Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - EOG

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$EOG Risk Factor changes from 00/02/24/22/2022 to 00/02/22/24/2024

ITEM 1A. Risk FactorsOur business and operations are subject to many risks. The risks described below may not be the only risks we face, as our business and operations may also be subject to risks that we do not yet know of, or that we currently believe are immaterial. If any of the events or circumstances described below actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows could be materially and adversely affected and the trading price of our common stock could decline. The following risk factors should be read in conjunction with the other information contained herein, including the consolidated financial statements and the related notes. Unless the context requires otherwise, "we," "us," "our" and "EOG" refer to EOG Resources, Inc. and its subsidiaries.Risks Related to our Financial Condition, Results of Operations and Cash FlowsCrude oil, NGLs and natural gas prices are volatile, and a substantial and extended decline in commodity prices can have a material and adverse effect on us.Prices for crude oil and natural gas (including prices for natural gas liquids (NGLs) and condensate) fluctuate widely. Among the interrelated factors that can or could cause these price fluctuations are:•domestic and worldwide supplies of, and consumer and industrial/commercial demand for, crude oil, NGLs and natural gas; •domestic and international drilling activity;•the actions of other crude oil producing and exporting nations, including the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries;•worldwide economic conditions, geopolitical factors and political conditions, including, but not limited to, the imposition of tariffs or trade or other economic sanctions, political instability or armed conflict in oil and gas producing regions;•the duration and economic and financial impact of epidemics, pandemics or other public health issues, such as the COVID-19 pandemic;•the availability, proximity and capacity of appropriate transportation, gathering, processing, compression, storage, refining, liquefaction and export facilities; •the price and availability of, and demand for, competing energy sources, including alternative energy sources;•the effect of worldwide energy conservation measures, alternative fuel requirements and climate change-related legislation, policies, initiatives and developments;•technological advances and consumer and industrial/commercial behavior, preferences and attitudes, in each case affecting energy generation, transmission, storage and consumption;•the nature and extent of governmental regulation, including environmental and other climate change-related regulation, regulation of financial derivative transactions and hedging activities, tax laws and regulations and laws and regulations with respect to the import and export of crude oil, NGLs, and natural gas and related commodities;•the level and effect of trading in commodity futures markets, including trading by commodity price speculators and others; and•natural disasters, weather conditions and changes in weather patterns. Among the interrelated factors that can or could cause these price fluctuations are:•domestic and worldwide supplies of, and consumer and industrial/commercial demand for, crude oil, NGLs and natural gas; •domestic and international drilling activity;•the actions of other crude oil producing and exporting nations, including the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries;•worldwide economic conditions, geopolitical factors and political conditions, including, but not limited to, the imposition of tariffs or trade or other economic sanctions, political instability or armed conflict in oil and gas producing regions;•the duration and economic and financial impact of epidemics, pandemics or other public health issues, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;•the availability, proximity and capacity of appropriate transportation, gathering, processing, compression, storage, refining and export facilities; •the price and availability of, and demand for, competing energy sources, including alternative energy sources;•the effect of worldwide energy conservation measures, alternative fuel requirements and climate change-related policies, initiatives and developments;•technological advances and consumer and industrial/commercial behavior, preferences and attitudes, in each case affecting energy generation, transmission, storage and consumption;•the nature and extent of governmental regulation, including environmental and other climate change-related regulation, regulation of derivatives transactions and hedging activities, tax laws and regulations and laws and regulations with respect to the import and export of crude oil, NGLs, and natural gas and related commodities;•the level and effect of trading in commodity futures markets, including trading by commodity price speculators and others; and•natural disasters, weather conditions and changes in weather patterns. The above-described factors and the volatility of commodity prices make it difficult to predict crude oil, NGLs and natural gas prices in 2024 and thereafter. As a result, there can be no assurance that the prices for crude oil, NGLs and/or natural gas will sustain, or increase from, their current levels, nor can there be any assurance that the prices for crude oil, NGLs and/or natural gas will not decline. Our cash flows, financial condition and results of operations depend to a great extent on prevailing commodity prices. Accordingly, substantial and extended declines in commodity prices can materially and adversely affect the amount of cash flows we have available for our capital expenditures and operating costs; the terms on which we can access the credit and capital markets; our results of operations; and our financial condition, including (but not limited to) our ability to pay regular and special dividends on our common stock or repurchase shares of our common stock under the share repurchase authorization established by our Board of Directors (Board). Accordingly, substantial and extended declines in commodity prices can materially and adversely affect the amount of cash flows we have available for our capital expenditures and operating expenses; the terms on which we can access the credit and capital markets; our results of operations; and our financial condition, including (but not limited to) our ability to pay dividends on our common stock. As a result, the trading price of our common stock may be materially and adversely affected.15Lower commodity prices can also reduce the amount of crude oil, NGLs and natural gas that we can produce economically. Substantial and extended declines in the prices of these commodities can render uneconomic a portion of our exploration, development and exploitation projects, resulting in our having to make downward adjustments to our estimated reserves and also possibly shut in or plug and abandon certain wells. In addition, significant prolonged decreases in commodity prices may cause the expected future cash flows from our properties to fall below their respective net book values, which would require us to write down the value of our properties. Such reserve write-downs and asset impairments can materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial position and, in turn, the trading price of our common stock.Our cost-mitigation initiatives and actions may not offset, largely or at all, the impacts of inflationary pressures on our operating costs and capital expenditures.Beginning in the second half of 2021 and continuing, to a lesser degree, through the first three months of 2023, we, similar to other companies in our industry, experienced inflationary pressures on our operating costs and capital expenditures - namely the costs of fuel, steel (i.e., wellbore tubulars and facilities manufactured using steel), labor and drilling and completion services. Such inflationary pressures on our operating costs and capital expenditures impacted our cash flows and results of operations during these periods. While such inflationary pressures diminished in 2023, the market for such materials, services and labor continues to fluctuate and, as a result, the timing and impact of any price changes on our future operating costs and capital expenditures is uncertain.We have undertaken, and plan to continue with, certain initiatives and actions (such as agreements with service providers to secure the costs and availability of services) to mitigate any such inflationary pressures. However, there can be no assurance that such efforts will offset, largely or at all, the impacts of any future inflationary pressures on our operating costs and capital expenditures and, in turn, our cash flows and results of operations. For additional discussion, see ITEM 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Overview – Recent Developments.We have substantial capital requirements, and we may be unable to obtain needed financing on satisfactory terms, if at all.We make, and expect to continue to make, substantial capital expenditures for the acquisition, exploration, development and production of crude oil, NGLs and natural gas reserves. We intend to finance our capital expenditures primarily through our cash flows from operations and cash on hand and, if and as necessary, commercial paper borrowings, bank borrowings, borrowings under our revolving credit facility and public and private debt and equity offerings. We intend to finance our capital expenditures primarily through our cash flows from operations, cash on hand and sales of non-core assets and, to a lesser extent and if and as necessary, commercial paper borrowings, bank borrowings, borrowings under our revolving credit facility and public and private equity and debt offerings. Lower crude oil, NGLs and natural gas prices, however, reduce our cash flows and could also delay or impair our ability to consummate any planned divestitures.15Lower crude oil, NGLs and natural gas prices, however, reduce our cash flows and could also delay or impair our ability to consummate certain planned non-core asset sales and divestitures. Further, if the condition of the credit and capital markets materially declines, we might not be able to obtain financing on terms we consider acceptable, if at all. In addition, weakness and/or volatility in domestic and global financial markets or economic conditions or a depressed commodity price environment may increase the interest rates that lenders and commercial paper investors require us to pay or adversely affect our ability to finance our capital expenditures through debt or equity offerings or other borrowings. Similarly, a reduction in our cash flows (for example, as a result of lower crude oil, NGLs and/or natural gas prices or unanticipated well shut-ins) and the corresponding adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations may also increase the interest rates that lenders and commercial paper investors require us to pay. A substantial increase in interest rates would decrease our net cash flows