Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - GRPH

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

This Form 10-K contains forward-looking information based on our current expectations. Because our business is subject to many risks and our actual results may differ materially from any forward-looking statements made by or on behalf of us, this section includes a discussion of important factors that could affect our business, operating results, financial condition and the trading price of our common stock. You should carefully consider these risk factors, together with all of the other information included in this Form 10-K as well as our other publicly available filings with the SEC.

Risks Related to Strategic Alternative Process and Potential Strategic Transaction

We may not be successful in identifying and implementing any strategic business combination or other transaction and any strategic transactions that we may consummate in the future could have negative consequences.

In addition to our efforts, if any, to pursue clinical development of our non-genotoxic conditioning (NGTC) program, we also continue to evaluate all potential strategic options for the company, including a merger, reverse merger, sale, wind-down, liquidation and dissolution or other strategic transaction. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully consummate any particular strategic transaction. The process of continuing to evaluate these strategic options may be very costly, time-consuming and complex and we have incurred, and we may in the future incur, significant costs related to this continued evaluation, such as legal and accounting fees and expenses and other related charges. We may also incur additional unanticipated expenses in connection with this process. A considerable portion of these costs will be incurred regardless of whether any such course of action is implemented or transaction is completed. Any such expenses will decrease the remaining cash available for use in our business and may diminish or delay any future distributions to our stockholders.

In addition, any strategic business combination or other transactions that we may consummate in the future could have a variety of negative consequences and we may implement a course of action or consummate a transaction that yields unexpected results that adversely affects our business and decreases the remaining cash available for use in our business or the execution of our strategic plan. There can be no assurances that any particular course of action, business arrangement or transaction, or series of transactions, will be pursued, successfully consummated, lead to increased stockholder value, or achieve the anticipated results. Any failure of such potential transaction to achieve the anticipated results could significantly impair our ability to enter into any future strategic transactions and may significantly diminish or delay any future distributions to our stockholders.

We may not realize any additional value in a strategic transaction.

The market capitalization of our company is below the value of our cash and cash equivalents. Potential counterparties in a strategic transaction involving our company may place minimal or no value on our assets given the limited data regarding our lead development program. Further, the development and any potential commercialization of our product candidates will require substantial additional cash to fund the costs associated with conducting the necessary preclinical and clinical testing and obtaining regulatory approval. Consequently, any potential counterparty in a strategic transaction involving our company may choose not to spend additional resources and continue development of our product candidates and may attribute little or no value, in such a transaction, to those product candidates.

If we are successful in completing a strategic transaction, we may be exposed to other operational and financial risks.

Although there can be no assurance that a strategic transaction will result from the process we have undertaken to identify and evaluate strategic alternatives, the negotiation and consummation of any such transaction will require significant time on the part of our management, and the diversion of management’s attention may disrupt our business. The negotiation and consummation of any such transaction may also require more time or greater cash resources than we anticipate and expose us to other operational and financial risks, including:

increased near-term and long-term expenditures;
exposure to unknown liabilities;
higher than expected acquisition or integration costs;
incurrence of substantial debt or dilutive issuances of equity securities to fund future operations;
write-downs of assets or goodwill or incurrence of non-recurring, impairment or other charges;
increased amortization expenses;
difficulty and cost in combining the operations and personnel of any acquired business with our operations and personnel;
impairment of relationships with key suppliers or customers of any acquired business due to changes in management and ownership;
inability to retain key employees of our company or any acquired business; and

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possibility of future litigation.

Any of the foregoing risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and prospects.

If a strategic transaction is not consummated, our board of directors may decide to pursue a dissolution and liquidation. In such an event, the amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders will depend heavily on the timing of such liquidation as well as the amount of cash that will need to be reserved for commitments and contingent liabilities.

There can be no assurance that a strategic transaction will be completed. If a strategic transaction is not completed, our board may decide to pursue a dissolution and liquidation. In such an event, the amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders will depend heavily on the timing of such decision and, as with the passage of time the amount of cash available for distribution will be reduced as we continue to fund our operations. In addition, if our board were to approve and recommend, and our stockholders were to approve, a dissolution and liquidation, we would be required under Delaware corporate law to pay our outstanding obligations, as well as to make reasonable provision for contingent and unknown obligations, prior to making any distributions in liquidation to our stockholders. As a result of this requirement, a portion of our assets may need to be reserved pending the resolution of such obligations and the timing of any such resolution is uncertain. We have also registered or intend to register all shares of common stock that we may issue under our equity compensation plans or that are issuable upon exercise of outstanding options. In addition, we may be subject to litigation or other claims related to a dissolution and liquidation. If a dissolution and liquidation were pursued, our board, in consultation with our advisors, would need to evaluate these matters and make a determination about a reasonable amount to reserve. Accordingly, holders of our common stock could lose all or a significant portion of their investment in the event of a liquidation, dissolution or winding up.

