing, research and development, and obtaining regulatory approvals than we do.Consolidation in our customer base, including through increased corporate hospital ownership, and prevalence of buying consortiums could negatively affect our business Veterinarians are our primary customers for our CAG products and services, and the veterinary services industry in the U.S. and abroad has been consolidating at an accelerating rate in recent years. In the United States, the number of owners of veterinary hospitals has been declining, and an increasing percentage of veterinary hospitals are owned by corporations that are in the business of acquiring veterinary hospitals and/or opening new veterinary hospitals nationally or regionally. Major corporate hospital owners in the U.S. include Mars, Incorporated (owner of Banfield Pet Hospitals, Blue Pearl Veterinary Partners, and VCA Inc.), and National Veterinary Associates, and are joined by dozens of other consolidators. A similar trend exists in other regions such as Canada, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, China, and Brazil. Furthermore, an increasing percentage of individually owned veterinary hospitals in the U. Furthermore, an 21increasing percentage of individually-owned veterinary hospitals in the U. S. are participating in buying consortiums. Corporate owners of veterinary hospitals and buying consortiums often seek to improve profitability by leveraging the buying power they derive from their scale to obtain favorable pricing from suppliers, which could have a negative impact on our profitability and results of operations. While we have strong supplier relationships with several corporate hospital groups and buying consortiums, decisions by larger corporate owners and buying consortiums to shift their purchasing of products and services away from us and to a competitor would have a negative impact on our results of operations from the loss of future business. Under these circumstances, we may receive customer contract resolution payments, which would generally be recorded in other operating income in the period received. Nonetheless, the loss of future revenue may still be significant and adversely affect our future revenue growth rate and profitability. In addition, certain corporate owners also operate reference laboratories that serve both their hospitals and unaffiliated hospitals. Any hospitals acquired by these companies generally attempt to shift all or a large portion of their testing to the reference laboratories operated by these companies, and there can be no assurance that hospitals that otherwise become affiliated with these companies would not shift all or a portion of their testing to such reference laboratories. Furthermore, because these companies compete with us in the reference laboratory services marketplace, hospitals acquired by these companies or those that establish other affiliations with these companies may cease to be customers or potential customers of our other companion animal products and services, which would cause our sales of these products and services to decline.Changes in testing patterns could negatively affect our operating results Demand for our companion animal, livestock and poultry diagnostic tests and our dairy and water testing products could be negatively impacted by a number of factors impacting testing practices. The introduction or broad market acceptance of vaccines or preventatives for the diseases and conditions for which we sell diagnostic tests and services could result in a 23decline in testing. Changes in accepted medical protocols regarding the diagnosis of certain diseases and conditions could have a similar effect. Eradication or substantial declines in the prevalence of certain diseases also could lead to a decline in diagnostic testing for such diseases. Our livestock and poultry products business in particular is subject to fluctuations resulting from changes in disease prevalence. The outbreak of certain diseases (such as African swine fever) among livestock or poultry, or the adverse impact of climate change-related events (such as hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, and floods), could lead to the widespread death or precautionary destruction of such animals in the affected regions, reducing herd or flock sizes, which could reduce the demand for our testing products for such animals. Changes in government regulations or in the availability of government funds available for monitoring programs could negatively affect sales of our products that are driven by compliance testing, such as our livestock and poultry, dairy and water products. In addition, changes and trends in local dairy, poultry, or other food sectors around the world could negatively affect the related production markets resulting in a decline in demand for our testing products. Economic weakness may also reduce demand for our companion animal, water, livestock, poultry, and dairy products and services, and public health-related guidance and directives, including stay-at-home orders that may be deployed to combat public health issues, and severe weather conditions could result in a decrease in companion animal clinical visits, the delay of elective procedures and wellness visits and disruption of veterinary clinic operations, all of which would have a negative effect on veterinary service providers and result in declines in demand for our CAG products and services. Economic weakness may also reduce demand for our companion animal, water, livestock, poultry, and dairy products and services, and public health-related guidance and directives, including stay-at-home orders that may be further deployed to combat public health issues, and possible higher infection rates could result in a decrease in companion animal clinical visits, the delay of elective procedures and wellness visits and disruption of veterinary clinic operations, all of which would have a negative effect on veterinary service providers and result in declines in demand for our CAG products and services. Declines in testing for any reason, including the reasons described above, along with lost opportunities associated with a reduction in veterinary visits, could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.We sell many products through distributors, which presents risks that could negatively affect our operating resultsSome of our international product sales occur through third-party distributors. As a result, we are dependent on these distributors to promote and create demand for our products. Our distributors often offer products