available for reinvestment. Any of these factors could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.Further, our ability to obtain financings, our borrowing costs and the terms of any financings are, in part, dependent on the credit ratings assigned to our debt by independent credit rating agencies. The interrelated factors that may impact our credit ratings include our debt levels; planned capital expenditures and sales of assets; near-term and long-term production growth opportunities; liquidity; asset quality; cost structure; product mix; and commodity pricing levels (including, but not limited to, the estimates and assumptions of credit rating agencies with respect to future commodity prices). We cannot provide any assurance that our current credit ratings will remain in effect for any given period of time or that our credit ratings will be raised in the future, nor can we provide any assurance that any of our credit ratings will not be lowered.16In addition, companies in the oil and gas sector may be exposed to increasing reputational risks and, in turn, certain financial risks. Specifically, certain financial institutions (including certain investment advisors and sovereign wealth, pension and endowment funds), in response to concerns related to climate change and the requests and other influence of environmental groups and similar stakeholders, have elected to shift some or all of their investments and financing away from oil and gas-related sectors; such trend may be accelerated by the extensive climate-related disclosure requirements discussed below. Specifically, certain financial institutions (including certain investment advisors and sovereign wealth, pension and endowment funds), in response to concerns related to climate change and the requests and other influence of environmental groups and similar stakeholders, have elected to shift some or all of their investments away from oil and gas-related sectors, and additional financial institutions and other investors may elect to do likewise in the future. Further, additional financial institutions and other investors may elect to do likewise in the future or may impose more stringent conditions with respect to investments in, and financing of, oil and gas-related sectors. As a result, fewer financial institutions and other investors may be willing to invest in, and provide capital to, companies in the oil and gas sector. A material reduction in capital available to the oil and gas sector could make it more difficult (e.g., due to a lack of investor interest in our debt or equity securities) and/or more costly (e.g., due to higher interest rates on our debt securities or other borrowings) to secure funding for our operations, which, in turn, could adversely affect our ability to successfully carry out our business strategy and have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operations.Reserve estimates depend on many interpretations and assumptions. Any significant inaccuracies in these interpretations and assumptions could cause the reported quantities of our reserves to be materially misstated.Estimating quantities of crude oil, NGLs and natural gas reserves and future net cash flows from such reserves is a complex, inexact process. It requires interpretations of available technical data and various assumptions, including assumptions relating to economic factors, made by our management. Any significant inaccuracies in these interpretations or assumptions could cause the reported quantities of our reserves and future net cash flows from such reserves to be overstated or understated. Also, the data for a given reservoir may also change substantially over time as a result of numerous factors including, but not limited to, additional development activity, evolving production history, continual reassessment of the viability of production under varying economic conditions and improvements and other changes in geological, geophysical and engineering evaluation methods.To prepare estimates of our economically recoverable crude oil, NGLs and natural gas reserves and future net cash flows from our reserves, we analyze many variable factors, such as historical production from the area compared with production rates from other producing areas. We also analyze available geological, geophysical, production and engineering data, and the extent, quality and reliability of this data can vary. The process also involves economic assumptions relating to commodity prices, production costs, gathering, processing, compression, storage and transportation costs, severance, ad valorem and other applicable taxes, capital expenditures and workover and remedial costs. Many of these factors are or may be beyond our control. Our actual reserves and future net cash flows from such reserves most likely will vary from our estimates. Any significant variance, including any significant downward revisions to our existing reserve estimates, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and, in turn, the trading price of our common stock. For related discussion, see ITEM 2, Properties - Oil and Gas Exploration and Production - Properties and Reserves and Supplemental Information to Consolidated Financial Statements.If we fail to acquire or find sufficient additional reserves over time, our reserves and production will decline from their current levels.The rate of production from crude oil and natural gas properties generally declines as reserves are produced. Except to the extent that we conduct successful exploration, exploitation and development activities resulting in additional reserves, acquire additional properties containing reserves or, through engineering studies, identify additional behind-pipe zones or secondary recovery reserves, our reserves will decline as they are produced. Maintaining our production of crude oil, NGLs and natural gas at, or increasing our production from, current levels, is, therefore, highly dependent upon our level of success in acquiring or finding additional reserves, which may be adversely impacted by bans or restrictions on leasing and/or drilling. Maintaining our production of crude oil and natural gas at, or increasing our production from, current levels, is, therefore, highly dependent upon our level of success in acquiring or finding additional reserves, which may be adversely impacted by bans or restrictions on drilling. To the extent we are unsuccessful in acquiring or finding additional reserves, our future cash flows and results of operations and, in turn, the trading price of our common stock could be materially and adversely affected.Our ability to declare and pay regular or special dividends on our common stock and repurchase shares of our common stock is subject to certain considerations. Regular and special dividends on our common stock are authorized and determined by our Board in its sole discretion and depend upon a number of factors, including: •cash available for dividends; •our results of operations and anticipated future results of operations;17•our financial condition, especially in relation to the anticipated future capital expenditures and other commitments required to conduct our operations and carry out our business strategy;•our operating costs;•any contractual restrictions or statutory/legal restrictions;•the levels of dividends paid by comparable companies; and•other factors our Board deems relevant. We expect to continue to pay dividends to our stockholders; however, our Board may reduce our dividends or cease declaring dividends at any time, including if it determines that our current or forecasted future cash flows provided by our operating activities (after deducting our capital expenditures and other commitments requiring cash) are not sufficient to pay our desired levels of dividends to our stockholders or to pay dividends to our stockholders at all. We expect to continue to pay dividends to our stockholders; however, our Board may reduce our dividend or cease declaring dividends at any time, including if it determines that our current or forecasted future cash flows provided by our operating activities (after deducting our capital expenditures and other commitments) are not sufficient to pay our desired levels of dividends to our stockholders or to pay dividends to our stockholders at all. Any reduction in the amount of dividends we pay to stockholders could have an adverse effect on the trading price of our common stock. Any downward revision in the amount of dividends we pay to stockholders could have an adverse effect on the trading price of our common stock. In November 2021, our Board established a share repurchase authorization that allows for the repurchase by us of up to $5 billion of our common stock (November 2021 Authorization). Beginning in March 2023, we have repurchased shares from time to time under the November 2021 Authorization. The timing and amount of repurchases is at the discretion of our management and depends on a variety of factors, including the trading price of our common stock, corporate and regulatory requirements, other market and economic conditions, the availability of cash to effect repurchases and our anticipated future capital expenditures and other commitments requiring cash. For further discussion regarding the November 2021 Authorization and our share repurchases thereunder, see ITEM 5, “Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities” below.Our hedging activities may prevent us from fully benefiting from increases in crude oil, NGLs and natural gas prices and may expose us to other risks, including counterparty risk, and our future production may not be sufficiently protected from any declines in commodity prices by our existing or future hedging arrangements.Our hedging activities may prevent us from fully benefiting from increases in crude oil, NGLs and natural gas prices and may expose us to other risks, including counterparty risk. We use financial derivative instruments (primarily financial basis swap, price swap, option, swaption and collar contracts) to hedge the impact of fluctuations in crude oil, NGLs and natural gas prices on our results of operations and cash flows.We use derivative instruments (primarily financial basis swap, price swap, option, swaption and collar contracts) to hedge the impact of fluctuations in crude oil, NGLs and natural gas prices on our results of operations and cash flows. To the extent that we engage in hedging activities to protect ourselves against commodity price declines, we may be prevented from fully realizing the benefits of increases in crude oil, NGLs and natural gas prices above the prices established by our hedging contracts. Further, a majority of our forecasted production for 2024 is subject to fluctuating market prices. To the extent we do not hedge our production volumes for 2024 and beyond, we may be materially and adversely impacted by any declines in commodity prices, which may result in lower net cash provided by our operating activities. If we are ultimately unable to hedge additional production volumes for 2022 and beyond, we may be materially and adversely impacted by any declines in commodity prices, which may result in lower net cash