Our ability to consummate a strategic transaction depends on our ability to retain our employees required to consummate such transaction.

Our ability to consummate a strategic transaction depends upon our ability to retain our employees required to consummate such a transaction, the loss of whose services may adversely impact the ability to consummate such transaction. In February 2023, we undertook an organizational restructuring that significantly reduced our workforce in order to conserve our capital resources. Our cash conservation activities may yield unintended consequences, such as attrition beyond our planned reduction in workforce and reduced employee morale, which may cause remaining employees to seek alternative employment. Our ability to successfully complete a strategic transaction depends in large part on our ability to retain certain of our remaining personnel. If we are unable to successfully retain our remaining personnel, we are at risk of a disruption to our exploration and consummation of a strategic alternative as well as business operations.

Our corporate restructuring and the associated headcount reduction may not result in anticipated savings, could result in total costs and expenses that are greater than expected, and could disrupt our business.

In February 2023, we undertook an organizational restructuring that significantly reduced our workforce, including the departure of our chief business officer and our chief scientific officer. We may not realize, in full or in part, the anticipated benefits, savings and improvements in our cost structure from our restructuring efforts due to unforeseen difficulties, delays or unexpected costs. If we are unable to realize the expected operational efficiencies and cost savings from the restructuring, our operating results and financial condition would be adversely affected. Furthermore, our restructuring plan may be disruptive to our operations. For example, our headcount reductions could yield unanticipated consequences, such as increased difficulties in implementing our business strategy, including retention of our remaining employees. Employee litigation related to the headcount reduction could be costly and prevent management from fully concentrating on the business.

Any future growth would impose significant added responsibilities on members of management, including the need to identify, recruit, maintain and integrate additional employees. We may not be able to effectively manage our operations or recruit and retain qualified personnel, which may result in weaknesses in our infrastructure and operations, risks that we may not be able to comply with legal and regulatory requirements, and loss of employees and reduced productivity among remaining employees. For example, the workforce reduction may negatively impact our clinical, regulatory, technical operations, and commercial functions, should we choose to continue to pursue them, which would have a negative impact on our ability to successfully develop, and ultimately, commercialize our product candidates. Our future financial performance and our ability to develop our product candidates or additional assets will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth or restructuring, as the case may be. Our future financial performance and our ability to compete effectively and commercialize our product candidates, if approved, will depend in part on our ability to effectively manage the future development and expansion of our Company. In addition, given the substantial restructuring of our operations, it may be difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects on the basis of historical operating performance. In addition, our future patents or the patents of our licensors also are, and may in the future become, involved in inventorship, priority, validity or enforceability disputes.

The corporate restructuring and reduction in force that we announced in February 2023 may not achieve our intended objectives.

In February 2023, we announced a reduction in force affecting approximately 50% of our workforce to better align our workforce with the needs of our business and focus our capital resources on select product candidates, helping to provide that we are appropriately resourced. This reduction in force may result in unintended consequences and costs, such as the loss of institutional knowledge and expertise, attrition beyond the intended number of employees, decreased morale among our remaining employees, and the risk that we may not achieve the anticipated benefits of the reduction in force. These agreements provide that all confidential information concerning our business or financial affairs developed by or made known to the individual or entity during the course of the party’s relationship with us is to be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties, except in certain specified circumstances. In addition, while certain positions have been eliminated, certain functions necessary to our operations remain, and we may be unsuccessful in distributing the duties and obligations of departed

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employees among our remaining employees. The reduction in workforce could also make it difficult for us to pursue, or prevent us from pursuing, new opportunities and initiatives due to insufficient personnel, or require us to incur additional and unanticipated costs to hire new personnel to pursue such opportunities or initiatives. If we are unable to realize the anticipated benefits from the reduction in force, or if we experience significant adverse consequences from the reduction in force, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

We may become involved in securities class action litigation that could divert management’s attention and harm the company’s business, and insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all costs and damages.