from several different companies, including our competitors, and may promote our competitors’ products over our own products. We have limited ability, if any, to cause our distributors to devote adequate resources to promoting, marketing, selling, and supporting our products or to maintain certain inventory levels, and changes in our distributors’ inventory levels, compared to comparable prior periods, could negatively impact our revenue growth rates. There can be no assurances made that we will be successful in maintaining and strengthening our relationships with our distributors or establishing relationships with new distributors who have the ability to market, sell, and support our products effectively. We may rely on one or more key distributors for a product or a region, and the loss of these distributors could reduce our revenue. Distributors may face financial difficulties, including bankruptcy, which could harm our collection of accounts receivable and financial results. While we maintain a rigorous distribution compliance program, violations of anti-corruption or similar laws by our distributors could have a material impact on our business and reputation, and any termination of a distributor relationship may result in increased competition in the applicable jurisdiction. Failure to manage the risks associated with our use of distributors outside of the U.S. may reduce sales, increase expenses, and weaken our competitive position, any of which could have a negative effect on our operating results.GENERAL RISKSWe depend on the efforts of key personnel and talent to succeed and compete effectivelyOur continued success is substantially dependent on our ability to attract, develop, and retain highly capable, skilled, and diverse employees and leaders. As we continue to grow our business, expand our geographic scope, and develop and offer innovative, new products and services, we require an engaged, qualified workforce and the organizational talent necessary to ensure effective succession for our senior leadership and other key personnel. Competition for experienced leaders and employees, particularly for persons with specialized skills, can be intense. Our ability to recruit and retain such talent will depend on a number of factors, including compensation and benefits, work location, flexibility regarding virtual and hybrid work arrangements, work environment, corporate culture, and development opportunities. Furthermore, a more competitive labor market has made it more difficult and costly to attract qualified labor, and prolonged shortages could adversely affect our ability to achieve our business objectives. The loss of the services of, or our failure to recruit or develop and implement effective succession plans for, our senior leadership, other key personnel, and employees may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our strategic objectives, disrupt our operations, and adversely affect our business and our future success. In addition, even if we effectively develop and implement succession plans and make key leadership transitions, we cannot provide assurances as to whether we may experience management or other challenges in connection with any of those leadership transitions that could adversely affect our future success and could otherwise materially adversely affect our business, reputation, results of operations, and financial condition.24We are increasingly dependent on the continuous and reliable operation of our information technology systems, and a disruption of these systems or significant security breaches could adversely affect our businessWe rely on our information systems, as well as our third-party business partners’ and suppliers’ information systems, to provide access to our web-based products and services, keep financial records, analyze results of operations, process customer orders, manage inventory, process shipments to customers, store confidential or proprietary information, and operate other critical functions. In addition, some of our products and services include information systems that collect and use data on behalf of customers (e.g., veterinary practice management systems and customer communication tools and services), and some of these products and services rely on third-party providers for cloud computing and storage. Although we maintain security policies, employ system backup measures, and engage in redundancy planning and processes, such policies, measures, planning and processes, as well as our current disaster recovery plans, may be ineffective or inadequate to address all eventualities. Although we maintain security policies, employ system backup measures and engage in redundancy planning and processes, such policies, measures, planning and processes, as well as our current disaster recovery plans, may be ineffective or inadequate to address all eventualities. Further, our information systems and our business partners’ and suppliers’ information systems have experienced, and will likely continue to experience, attacks by hackers and other security breaches, including, among other things, computer viruses and malware, ransomware, denial of service actions, the compromise, misappropriation and/or unauthorized acquisition or disclosure of confidential or otherwise protected information and similar events through the internet (including via devices and applications connected to the internet), and through email attachments and persons with access to these information systems, such as our employees or third parties with whom we do business. Further, our information systems and our business partners’ and suppliers’ information systems have experienced, and will likely continue to experience, attacks by hackers and other security breaches, including, among other things, computer viruses and malware, ransomware, denial of service actions, the compromise or misappropriation of confidential or otherwise protected information and similar events through the internet (including via devices and applications connected to the internet), and through email attachments and persons with access to these information systems, such as our employees or third parties with whom we do business. The continued use of remote working and hybrid work-from-home arrangements may additionally result in some increased risk of attacks associated with a number of our employees accessing our data and systems remotely. In addition, security industry experts and government officials have warned about the risks of hackers and cybersecurity attacks targeting U.S. organizations, such as IDEXX, and