provided by operating activities. In addition, our hedging activities may expose us to the risk of financial loss in certain circumstances, including instances in which the counterparties to our hedging contracts fail to perform under the contracts.The inability of our customers and other contractual counterparties to satisfy their obligations to us may have a material and adverse effect on us.We have various customers for the crude oil, natural gas and related commodities that we produce as well as various other contractual counterparties, including several financial institutions and affiliates of financial institutions. Domestic and global economic conditions, including the financial condition of financial institutions generally, may adversely affect the ability of our customers and other contractual counterparties to pay amounts owed to us from time to time and to otherwise satisfy their contractual obligations to us, as well as their ability to access the credit and capital markets for such purposes.Moreover, our customers and other contractual counterparties may be unable to satisfy their contractual obligations to us for reasons unrelated to these conditions and factors, such as (i) the unavailability of required facilities or equipment due to mechanical failure or market conditions or (ii) financial, operational or strategic actions taken by the customer or counterparty that adversely impact its financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and, in turn, its ability to satisfy its contractual obligations to us. Furthermore, if a customer is unable to satisfy its contractual obligation to purchase crude oil, natural gas or related commodities from us, we may be unable to sell such production to another customer on terms we consider acceptable, if at all, due to the geographic location of such production; the availability, proximity and capacity of appropriate gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation, export, liquefaction and refining facilities; or market or other factors and conditions.The inability of our customers and other contractual counterparties to pay amounts owed to us and to otherwise satisfy their contractual obligations to us may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.18Risks Related to our OperationsDrilling crude oil and natural gas wells is a high-risk activity and subjects us to a variety of risks that we cannot control.Drilling crude oil and natural gas wells, including development wells, involves numerous risks, including the risk that we may not encounter commercially productive crude oil, NGLs and/or natural gas reserves. As a result, we may not recover all or any portion of our investment in new wells.Specifically, we often are uncertain as to the future cost or timing of drilling, completing and operating wells, and our drilling and completions operations and those of our third-party operators may be curtailed, delayed or canceled, the cost of such operations may increase and/or our results of operations and cash flows from such operations may be impacted, as a result of a variety of factors, including:•unexpected drilling conditions;•leasehold title problems;•pressure or irregularities in formations;•equipment failures or accidents;•adverse weather conditions, such as winter storms, flooding, tropical storms and hurricanes, and changes in weather patterns, which may be exacerbated by climate change;•compliance with, or changes in (including the adoption of new), environmental, health and safety laws and regulations relating to air emissions, hydraulic fracturing, access to and use of water, disposal or other discharge (e.Specifically, we often are uncertain as to the future cost or timing of drilling, completing and operating wells, and our drilling operations and those of our third-party operators may be curtailed, delayed or canceled, the cost of such operations may increase and/or our results of operations and cash flows from such operations may be impacted, as a result of a variety of factors, including:•unexpected drilling conditions;•leasehold title problems;•pressure or irregularities in formations;•equipment failures or accidents;•adverse weather conditions, such as winter storms, flooding, tropical storms and hurricanes, and changes in weather patterns;•compliance with, or changes in (including the adoption of new), environmental, health and safety laws and regulations relating to air emissions, hydraulic fracturing, access to and use of water, disposal or other discharge (e. g., into injection wells) of produced water, drilling fluids and other wastes, laws and regulations imposing conditions or restrictions on drilling and completion operations and on the transportation of crude oil, NGLs and natural gas, and other laws and regulations, such as tax laws and regulations; •the availability and timely issuance of required federal, state, tribal and other permits and licenses, which may be adversely affected by (among other things) bans or restrictions on drilling, government shutdowns or other suspensions of, or delays in, government services; •the availability of, costs associated with, and terms of contractual arrangements for properties, including mineral licenses and leases, pipelines, crude oil hauling trucks and qualified drivers and facilities and equipment to gather, process, compress, store, transport, market and export crude oil, NGLs and natural gas and related commodities; and •the costs of, or shortages or delays in the availability of, drilling rigs, hydraulic fracturing services, pressure pumping equipment and supplies, tubular materials, water, sand, disposal facilities, qualified personnel and other necessary facilities, equipment, materials, supplies and services., into injection wells) of produced water, drilling fluids and other wastes, laws and regulations imposing conditions or restrictions on drilling and completion operations and on the transportation of crude oil, NGLs and natural gas, and other laws and regulations, such as tax laws and regulations; •the availability and timely issuance of required federal, state, tribal and other permits and licenses, which may be adversely affected by (among other things) bans or restrictions on drilling, government shutdowns or other suspensions of, or delays in, government services; •the availability of, costs associated with and terms of contractual arrangements for properties, including mineral licenses and leases, pipelines, crude oil hauling trucks and qualified drivers and facilities and equipment to gather, process, compress, store, transport, market and export crude oil, NGLs and natural gas and related commodities; and •the costs of, or shortages or delays in the availability of, drilling rigs, hydraulic fracturing services, pressure pumping equipment and supplies, tubular materials, water, sand, disposal facilities, qualified personnel and other necessary facilities, equipment, materials, supplies and services. Our failure to recover our investment in wells, increases in the costs of our drilling and completions operations or those of our third-party operators, and/or curtailments, delays or cancellations of our drilling and completions operations or those of our third-party operators, in each case, due to any of the above factors or other factors, may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.Our failure to recover our investment in wells, increases in the costs of our drilling operations or those of our third-party operators, and/or curtailments, delays or cancellations of our drilling operations or those of our third-party operators, in each case, due to any of the above factors or other factors, may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. For related discussion of the risks and potential losses and liabilities inherent in our crude oil and natural gas operations generally, see the immediately following risk factor.Our crude oil, NGLs and natural gas operations and supporting activities and operations involve many risks and expose us to potential losses and liabilities, and insurance may not fully protect us against these risks and potential losses and liabilities.Our crude oil, NGLs and natural gas operations and supporting activities and operations are subject to all of the risks associated with exploring and drilling for, and producing, gathering, processing, compressing, storing, transporting and exporting crude oil, NGLs and natural gas, including the risks of:•well blowouts and cratering; •loss of well control; •crude oil spills, natural gas leaks, formation water (i.e., produced water) spills and pipeline ruptures;•pipe failures and casing collapses;•uncontrollable flows of crude oil, natural gas, formation water or drilling fluids;•releases of chemicals, wastes or pollutants; •adverse weather events, such as winter storms, flooding, tropical storms and hurricanes, and other natural disasters, which may be exacerbated by climate change;•fires and explosions;•terrorism, vandalism and physical, electronic and cybersecurity breaches;•formations with abnormal or unexpected pressures; 19•leaks or spills in connection with, or associated with, the gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation and export of crude oil, NGLs and natural gas; and•malfunctions of, or damage to, gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation and export facilities and equipment and other facilities and equipment utilized in support of our crude oil and natural gas operations., produced water) spills and pipeline ruptures;•pipe failures and casing collapses;•uncontrollable flows of crude oil, natural gas, formation water or drilling fluids;•releases of chemicals, wastes or pollutants; •adverse weather events, such as winter storms, flooding, tropical storms and hurricanes, and other natural disasters; •fires and explosions;•terrorism, vandalism and physical, electronic and cybersecurity breaches;•formations with abnormal or unexpected pressures; •leaks or spills in connection with, or associated with, the gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation and export of crude oil, NGLs and natural gas; and•malfunctions of, or damage to, gathering, processing, compression and transportation facilities and equipment and other facilities and equipment utilized in support of our crude oil and natural gas operations. If any of these events occur, we could incur losses, liabilities and other additional costs as a result of:•injury or loss of life; •damage to, or destruction of, property, facilities, equipment and crude oil and natural gas reservoirs; •pollution or other environmental damage; •regulatory investigations and penalties as well as cleanup and remediation responsibilities and costs;•suspension or interruption of our operations, including due to injunction; •repairs necessary to resume operations; and•compliance with laws and regulations enacted as a result of such events.We maintain insurance against many, but not all, such losses and liabilities in accordance with what we believe are customary industry practices and in amounts and at costs that we believe to be prudent and commercially practicable. However, the occurrence of any of these events and any losses or liabilities