In the past, securities class action litigation has often followed certain significant business transactions, such as the sale of a company or announcement of any other strategic transaction, or the announcement of negative events, such as negative results from clinical trials. These events may also result in investigations by the SEC. We may be exposed to such litigation or investigation even if no wrongdoing occurred. Litigation and investigations are usually expensive and divert management’s attention and resources, which could adversely affect our business and cash resources and our ability to consummate a potential strategic transaction or the ultimate value our stockholders receive in any such transaction.

Risks Related to Our Financial Position, Limited Operating History and Need for Additional Capital

We have incurred significant losses since our inception, we expect to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future, and we may never achieve or maintain profitability.

Since our inception, we have incurred significant net losses, have not generated any revenue from product sales to date and have financed our operations principally through the net proceeds raised in our initial public offering and private placements of our redeemable convertible preferred stock. Our net loss for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 was $101.1 and $70.8 million, respectively. Our net loss for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 was $70.8 million and $68.4 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2022, we had an accumulated deficit of $242.4 million. We expect to continue to incur significant and increasing losses for the foreseeable future. The net losses we incur may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year, such that a period-to-period comparison of our results of operations may not be a good indication of our future performance. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially if and as we:

initiate and conduct clinical trials for any product candidates that we may identify and develop;
continue our current research and discovery programs and our preclinical development of product candidates from our current research programs;
seek to identify additional research programs and additional product candidates;
hire additional research and development and clinical personnel;
maintain, expand, enforce, defend and protect our intellectual property portfolio and provide reimbursement of third-party expenses related to our patent portfolio;
seek marketing approvals for any of our product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;
establish our manufacturing capability, including developing our contract development and manufacturing relationships, and should we decide to do so, building and maintaining a commercial-scale current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP), manufacturing facility;
ultimately establish a sales, marketing, and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any products for which we may obtain marketing approval;
further develop our gene editing platform;
add operational, financial, and management information systems and personnel;
acquire or in-license product candidates, intellectual property and technologies; and
operate as a public company.

To date, we have not successfully completed a clinical trial for any product candidate. We have only had one product candidate in clinical development and expect that it will be many years, if ever, before we have a product candidate ready for commercialization. We have only one product candidate in clinical development and expect that it will be many years, if ever, before we have a product candidate ready for commercialization, if approved. To become and remain profitable, we must develop and eventually commercialize products with significant market potential. This will require us to be successful in a range of challenging activities, including identifying product candidates, completing preclinical testing and clinical trials of product candidates, obtaining marketing approval for these product candidates, manufacturing, marketing, and selling those products for which we may obtain marketing approval, obtaining market acceptance for such products and satisfying any post-marketing requirements. We may never succeed in these activities and, even if we do, may never generate revenue in an amount sufficient to achieve profitability. All of our programs are currently only in the discovery, preclinical testing or early clinical development

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stage. We commenced our Phase 1/2 clinical trial of nulabeglogene autogedtemcel (nula-cel), in SCD in November 2021, and in February 2023 announced that we were discontinuing our development of nula-cel. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with developing gene therapy and gene editing product candidates, we are unable to predict the extent of any future losses or when we will become profitable, if ever. If we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of our company and our stock price and could impair our ability to raise capital, maintain and fund our research and development efforts, expand our business, or continue our operations. A decline in the value of our company could also cause you to lose all or part of your investment.

Our limited operating history may make it difficult for you to evaluate the performance of our business to date and to assess our future viability.

We are an early-stage company. We were founded in 2017 and commenced operations in 2020. Our operations to date have been limited to organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, acquiring and developing our platform and technology, identifying potential product candidates, establishing and maintaining our intellectual property portfolio, undertaking preclinical studies and preparing for clinical trials. Other than nula-cel, which was being evaluated in a Phase 1/2 clinical trial, and for which we terminated development of in February 2023, all of our research programs are still in the preclinical or research stage of development, and their risk of failure is high. We have not demonstrated an ability to initiate or successfully complete any clinical trials, including large-scale, pivotal clinical trials, obtain marketing approvals, manufacture a commercial-scale product, or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful commercialization. Typically, it takes about 10 to 15 years to develop a new product from the time it is discovered to when it is available for treating patients. Consequently, any predictions you make about the likelihood of our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history.