recent developments in the cyber threat landscape include the growing use of AI, which could enable or create more sophisticated cybersecurity attacks and increase the volume and frequency of attacks.As information systems and the use of software and related applications by us, our business partners, suppliers, and customers become more cloud-based and connected to the “Internet of Things,” which is inherently susceptible to cyberattacks, there has been an increase in global cybersecurity vulnerabilities and threats, including more sophisticated and targeted cyber-related attacks that pose a risk to the security of our information systems and networks and the security, confidentiality, availability and integrity of data and information. We process credit card payments electronically over secure networks and also offer products and services that connect to and are part of the “Internet of Things,” such as our connected devices (e.g., IDEXX VetLab instruments). Any such attack or breach could compromise our networks and the information stored thereon could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost, or stolen. While we have implemented network security and internal control measures, especially for the purpose of protecting our connected products and services from cyberattacks, and invested in our data and information technology infrastructure, these efforts have not always been successful in preventing, and there can be no assurance that these efforts will in the future prevent, a system disruption, attack, or security breach and, as such, there continues to be risk of system disruptions and security breaches from a cyberattack.We, and some of our third-party vendors, have experienced cybersecurity attacks in the past and will likely experience further attacks in the future, potentially with more frequency. To our knowledge, none have resulted in any material adverse impact to the Company, our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition. To our knowledge, none have resulted in any material adverse impact to our business or operations. We have adopted measures to mitigate potential risks associated with information technology disruptions and cybersecurity threats; however, given the unpredictability of the timing, nature and scope of such disruptions and the evolving nature of cybersecurity threats, which vary in technique and sources, if we or our business partners or suppliers were to experience a system disruption, attack or security breach that impacts any of our critical functions, or our customers were to experience a system disruption, attack or security breach via any of our connected products and services, we could potentially be subject to production downtimes, operational and/or productivity delays, other detrimental impacts on our operations or ability to provide products and services to our customers, the compromise, misappropriation and/or unauthorized acquisition or disclosure of confidential or otherwise protected information, destruction or corruption of data, security breaches, other manipulation or improper use of our systems or networks, financial losses and additional costs from remedial actions, repairs to infrastructure, physical systems or data processing systems, increased cybersecurity and information technology protection costs, loss of business or potential liability, and/or damage to our reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business strategy, competitive position, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition, or prospects. We have adopted measures to mitigate potential risks associated with information technology disruptions and cybersecurity threats; however, given the unpredictability of the timing, nature and scope of such disruptions and the evolving nature of cybersecurity threats, which vary in technique and sources, if we or our business partners or suppliers were to experience a system disruption, attack or security breach that impacts any of our critical functions, or our customers were to experience a system disruption, attack or security breach via any of our connected products and services, we could potentially be subject to production downtimes, operational and/or productivity delays, other detrimental impacts on our operations or ability to provide products and services to our customers, the compromise or misappropriation of confidential or otherwise protected information, destruction or corruption of data, security breaches, other manipulation or improper use of our systems or networks, financial losses and additional costs from remedial actions, repairs to infrastructure, physical systems or data processing systems, increased cybersecurity and information technology protection costs, loss of business or potential liability, and/or damage to our reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition, or prospects. Our customers and/or employees could also face negative consequences such as the compromise of sensitive or critical information or systems. Furthermore, access to, public disclosure of, or other loss of data or information (including any of our confidential or proprietary information or personal data or information) as a result of an attack or security breach has given, and in the future may give, rise to notification obligations to individuals, regulators, customers, employees, and others, and could result in governmental actions or private claims or proceedings, any of which could damage our reputation, cause a loss of confidence in our products and services, damage our ability to develop (and protect our rights to) our differentiated technologies and have a material adverse effect on the Company, our business strategy, financial condition, results of operations or prospects. For more information regarding personal data and 25information privacy and data protection risks, refer to “Our operations and reputation may be impaired if we, our products, or our services do not comply with our global privacy policy or evolving laws and regulations regarding data privacy and protection” below. For more information regarding data and information privacy and protection risks, refer to “Our operations and reputation may be impaired if we, our products, or our services do not comply with our global privacy policy or evolving laws and regulations regarding data privacy and protection” below. Factors and events beyond our control could disrupt our operations, supply chain, and logistics network and adversely affect our businessOur business and results of operations could be negatively affected by certain factors