incurred as a result of such events, if uninsured or in excess of our insurance coverage, would reduce the funds available to us for our operations and could, in turn, have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In the future, we may not be able to maintain or obtain insurance of the type and amount we desire at reasonable rates. As a result of market conditions, premiums, retentions and deductibles for our insurance policies will change over time and could escalate. In addition, some forms of insurance may become unavailable or unavailable on economically acceptable terms.Our ability to sell and deliver our crude oil, NGLs and natural gas production could be materially and adversely affected if adequate gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation, refining, liquefaction and export facilities and equipment are unavailable.Our ability to sell and deliver our crude oil, NGLs and natural gas production could be materially and adversely affected if adequate gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation and export facilities and equipment are unavailable. The sale of our crude oil, NGLs and natural gas production depends on a number of factors beyond our control, including the availability, proximity and capacity of, and costs associated with, gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation, refining, liquefaction and export facilities and equipment owned by third parties.The sale of our crude oil, NGLs and natural gas production depends on a number of factors beyond our control, including the availability, proximity and capacity of, and costs associated with, gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation and export facilities and equipment owned by third parties. These facilities and equipment may be temporarily unavailable to us due to market conditions, supply chain disruptions, regulatory reasons, mechanical reasons or other factors or conditions, and may not be available to us in the future on terms we consider acceptable, if at all. These facilities and equipment may be temporarily unavailable to us due to market conditions, regulatory reasons, mechanical reasons or other factors or conditions, and may not be available to us in the future on terms we consider acceptable, if at all. In particular, in certain newer plays, the capacity of gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation, refining. In particular, in certain newer plays, the capacity of gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation and export facilities and equipment may not be sufficient to accommodate potential production from existing and new wells. liquefaction and export facilities and equipment may not be sufficient to accommodate potential production from existing and new wells. In addition, lack of financing, construction and permitting delays, permitting costs and regulatory or other constraints could limit or delay the construction, manufacture or other acquisition of new gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation, refining, liquefaction and export facilities and equipment by third parties or us, and we may experience delays or increased costs in accessing the pipelines, gathering systems or transportation systems necessary to transport our production to points of sale or delivery. In addition, lack of financing, construction and permitting delays, permitting costs and regulatory or other constraints could limit or delay the construction, manufacture or other acquisition of new gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation and export facilities and equipment by third parties or us, and we may experience delays or increased costs in accessing the pipelines, gathering systems or rail systems necessary to transport our production to points of sale or delivery. Any significant change in market or other conditions affecting gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation, refining, liquefaction and export facilities and equipment or the availability of these facilities and equipment, including due to our failure or inability to obtain access to these facilities and equipment on terms acceptable to us or at all, could materially and adversely affect our business and, in turn, our financial condition and results of operations.19Any significant change in market or other conditions affecting gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation and export facilities and equipment or the availability of these facilities and equipment, including due to our failure or inability to obtain access to these facilities and equipment on terms acceptable to us or at all, could materially and adversely affect our business and, in turn, our financial condition and results of operations. A portion of our crude oil, NGLs and natural gas production may be subject to interruptions that could have a material and adverse effect on us.A portion of our crude oil, NGLs and natural gas production may be interrupted, or shut in, from time to time for various reasons, including, but not limited to, as a result of accidents, weather conditions, the unavailability of gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation, refining, liquefaction or export facilities or equipment or field labor issues, or intentionally as a result of market conditions such as crude oil, NGLs or natural gas prices that we deem uneconomic.A portion of our crude oil, NGLs and natural gas production may be interrupted, or shut in, from time to time for various reasons, including, but not limited to, as a result of accidents, weather conditions, the unavailability of gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation, refining or export facilities or equipment or field labor issues, or intentionally as a result of market conditions such as crude oil, NGLs or natural gas prices that we deem uneconomic. If a substantial amount of our production is interrupted or shut in, our cash flows and, in turn, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.20Our operations are substantially dependent upon the availability of water. Restrictions or limitations on our ability to obtain water may have a material and adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Restrictions on our ability to obtain water may have a material and adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Water is an essential component of our operations, both during drilling operations and completions operations.Water is an essential component of our operations, both during the drilling and hydraulic fracturing processes. Limitations or restrictions on our ability to secure sufficient amounts of water (including limitations resulting from natural causes such as drought) could materially and adversely impact our operations. Further, severe drought conditions can result in local authorities taking steps to restrict the use of water in their jurisdiction for drilling and completions in order to protect the local water supply. Further, severe drought conditions can result in local water districts taking steps to restrict the use of water in their jurisdiction for drilling and hydraulic fracturing in order to protect the local water supply. If we are unable to obtain water to use in our operations from local sources, we may need to obtain water from sources that are more distant from our drilling sites, resulting in increased costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. If we are unable to obtain water to use in its operations from local sources, it may need to be obtained from new sources and transported to drilling sites, resulting in increased costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We have limited control over the activities on properties that we do not operate.Some of the properties in which we have an interest are operated by other companies and involve third-party working interest owners. As a result, we have limited ability to influence or control the operation or future development of such properties, including compliance with environmental, safety and other regulations, or the amount of capital expenditures that we will be required to fund with respect to such properties. Moreover, we are dependent on the other working interest owners of such projects to fund their contractual share of the capital expenditures of such projects. In addition, a third-party operator could also decide to shut-in or curtail production from wells, or plug and abandon marginal wells, on properties owned by that operator during periods of lower crude oil, NGLs or natural gas prices. These limitations and our dependence on the operator and third-party working interest owners for these projects could cause us to incur unexpected future costs, lower production and materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.If we acquire crude oil, NGLs and natural gas properties, our failure to fully identify existing and potential issues, to accurately estimate reserves, production rates or costs, or to effectively integrate the acquired properties into our operations could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.If we acquire crude oil, NGLs and natural gas properties, our failure to fully identify existing and potential problems, to accurately estimate reserves, production rates or costs, or to effectively integrate the acquired properties into our operations could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. From time to time, we seek to acquire crude oil and natural gas properties. Although we perform reviews of properties to be acquired in a manner that we believe is duly diligent and consistent with industry practices, reviews of records and properties may not necessarily reveal existing or potential issues (such as title defects or environmental issues), nor may they permit us to become sufficiently familiar with the properties in order to fully assess their deficiencies and potential. Although we perform reviews of properties to be acquired in a manner that we believe is duly diligent and consistent with industry practices, reviews of records and properties may not necessarily reveal existing or potential problems (such as title or environmental issues), nor may they permit us to become sufficiently familiar with the properties in order to fully assess their deficiencies and potential. Even when issues with a property are identified, we often may assume environmental and other risks and liabilities in connection with acquired properties pursuant to the acquisition agreements. Even when problems with a property are identified, we often may assume environmental and other risks and liabilities in connection with acquired properties pursuant to the acquisition agreements. In addition, there are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities of crude oil, NGLs and natural gas reserves (as discussed further above), actual future production rates and associated costs with respect to acquired properties. In addition, there are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities of crude oil and natural gas reserves (as discussed further above), actual future production rates and associated costs with respect to acquired properties. Actual reserves, production rates and costs