Our limited operating history, particularly in light of the rapidly evolving gene editing field, may make it difficult to evaluate our technology and industry and predict our future performance. Our very short history as an operating company makes any assessment of the likelihood of our future success and viability subject to significant uncertainty. We will encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by very early-stage companies in rapidly evolving fields. If we do not address these risks successfully, our business will suffer.

In addition, as a new business, we may encounter other unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays, and other known and unknown factors. We will need to transition from a company with a research focus to a company capable of supporting commercial activities. We may not be successful in such a transition. If we do not adequately address these risks and difficulties or successfully make such a transition, our business will suffer.

We have never generated revenue from product sales, may never generate any revenue from product sales and may never become profitable.

Our ability to generate revenue from product sales and achieve profitability, if ever, depends on our ability, alone or with collaborative partners, to successfully complete the development of, and obtain the regulatory approvals necessary to commercialize, our current product candidates and any product candidates we may identify for development. We do not anticipate generating revenues from product sales for the next several years, if ever.

Even if one or more of the product candidates we develop are approved for commercial sale, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with commercializing any approved product candidate. Our expenses could increase beyond expectations if we are required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), or other regulatory authorities to perform clinical and other studies in addition to those that we currently anticipate. Even if we are able to generate revenues from the sale of any approved product candidates, we may not become profitable and may need to obtain additional funding to continue operations.

We will need substantial additional funding. If we are unable to raise capital when needed on acceptable terms, or at all, we would be forced to delay, reduce, or terminate our research and product development programs, future commercialization efforts or other operations.

Developing pharmaceutical products, including conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials, is a very time-consuming, expensive and uncertain process that takes years to complete. Our operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception, and we expect our expenses to increase in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we identify, continue the research and development of, initiate and conduct clinical trials of, and seek marketing approval for, our product candidates. In addition, if we obtain marketing approval for our product candidates, we expect to incur significant commercialization expenses related to product sales, marketing, manufacturing, and distribution to the extent that such sales, marketing, manufacturing, and distribution are not the responsibility of a collaborator. Other unanticipated costs may also arise. Furthermore, we expect to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations. If we are unable to raise capital when needed or on acceptable terms, we would be forced to delay, reduce, or eliminate our research and product development programs, future commercialization efforts or other operations.

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As of December 31, 2022, our cash and cash equivalents and investments in marketable securities were $283.6 million. We expect that these funds will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into the fourth quarter of 2024. However, our operating plan may change as a result of factors currently unknown to us, and we may need to seek funding sooner than planned. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:

the timing, scope, progress, results and costs of any product candidates that we may identify and develop;
the costs, timing, and outcome of regulatory review of the product candidates we develop;
the costs of continuing to build our gene editing platform;

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the timing, scope, progress, results, and costs of discovery, preclinical development and formulation development for the product candidates we develop;
the costs of preparing, filing, and prosecuting patent applications, establishing, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property and proprietary rights, and defending intellectual property-related claims;
the costs of future activities, including product sales, medical affairs, marketing, manufacturing, distribution, coverage and reimbursement for any product candidates for which we receive regulatory approval;
our ability to achieve sufficient market acceptance, coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors and adequate market share and revenue for any approved products;
our ability to negotiate favorable terms in strategic alternatives including, but not limited to, any collaboration, licensing or other arrangements into which we may enter in the future and performing our obligations in such collaborations;
the success of any collaborations that we may establish and of our license agreements;
the continued effect of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on our business;
the extent to which we acquire or in-license product candidates, intellectual property and technologies; and
the costs of operating as a public company.

Identifying potential product candidates and conducting preclinical testing and clinical trials is a time-consuming, expensive, and uncertain process that takes years to complete, and we may never generate the necessary data or results required to obtain marketing approval and achieve product sales. In addition, our product candidates, if approved, may not achieve commercial success. Our commercial revenues, if any, will be derived from sales of products that we do not expect to be commercially available for many years, if at all. Accordingly, we will need to continue to rely on additional financing to achieve our business objectives. Adequate additional financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. In addition, we may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans.

Any additional fundraising efforts may divert our management from their day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates. We have no committed sources of additional capital and, if we are unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, we may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development or commercialization of our product candidates or other research and development initiatives. Without sufficient funding, our license agreements and any future collaboration agreements may also be terminated if we are unable to meet the payment or other obligations under such agreements.

Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenues, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances, and licensing arrangements. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a common stockholder. Debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures, declaring dividends, and possibly other restrictions.

If we raise funds through additional collaborations, strategic alliances, or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs, or product candidates we develop, or we may have to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us and/or that may reduce the value of our common stock. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce, or terminate our product development or future commercialization efforts or grant rights to develop and market product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.

We may be subject to adverse legislative or regulatory tax changes that could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

The rules dealing with U.S. federal, state and local income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Treasury Department. Changes to tax laws (which changes may have retroactive application) could adversely affect our stockholders or us. We cannot predict whether, when, in what form, or with what effective dates, tax laws, regulations and rulings may be enacted, promulgated or decided, which could result in an increase in our, or our stockholders’, tax liability or require changes in the manner in which we operate in order to minimize increases in our tax liability.

Our ability to use our U.S. net operating loss carryforwards and certain other U.S. tax attributes may be limited.

As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, we had U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards of $75.8 and $57.3 million, respectively, (which are not subject to expiration) and state net operating loss carryforwards of $0.6 million (which begin to expire in various amounts in 2039). Our ability to use our U.S. federal and state net operating losses to offset potential future taxable income and reduce income

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taxes that would otherwise be due is dependent upon our generation of future taxable income, and we cannot predict with certainty when, or whether, we will generate sufficient taxable income to use all of our net operating losses.

Under current law, unused U.S. federal net operating losses generated in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 are not subject to expiration and may be carried forward indefinitely. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020, however, the deductibility of such U.S. federal net operating losses is limited to 80% of our taxable income in such taxable years. In addition, both our current and our future unused U.S. federal net operating losses and tax credits may be subject to limitation under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) if we undergo an “ownership change,” generally defined as a greater than 50 percentage point change (by value) in its equity ownership by certain stockholders over a rolling three-year period. We may have experienced such ownership changes in the past, and we may experience ownership changes in the future as a result of our equity offerings or subsequent shifts in our stock ownership, some of which are outside our control. Our net operating losses and tax credits may also be impaired or restricted under state law.

We face risks related to health epidemics, pandemics and other widespread outbreaks of contagious disease, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which could significantly disrupt our operations, impact our financial results or otherwise adversely impact our business.

Significant outbreaks of contagious diseases, and other adverse public health developments, could have a material impact on our business operations and operating results. The continued spread of COVID-19, including the emergence of subsequent variants like the Omicron variant, which began to spread around the time that our Phase 1/2 clinical trial of nula-cel initially opened for enrollment, has affected segments of the global economy as well as our operations. For example, COVID-19 impacted clinical trial site resourcing, staffing and operations, resulting in longer timeframes than initially anticipated for participant screening and enrollment. In particular, treatment of the first patient in our Phase 1/2 clinical trial of nula-cel was delayed due to screen failure as a result of a prospective participant becoming infected with COVID-19. As a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic or similar public health crises that may arise, we may experience further disruptions that could adversely impact our operations, research and development, including preclinical studies, clinical trials and manufacturing activities, including:

delays or disruptions in clinical trials that we may be conducting, including patient screening, patient enrollment, patient dosing, clinical trial site activation, and study monitoring;
delays or disruptions in preclinical experiments and IND-enabling and clinical trial application-enabling studies due to restrictions related to our staff being on site;
interruption or delays in the operations of the FDA, the EMA and comparable foreign regulatory agencies;
interruption of, or delays in, receiving, supplies of drug substance and drug product from our CMOs or delays or disruptions in our pre-clinical experiments or clinical trials performed by CROs due to staffing shortages, production and research slowdowns or stoppages and disruptions in delivery systems or research;
limitations imposed on our business operations by local, state, or federal authorities to address such pandemics or similar public health crises could impact our ability to conduct preclinical or clinical activities, including conducting IND-enabling studies or our ability to select future development candidates;
the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on our corporate culture; and
business disruptions caused by potential workplace, laboratory and office closures and an increased reliance on employees working from home, disruptions to or delays in ongoing laboratory experiments and operations, staffing shortages, travel limitations, cyber security and data accessibility, or communication or mass transit disruptions, any of which could adversely impact our business operations or delay necessary interactions with local regulators, ethics committees, manufacturing sites, research or clinical trial sites and other important agencies and contractors.