and events beyond our control, such as natural disasters, severe weather conditions and/or climate change-related events (such as hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, and floods); public health issues (such as outbreaks, epidemics, or pandemics); civil or military unrest; geopolitical conditions and developments; war, terrorism, armed conflict, or other man-made disasters (including cyberwar, cyberterrorism, or state-sponsored attacks); inflationary pressures, which may increase costs for materials and finished goods; adverse or uncertain macroeconomic conditions, including fears of a global economic downturn or recession; increases in wages that drive up prices; rising interest rates; workforce disruptions; labor shortages or stoppages; the imposition of regulations, trade protection measures, tariffs, duties, import/export restrictions, quotas or embargoes on key components; transportation failures affecting the supply and shipment of materials and finished goods; and the unavailability of raw materials.24Factors and events beyond our control could disrupt our operations, supply chain, and logistics network and adversely affect our businessOur business and results of operations could be negatively affected by certain factors and events beyond our control, such as natural disasters, severe weather conditions and/or climate change-related events (such as hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, and floods); public health issues (such as outbreaks, epidemics, or pandemics); civil or military unrest; geopolitical conditions and developments; war, terrorism, armed conflict, or other man-made disasters (including cyber-war, cyber terrorism, or state-sponsored attacks arising out of the war between Russia and Ukraine); inflationary pressures, such as those the market is currently experiencing, which may increase costs for materials and finished goods; adverse or uncertain macroeconomic conditions, including fears of a global economic downturn or recession; increases in wages that drive up prices; rising interest rates; workforce disruptions; labor shortages or stoppages; the imposition of regulations, trade protection measures, tariffs, duties, import/export restrictions, quotas or embargoes on key components; transportation failures affecting the supply and shipment of materials and finished goods; and the unavailability of raw materials. Any of these events could result in, among other things, damage to or the temporary closure of one or more of our manufacturing or distribution facilities or reference laboratories (damage to one of our facilities or the manufacturing equipment we use could be costly and may require substantial lead-time to repair or replace); damage to or closure of one or more facilities of our third-party business partners or suppliers on which we rely; a temporary lack of an adequate work force in one or more markets; an interruption in power supply; a temporary or long-term disruption in our supply chain or logistics network (including a disruption to our ability to obtain critical components for the manufacture of our products); a temporary disruption in our ability to deliver (or delays in the delivery of) our products or services; and short- or long-term damage to our customers’ businesses (which would adversely impact customer demand for our products and services). For our veterinary customers, these events may negatively affect the number of patient visits and elective procedures, and the volume of diagnostic utilization, and may otherwise disrupt clinical operations, which could adversely affect our revenues. For more information regarding the risks presented by disruption to our suppliers’ operations and supply chain, refer to “Our dependence on third-party suppliers could limit our ability to sell certain products or negatively affect our operating results” above.We manufacture many of our significant companion animal products, including our rapid assay products and certain instruments and consumables, many of our water testing products and certain of our livestock, poultry, and dairy testing products in Southern Maine. Certain of our companion animal products, as well as our human point-of-care products, are manufactured in Roswell, Georgia. We also manufacture certain of our livestock and poultry testing products in Bern, Switzerland and Montpellier, France. In addition, we maintain major distribution facilities in North America and in the Netherlands and reference laboratories in multiple locations, including Memphis, Tennessee; Kornwestheim, Germany; West Sacramento, California; Elmhurst, Illinois; North Grafton, Massachusetts; Brisbane, Australia; Markham, Ontario; Wetherby, U. In addition, we maintain major distribution facilities in North America and in the Netherlands and major reference laboratories in Memphis, Tennessee; Kornwestheim, Germany; Sacramento, California; Elmhurst, Illinois; North Grafton, Massachusetts; East Brisbane, Australia; Markham, Ontario; Wetherby, U. K.; and Tokyo, Japan. Interruption of operations at any of our facilities, including the ones described above, due to the occurrence of one or more of the events described above could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. Interruption of operations at any of these facilities due to the occurrence of one or more of the events described above could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. While we maintain plans to continue business under such circumstances, there can be no assurance that such plans will be successful in fully or partially mitigating the effects of such events. We also maintain property and business interruption insurance to insure against the financial impact of certain events of this nature. However, this insurance may be insufficient to compensate us for the full amount of any losses that we may incur. In addition, such insurance will not compensate us for potential long-term competitive or reputational effects of being out of the market for the period of any interruption in operations. In addition, such insurance will not compensate us for potential long-term competitive effects of being out of the market for the period of any interruption in operations. Since our business is global in nature, geopolitical risks and other risks associated with doing business internationally could negatively affect our business, financial condition, and operating resultsFor the year ended December 31, 2023, approximately 35% of our overall revenue and approximately 32%, 84% and 50% of our CAG, LPD, and Water revenues, respectively, were attribut