may vary substantially from those assumed in our estimates. In addition, an acquisition may have a material and adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations, particularly during the periods in which the operations of the acquired properties are being integrated into our ongoing operations or if we are unable to effectively integrate the acquired properties into our ongoing operations. In addition, an acquisition may have a material and adverse effect on our business and results of operations, particularly during the periods in which the operations of the acquired properties are being integrated into our ongoing operations or if we are unable to effectively integrate the acquired properties into our ongoing operations. Competition in the oil and gas exploration and production industry is intense, and some of our competitors have greater resources than we have.We compete with major integrated oil and gas companies, government-affiliated oil and gas companies and other independent oil and gas companies for the acquisition of licenses and leases, properties and reserves and access to the facilities, equipment, materials, services and employees and other personnel (including geologists, geophysicists, engineers and other specialists) necessary to explore for, develop, produce, market and transport crude oil, NGLs and natural gas. Certain of our competitors have financial and other resources substantially greater than those we possess and have established strategic long-term positions or strong governmental relationships in countries or areas in which we may seek new or expanded entry. As a consequence, we may be at a competitive disadvantage in certain respects, such as in bidding for drilling rights or in accessing necessary services, facilities, equipment, materials and personnel. In addition, our larger competitors may have a competitive advantage when responding to factors that affect demand for crude oil, NGLs and natural gas, such as changing worldwide prices and levels of production and the cost and availability of alternative fuels. We also face competition from competing energy sources, such as renewable energy sources.21Risks Related to ESG/Sustainability, Regulatory and Legal MattersDevelopments and concerns related to climate change may have a material and adverse effect on us.Governmental and regulatory bodies, investors, consumers, industry and other stakeholders have been increasingly focused on climate change matters in recent years. For example, (i) in March 2022, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) proposed extensive climate-related disclosure requirements that, if adopted, would require U.S. public companies to significantly expand the climate-related disclosures in their SEC filings, (ii) in September 2023, California passed climate-related disclosure mandates which are broader than the SEC’s proposed rules and (iii) in November 2023, the European Union approved methane emissions limits on crude oil and natural gas imports beginning in 2030. This focus, together with changes in consumer and industrial/commercial behavior, preferences and attitudes with respect to the generation and consumption of energy, the use of crude oil, NGLs and natural gas and the use of products manufactured with, or powered by, crude oil, NGLs and natural gas, may result in (i) the enactment of climate change-related regulations, policies and initiatives (at the government, corporate and/or investor community levels), including alternative energy requirements, energy conservation measures and emissions-related legislation, (ii) technological advances with respect to the generation, transmission, storage and consumption of energy (e.g., wind, solar and hydrogen power, smart grid technology and battery technology) and (iii) increased availability of, and increased consumer and industrial/commercial demand for, non-hydrocarbon energy sources (e.g., alternative energy sources) and products manufactured with, or powered by, non-hydrocarbon sources (e.g., electric vehicles and renewable residential and commercial power supplies). These developments may adversely affect the demand for products manufactured with, or powered by, crude oil, NGLs and natural gas and the demand for, and in turn the prices of, the crude oil, NGLs and natural gas that we sell. See the risk factors above for a discussion of the impact of commodity prices (including fluctuations in commodity prices) on our financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. See the risk factor above for a discussion of the impact of commodity prices (including fluctuations in commodity prices) on our financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. In addition to potentially adversely affecting the demand for, and prices of, the crude oil, NGLs and natural gas that we produce and sell, such developments may also adversely impact, among other things, the availability to us of necessary third-party services and facilities that we rely on, which may increase our operational costs and adversely affect our ability to explore for, produce, transport and process crude oil, NGLs and natural gas and successfully carry out our business strategy.In addition to potentially adversely affecting the demand for, and prices of, the crude oil, NGLs and natural gas that we sell, such developments may also adversely impact, among other things, the availability to us of necessary third-party services and facilities that we rely on, which may increase our operational costs and adversely affect our ability to explore for, produce, transport and process crude oil, NGLs and natural gas and successfully carry out our business strategy. For further discussion of the potential impact of such availability-related risks on our financial condition and results of operations, see the discussion in the section above entitled "Risks Related to our Operations. For further discussion of the potential impact of such risks on our financial condition and results of operations, see the discussion in the section below entitled "Risks Related to our Operations. " Further, climate change-related developments (such as extensive climate-related disclosure requirements as referenced above) may result in negative perceptions of the oil and gas industry and, in turn, reputational risks associated with the exploration for, and production of, hydrocarbons." Further, climate change-related developments may result in negative perceptions of the oil and gas industry and, in turn, reputational risks associated with the exploration for, and production of, hydrocarbons. Such negative perceptions and reputational risks may adversely affect our ability to successfully carry out our business strategy, for example, by adversely affecting the availability and cost of capital to us. For further discussion of the potential impact of such risks on our financial condition, cash flows and results of operations, see the discussion below in this section and in the section above entitled "Risks Related to Our Operations."In addition, the enactment of climate change-related regulations, policies and initiatives (at the government, corporate and/or investor community levels) may also result in increases in our compliance costs and other operating costs. For further discussion regarding the risks to us of climate change-related regulations, policies and initiatives, see the discussion in this section. For further discussion regarding the risks to us of climate change-related regulations, policies and initiatives, see the discussion below in the section entitled "Risks Related to Regulatory and Legal Matters. Also, continuing political and social concerns relating to climate change may have adverse effects on our business and operations, such as a greater potential for shareholder activism, governmental inquiries and enforcement actions and litigation (including, but not limited to, litigation brought by governmental entities and shareholder litigation) and resulting expenses and potential disruption to our day-to-day operations.19Any significant change in market or other conditions affecting gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation and export facilities and equipment or the availability of these facilities and equipment, including due to our failure or inability to obtain access to these facilities and equipment on terms acceptable to us or at all, could materially and adversely affect our business and, in turn, our financial condition and results of operations. Regulatory, legislative and policy changes may materially and adversely affect the oil and gas exploration and production industry.New or revised rules, regulations and policies may be issued, and new legislation may be proposed, that could impact the oil and gas exploration and production industry. Such rules, regulations, policies and legislation may affect, among other things, (i) permitting for oil and gas drilling on state, tribal and federal lands, (ii) the leasing of state, tribal and federal lands for oil and gas development, (iii) the regulation and disclosure of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and/or other climate change-related matters associated with oil and gas operations, (iv) the use of hydraulic fracturing on state, tribal and federal lands, (v) the calculation of royalty payments in respect of oil and gas production from state, tribal and federal lands (including, but not limited to, an increase in applicable royalty percentages), (vi) U. Such rules, regulations, policies and legislation may affect, among other things, (i) permitting for oil and gas drilling on federal lands, (ii) the leasing of federal lands for oil and gas development, (iii) the regulation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and/or other climate change-related matters associated with oil and gas operations, (iv) the use of hydraulic fracturing on federal lands, (v) the calculation of royalty payments in respect of oil and gas production from federal lands (including, but not limited to, an increase in applicable royalty percentages) and (vi) U. S. federal income tax laws applicable to oil and gas exploration and production companies and (vii) the use of financial derivative instruments to hedge the financial impact of fluctuations in crude oil, NGLs and natural gas prices. federal income tax laws applicable to crude oil and natural gas exploration and production companies, such as with respect to the intangible drilling and development costs deduction and bonus tax depreciation. 