The trading prices for biopharmaceutical companies have been highly volatile as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and we may face similar volatility in our stock price.

We cannot predict the scope and severity of any potential business shutdowns or disruptions. If we or any of the third parties with whom we engage were to experience shutdowns or other business disruptions, our ability to conduct our business in the manner and on the timelines presently planned could be materially and negatively affected, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, our results of operations and prospects.

Adverse developments affecting the financial services industry, such as actual events or concerns involving liquidity, defaults, or non-performance by financial institutions or transactional counterparties, could adversely affect our current and projected business operations and our financial condition and results of operations.

Actual events involving limited liquidity, defaults, non-performance or other adverse developments that affect financial institutions, transactional counterparties or other companies in the financial services industry or the financial services industry generally,

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or concerns or rumors about any events of these kinds or other similar risks, have in the past and may in the future lead to market-wide liquidity problems. For example, on March 10, 2023, Silicon Valley Bank (“SVB”) was closed by the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation, which appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) as receiver. Similarly, on March 12, 2023, Signature Bank and Silvergate Capital Corp. were each swept into receivership. Although a statement by the Department of the Treasury, the Federal Reserve and the FDIC indicated that all depositors of SVB would have access to all of their money after only one business day of closure, including funds held in uninsured deposit accounts, borrowers under credit agreements, letters of credit and certain other financial instruments with SVB, Signature Bank or any other financial institution that is placed into receivership by the FDIC may be unable to access undrawn amounts thereunder.

Less than $1.0 million of our total cash and cash equivalents is held in operating accounts at SVB, representing a de minimus amount of our total cash and cash equivalents. Our deposits with SVB above $250,000 are uninsured. We have letters of credit worth $1.7 million held with SVB related to our leases, which are classified on our balance sheet as restricted cash. Although we are not a borrower or party to any other financial instruments with SVB, Signature or any other financial institution currently in receivership, if any of our lenders or counterparties to any such instruments were to be placed into receivership, we may be unable to access such funds. In addition, if any of our suppliers or other parties with whom we conduct business are unable to access funds pursuant to such instruments or lending arrangements with such a financial institution, such parties’ ability to pay their obligations to us or to enter into new commercial arrangements requiring additional payments to us could be adversely affected. If we or any of the third parties with whom we engage were to experience shutdowns or other business disruptions, our ability to conduct our business in the manner and on the timelines presently planned could be materially and negatively affected, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, our results of operations and prospects. In this regard, counterparties to SVB credit agreements and arrangements, and third parties such as beneficiaries of letters of credit (among others), may experience direct impacts from the closure of SVB and uncertainty remains over liquidity concerns in the broader financial services industry. Similar impacts have occurred in the past, such as during the 2008-2010 financial crisis.

Inflation and rapid increases in interest rates have led to a decline in the trading value of previously issued government securities with interest rates below current market interest rates. Although the U.S. Department of Treasury, FDIC and Federal Reserve Board have announced a program to provide up to $25 billion of loans to financial institutions secured by certain of such government securities held by financial institutions to mitigate the risk of potential losses on the sale of such instruments, widespread demands for customer withdrawals or other liquidity needs of financial institutions for immediately liquidity may exceed the capacity of such program. Additionally, there is no guarantee that the U.S. Department of Treasury, FDIC and Federal Reserve Board will provide access to uninsured funds in the future in the event of the closure of other banks or financial institutions, or that they would do so in a timely fashion.

Although we assess our banking and supplier relationships as we believe necessary or appropriate, our access to funding sources and credit arrangements in amounts adequate to finance or capitalize our current and projected future business operations could be significantly impaired by factors that affect us, the financial institutions with which we may have credit agreements or arrangements directly, or the financial services industry or economy in general. These factors could include, among others, events such as liquidity constraints or failures, the ability to perform obligations under various types of financial, credit or liquidity agreements or arrangements, disruptions or instability in the financial services industry or financial markets, or concerns or negative expectations about the prospects for companies in the financial services industry. If we do not allocate and effectively manage the resources necessary to build and sustain the proper technology and cybersecurity infrastructure, we could suffer significant business disruption, including transaction errors, supply chain or manufacturing interruptions, processing inefficiencies, data loss or the loss of or damage to intellectual property or other proprietary information. These factors could involve financial institutions or financial services industry companies with which we have financial or business relationships, but could also include