22Further, such regulatory, legislative and policy changes may, among other things, result in additional permitting and disclosure requirements, additional operating restrictions and/or the imposition of various conditions and restrictions on drilling and completion operations or other aspects of our business, any of which could lead to operational delays, increased operating and compliance costs and/or other impacts on our business and operations and could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and capital expenditures.For related discussion, see the below risk factors regarding legislative and regulatory matters impacting the oil and gas exploration and production industry and the discussion in ITEM 1, Business - Regulation.We incur certain costs to comply with government regulations, particularly regulations relating to environmental protection and safety, and could incur even greater costs in the future.Our crude oil, NGLs and natural gas operations and supporting activities are regulated extensively by federal, state, tribal and local governments and regulatory agencies, both domestically and in the foreign countries in which we do business, and are subject to interruption or termination by governmental and regulatory authorities based on environmental, health, safety or other considerations. Moreover, we have incurred and will continue to incur costs in our efforts to comply with the requirements of environmental, health, safety and other regulations. Further, the regulatory environment could change in ways that we cannot predict and that might substantially increase our costs of compliance and/or adversely affect our business and operations and, in turn, materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and capital expenditures.Specifically, as a current or past owner or lessee and operator of crude oil and natural gas properties, we are subject to various federal, state, tribal, local and foreign regulations relating to the discharge of materials into, and the protection of, the environment. These regulations may, among other things, impose liability on us for the cost of pollution cleanup resulting from current or past operations, subject us to liability for pollution damages and require suspension or cessation of operations in affected areas. Changes in, or additions to, these regulations, could lead to increased operating and compliance costs and, in turn, materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and capital expenditures.The regulation of hydraulic fracturing is primarily conducted at the state and local level through permitting and other compliance requirements and, further, some state and local governments have imposed or have considered imposing various conditions and restrictions on drilling and completion operations. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has issued regulations relating to hydraulic fracturing and there have been various other proposals to regulate hydraulic fracturing at the federal level. Any new requirements, restrictions, conditions or prohibitions could lead to operational delays and increased operating and compliance costs and, further, could delay or effectively prevent the development of crude oil and natural gas from formations which would not be economically viable without the use of hydraulic fracturing. Any new requirements, restrictions, conditions or prohibition could lead to operational delays and increased operating and compliance costs and, further, could delay or effectively prevent the development of crude oil and natural gas from formations which would not be economically viable without the use of hydraulic fracturing. Accordingly, our production of crude oil and natural gas could be materially and adversely affected. For additional discussion regarding hydraulic fracturing regulation, see Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Operations - United States under ITEM 1, Business - Regulation.We will continue to monitor and assess any proposed or new policies, legislation, regulations and treaties in the areas where we operate to determine the impact on our operations and take appropriate actions, where necessary. We are unable to predict the timing, scope and effect of any currently proposed or future laws, regulations or treaties, but the direct and indirect costs of such laws, regulations and treaties (if enacted) could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and capital expenditures. See also the risk factor below regarding the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act with respect to regulation of financial derivative transactions and entities (such as EOG) that participate in such transactions. See also the risk factor below regarding the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act with respect to regulation of derivatives transactions and entities (such as EOG) that participate in such transactions. Regulations, government policies and government and corporate initiatives relating to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change could have a significant impact on our operations and we could incur significant cost in the future to comply.Local, state, federal and international regulatory bodies have been increasingly focused on GHG emissions and climate change issues in recent years. For example, we are subject to the U.S. EPA’s rule requiring annual reporting of GHG emissions which is subject to amendment from time to time. EPA’s rule requiring annual reporting of GHG emissions. In addition, our oil and gas production and processing operations are subject to the U.S. EPA’s new source performance standards applicable to emissions of volatile organic compounds from new, modified and reconstructed crude oil and natural gas wells and equipment located at natural gas production gathering and booster stations and gas processing plants, as well as the U.S. EPA’s final new methane rules announced in December 2023. Further, our operations are subject to the proposed methane “Waste Emissions Charge” rule, published in January 2024 as part of the Methane Emissions Reduction Program implemented under the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022. 23At the international level, in December 2015, the U.At the international level, in December 2015, the U. S. participated in the 21st Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris, France. The Paris Agreement (adopted at the conference) calls for nations to undertake efforts with respect to global temperatures and GHG emissions. The Paris Agreement went into effect in November 2016 and to which the United States formally rejoined in February 2021. The Paris Agreement went into effect on November 4, 2016 and to which the United States formally rejoined in February 2021. The United States has established an economy-wide target of reducing its net GHG emissions by 50-52 percent below 2005 levels by 2030 and achieving net zero GHG emissions economy-wide by no later than 2050. In December 2023, the first global stocktake, also known as the “UAE Consensus,” was issued at the United Nations Climate Change Conference. The UAE Consensus is an assessment of members’ collective efforts and achievements to reduce GHG emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change. The UAE Consensus calls on parties, including the U.S., to contribute to the transitioning away from fossil fuels, reduce methane emissions, and increase renewable energy capacity, among other things, to achieve net zero emissions by 2050. In addition, many state and local officials have stated their intent to intensify efforts to uphold the commitments set forth in the international accord. In addition, many state and local officials have stated their intent to intensify efforts to uphold the commitments set forth in the international accord. It is possible that the Paris Agreement, the related UAE Consensus, and subsequent domestic and international regulations and government policies related to climate change and GHG emissions will have adverse effects on the market for crude oil, NGLs and natural gas as well as adverse effects on the business and operations of companies engaged in the exploration for, and production of, crude oil, NGLs and natural gas.It is possible that the Paris Agreement and subsequent domestic and international regulations and government policies related to climate change and GHG emissions will have adverse effects on the market for crude oil, NGLs and natural gas as well as adverse effects on the business and operations of companies engaged in the exploration for, and production of, crude oil, NGLs and natural gas. We are unable to predict the timing, scope and effect of any currently proposed or future investigations, laws, regulations, treaties or policies regarding climate change and GHG emissions (including any laws and regulations that may be enacted in the U.S.), but the direct and indirect costs of such developments (if enacted, issued or applied) could materially and adversely affect our operations, financial condition, results of operations and capital expenditures.), but the direct and indirect costs of such developments (if enacted, issued or applied) could materially and adversely affect our operations, financial condition and results of operations. The potential increase in the costs of our operations could include costs to operate and maintain our facilities, install new emission controls on our facilities, acquire allowances to authorize our GHG emissions, pay taxes or fees related to our GHG emissions, or administer and manage a GHG emissions program. In addition, changes in regulatory policies that result in a reduction in the demand for hydrocarbon products that are deemed to contribute to GHG emissions, or restrictions on their use, could also adversely affect market demand for, and in turn the prices we receive for our production of, crude oil, NGLs and natural gas. For additional discussion regarding the regulation of GHG emissions and climate change generally, see ITEM 1, Business – Regulation.Our initiatives, targets and ambitions related to emissions and other ESG matters, including our related public statements and disclosures, may expose us to certain risks.We have developed, and will continue to develop, targets and ambitions related to our environmental, social and governance (ESG) initiatives, including, but not limited to, our emissions reduction targets and our ambition to reach net zero Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions by 2040. Our public disclosures and other statements related to these initiatives, targets and ambitions reflect our plans and expectations at the time such disclosures and statements are made and are not a guarantee the initiatives will be successfully developed, implemented and carried out or that the targets or ambitions will be achieved or achieved on the anticipated timelines. Further, as technologies evolve and cybersecurity threats become more sophisticated, we are continually expending additional resources to modify or enhance our security measures to protect against such threats and to identify and remediate on a regular basis any vulnerabilities in our information systems and related infrastructure that may be detected, and these expenditures in the future may be significant. Our ability to achieve our ESG-related targets and ambitions is subject to numerous factors and conditions, some of which are outside of our control and include evolving government regulation, potential revisions to emissions estimates as measurement technologies advance or due to changes in protocol or methodologies, the pace of changes in technology, the successful development and deployment of existing or new technologies and business solutions on a commercial scale, the availability, timing and cost of necessary equipment, goods, services and personnel, and the availability of requisite financing and federal and state incentive programs. For example, we are exploring technology to capture and store carbon dioxide emissions, which includes a pilot carbon capture and storage (CCS) project related to our operations. CCS projects face operational, technological, legal and regulatory risks that could be considerable due to the early-stage nature of such projects and the CCS sector generally. Our ability to successfully develop, implement and carry out our CCS activities will depend on a number of factors that we will not be able to fully control, including timing of regulatory approvals and availability of subsurface pore space. Further, financial or tax incentives in respect of CCS projects could be changed or terminated. In addition, our failure to properly operate a CCS project could put at risk certain governmental tax credits and potentially expose us to commercial, legal, reputational and other risks.In addition, the pursuit and achievement of our current or future initiatives, targets and ambitions relating to the reduction of GHG emissions may increase our costs, including requiring us to purchase emissions credits or offsets, the availability and price of which are outside of our control, and may impact or otherwise limit our ability to execute on our business strategy. In addition, the achievement of our current or future internal initiatives relating to the reduction of GHG emissions may increase our costs, including requiring us to purchase emissions credits or offsets, the availability and price of which are outside of our control, or may impact or otherwise limit our ability to execute on our business plans. Such initiatives, targets and ambitions are also subject to business, regulatory, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, and required advancements in technology. Also, our continuing efforts to research, establish, accomplish and accurately report on our emissions and other ESG-related initiatives, targets and ambitions may create additional operational risks and expenses and expose us to reputational, legal and other risks.24Further, investor and regulatory focus on ESG matters continues to increase. In addition to climate change, there is increasing investor and regulatory attention and focus on topics such as diversity and inclusion, human rights and human capital management, in companies’ own operations as well as across their supply chains. If our ESG-related initiatives, targets and ambitions do not meet our investors' or other stakeholders' evolving expectations and standards, investment in our stock may be viewed as less attractive and our reputation and contractual, employment and other business relationships may be adversely impacted.Tax laws and regulations, including those applicable specifically to crude oil and natural gas exploration and production companies, may change over time, and such changes could materially and adversely affect our business, cash flows, results of operations and financial condition.Tax laws and regulations applicable to crude oil and natural gas exploration and production companies may change over time, and such changes could materially and adversely affect our cash flows, results of operations and financial condition. From time to time, legislation has been proposed that, if enacted into law, would make significant changes to U.S. federal and state income tax laws, including laws specifically applicable to crude oil and natural gas exploration and production companies - such as eliminating the immediate deduction for intangible drilling and development costs. federal income tax laws applicable to crude oil and natural gas exploration and production companies, such as with respect to the intangible drilling and development costs deduction and bonus tax depreciation. In addition, certain countries, including countries where EOG is currently conducting business or may in the future conduct business, have advocated for the implementation (via legislation) of a global minimum tax. No accurate prediction can be made as to whether any such legislative changes or similar or other tax law changes will be proposed or enacted. Further, no accurate prediction can be made as to (i) what the specific provisions or the effective date of any such enacted legislation would be or (ii) in the case of a global minimum tax or similar tax, which countries or other jurisdictions would participate and enact applicable legislation. The elimination or postponement of certain U.S. federal income tax deductions currently available to crude oil and natural gas exploration and production companies, as well as any other changes to, or the imposition of new, U.S. federal, state, local or non-U.S. (i.e., foreign) taxes (including the imposition of, or increases in, production, severance or similar taxes or the enactment of a global minimum tax or similar tax), could, if adopted, materially and adversely affect our business, cash flows, results of operations and financial condition.In addition, legislation may be proposed with respect to the enactment of a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels based on the GHG emissions associated with such fuels. A carbon tax, whether imposed on producers or consumers, would generally increase the prices for crude oil, NGLs and natural gas. Such price increases may, in turn, reduce demand for crude oil, NGLs and natural gas and materially and adversely affect our cash flows, results of operations and financial condition. Such price increases may, in turn, reduce demand for crude oil, NGLs and natural gas and materially and adversely affect our cash flows, results of operations and financial condition. In August 2022, President Biden signed into law the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), which, among other changes, imposes a 15% corporate alternative minimum tax (CAMT) on the "adjusted financial statement income" of certain large corporations (generally, corporations reporting at least $1 billion average adjusted financial statement net income). To the extent we are subject to the CAMT, our cash obligations for U.S. federal income taxes could be accelerated. The U.S. Treasury Department, the Internal Revenue Service and other standard-setting bodies are expected to continue to issue guidance on how the CAMT and other provisions of the IRA will be applied or otherwise administered which may differ from our interpretations. We continue to evaluate the IRA and its effect on our financial condition and cash flows. We are unable to predict the timing, scope and effect of any proposed or enacted tax law changes, but any such changes (if enacted) may materially and adversely affect our business. We will continue to monitor and assess any proposed or enacted tax law changes to determine the impact on our business, cash flows, results of operations and financial condition and take appropriate actions, where necessary. We will continue to monitor and assess any proposed or enacted tax law changes to determine the impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition and take appropriate actions, where necessary. Risks Related to Our International OperationsWe operate in other countries and, as a result, are subject to certain political, economic, competitive and other risks.Our operations in jurisdictions outside the U.S. are subject to various risks inherent in foreign operations. These risks include, among other risks:•increases in taxes and governmental royalties;25•additional and potentially unfamiliar laws and policies governing the operations of foreign-based companies and changes in such laws and policies;•loss of revenue, loss of or damage to equipment, property and other assets and interruption of operations as a result of expropriation, nationalization, acts of terrorism, war, civil unrest and other political risks; •unilateral or forced renegotiation, modification or nullification of existing contracts with governmental entities; •difficulties enforcing our rights against a governmental agency because of the doctrine of sovereign immunity and foreign sovereignty over international operations; •competition from companies that have established strategic long-term positions or have strong governmental relationships in the foreign jurisdictions in which we operate; and•currency restrictions or exchange rate fluctuations. Our international operations may also be adversely affected by U.S. laws and policies affecting foreign trade and taxation, including tariffs or trade or other economic sanctions; modifications to, or withdrawal from, international trade treaties; and U.S. laws with respect to participation in boycotts that are not supported by the U.S. government. The realization of any of these factors could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.Unfavorable currency exchange rate fluctuations could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.The reporting currency for our consolidated financial statements is the U.The reporting currency for our financial statements is the U. S. dollar. However, certain of our subsidiaries are located in countries other than the U.S. and have functional currencies other than the U.S. dollar. The assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses of certain of these foreign subsidiaries are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. To prepare our consolidated financial statements, we must translate those assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses into U.S. dollars at then-applicable exchange rates. Consequently, increases and decreases in the value of the U.S. dollar versus other currencies will affect the amount of these items in our consolidated financial statements, even if the amount has not changed in the original currency. These translations could result in changes to our results of operations from period to period. For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, EOG had no net operating revenues related to operations of our foreign subsidiaries whose functional currency was not the U.S. dollar.Risks Related to Cybersecurity, Outbreaks/Pandemics and Other External FactorsOur business could be materially and adversely affected by security threats, including cybersecurity threats, and other disruptions.As an oil and gas producer, we face various security threats, including (i) cybersecurity threats to gain unauthorized access to, or control of, our sensitive information or to render our data or systems corrupted or unusable; (ii) threats to the security of our facilities and infrastructure or to the security of third-party facilities and infrastructure, such as gathering, transportation, processing, fractionation, refining, liquefaction and export facilities; and (iii) threats from terrorist acts. The potential for such security threats has subjected our operations to increased risks that could have a material and adverse effect on our business.We rely extensively on information technology systems, including internally developed software, data hosting platforms, real-time data acquisition systems, third-party software, cloud services and other internally or externally hosted hardware and software platforms, to (i) estimate our oil and gas reserves, (ii) process and record financial and operating data, (iii) process and analyze all stages of our business operations, including exploration, drilling, completions, production, gathering and processing, transportation, pipelines and other related activities and (iv) communicate with our employees and vendors, suppliers and other third parties. Further, our reliance on technology has increased due to the increased use of personal devices and remote communications. Further, our reliance on technology has increased due to the increased use of personal devices, remote communications and other work-from-home practices in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although we have implemented and invested in, and will continue to implement and invest in, controls, procedures and protections (including internal and external personnel) that are designed to protect our systems, identify and remediate on a regular basis vulnerabilities in our systems and related infrastructure and monitor and mitigate the risk of data loss and other cybersecurity threats, such measures cannot entirely eliminate cybersecurity threats and the controls, procedures and protections we have implemented and invested in may prove to be ineffective.Our systems and networks, and those of our business associates, may become the target of cybersecurity attacks, including, without limitation, denial-of-service attacks; malicious software; data privacy breaches by employees, insiders or others with authorized access; cyber or phishing-attacks; ransomware; attempts to gain unauthorized access to our data and systems; and other electronic security breaches. If any of these security breaches were to occur, we could suffer disruptions to our normal operations, including our drilling, completion, production and corporate functions, which could materially and adversely affect us in a variety of ways, including, but not limited to, the following:26•unauthorized access to, and release of, our business data, reserves information, strategic information or other sensitive or proprietary information, which could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to compete for oil and gas resources, or reduce our competitive advantage over other companies;•data corruption, communication interruption, or other operational disruptions during our drilling activities, which could result in our failure to reach the intended target or a drilling incident;•data corruption or operational disruptions of our production-related infrastructure, which could result in loss of production or accidental discharges;•unauthorized access to, and release of, personal information of our royalty owners, employees and vendors, which could expose us to allegations that we did not sufficiently protect such information;•a cybersecurity attack on a vendor or service provider, which could result in supply chain disruptions and could delay or halt our operations;•a cybersecurity attack on third-party gathering, transportation, processing, fractionation, refining, liquefaction or export facilities, which could result in reduced demand for our production or delay or prevent us from transporting and marketing our production, in either case resulting in a loss of revenues;•a cybersecurity attack involving commodities exchanges or financial institutions could slow or halt commodities trading, thus preventing us from marketing our production or engaging in hedging activities, resulting in a loss of revenues; •a deliberate corruption of our financial or operating data could result in events of non-compliance which could then lead to regulatory fines or penalties;•a cybersecurity attack on a communications network or power grid, which could cause operational disruptions resulting in a loss of revenues; and•a cybersecurity attack on our automated and surveillance systems, which could cause a loss of production and potential environmental hazards. If any of these security breaches were to occur, we could suffer disruptions to our normal operations, including our drilling, completion, production and corporate functions, which could materially and adversely affect us in a variety of ways, including, but not limited to, the following:•unauthorized access to, and release of, our business data, reserves information, strategic information or other sensitive or proprietary information, which could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to compete for oil and gas resources, or reduce our competitive advantage over other companies;•data corruption, communication interruption, or other operational disruptions during our drilling activities, which could result in our failure to reach the intended target or a drilling incident;•data corruption or operational disruptions of our production-related infrastructure, which could result in loss of production or accidental discharges;•unauthorized access to, and release of, personal information of our royalty owners, employees and vendors, which could expose us to allegations that we did not sufficiently protect such information;•a cybersecurity attack on a vendor or service provider, which could result in supply chain disruptions and could delay or halt our operations;•a cybersecurity attack on third-party gathering, transportation, processing, fractionation, refining or export facilities, which could result in reduced demand for our production or delay or prevent us from transporting and marketing our production, in either case resulting in a loss of revenues;•a cybersecurity attack involving commodities exchanges or financial institutions could slow or halt commodities trading, thus preventing us from marketing our production or engaging in hedging activities, resulting in a loss of revenues; •a deliberate corruption of our financial or operating data could result in events of non-compliance which could then lead to regulatory fines or penalties;•a cybersecurity attack on a communications network or power grid, which could cause operational disruptions resulting in a loss of revenues; and•a cybersecurity attack on our automated and surveillance systems, which could cause a loss of production and potential environmental hazards. Further, strategic targets, such as energy-related assets, may be at a greater risk of terrorist attacks or cybersecurity attacks than other targets in the United States. Moreover, external digital technologies control nearly all of the crude oil and natural gas distribution systems in the U. Moreover, external digital technologies control nearly all of the crude oil and natural gas distribution and refining systems in the U. S. and abroad, which are necessary to transport and market our production. A cybersecurity attack directed at, for example, crude oil, NGLs and natural gas distribution systems could (i) damage critical distribution and storage assets or the environment; (ii) disrupt energy supplies and markets, by delaying or preventing delivery of production to markets; and (iii) make it difficult or impossible to accurately account for production and settle transactions. A cybersecurity attack directed at, for example, crude oil and natural gas distribution systems could (i) damage critical distribution and storage assets or the environment; (ii) disrupt energy supplies and markets, by delaying or preventing delivery of production to markets; and (iii) make it difficult or impossible to accurately account for production and settle transactions. Any such terrorist attack or cybersecurity attack that affects us, our customers, suppliers, or others with whom we do business and/or energy-related assets could have a material adverse effect on our business, including disruption of our operations, damage to our reputation, a loss of counterparty trust, reimbursement or other costs, increased compliance costs, significant litigation exposure and legal liability or regulatory fines, penalties or intervention. Although we have business continuity plans in place, our operations may be adversely affected by significant and widespread disruption to our systems and the infrastructure that supports our business. While we continue to evolve and modify our business continuity plans as well as our cyber threat detection and mitigation systems, there can be no assurance that they will be effective in avoiding disruption and business impacts. Further, our insurance may not be adequate to compensate us for all resulting losses, and the cost to obtain adequate coverage may increase for us in the future and some insurance coverage may become more difficult to obtain, if available at all.While we have experienced limited cybersecurity incidents in the past, we have not had, to date, any business interruptions or material losses from breaches of cybersecurity. However, there is no assurance that we will not suffer any such interruptions or losses in the future. Further, as technologies evolve and cybersecurity threats become more sophisticated, we are continually expending additional resources to modify or enhance our security measures to protect against such threats and to identify and remediate on a regular basis any vulnerabilities in our information systems and related infrastructure that may be detected, and these expenditures in the future may be significant. Additionally, the continuing and evolving threat of cybersecurity attacks has resulted in evolving legal and compliance matters, including increased regulatory focus on prevention and new disclosure requirements recently enacted by the SEC with respect to material cybersecurity incidents and cybersecurity risk management, strategy and governance, which could require us to expend significant additional resources to meet such requirements. Additionally, the continuing and evolving threat of cybersecurity attacks has resulted in evolving legal and compliance matters, including increased regulatory focus on prevention, which could require us to expend significant additional resources to meet such requirements. 27Outbreaks of communicable diseases can adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.Global or national health concerns, including a widespread outbreak of contagious disease, can, among other impacts, negatively impact the global economy, reduce demand and pricing for crude oil, NGLs and natural gas, lead to operational disruptions and limit our ability to execute on our business plan, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, uncertainty regarding the impact of any outbreak of contagious disease could lead to increased volatility in crude oil, NGLs and natural gas prices. Furthermore, uncertainty regarding the impact of any outbreak of contagious disease could lead to increased volatility in crude oil, NGLs and natural gas prices. In the event of a future outbreak or pandemic, we may experience disruptions to commodities markets, equipment supply chains and the availability of our workforce, which could materially and adversely affect our ability to conduct our business and operations.Further, if the COVID-19 outbreak should worsen, we may also experience disruptions to commodities markets, equipment supply chains and the availability of our workforce, which could materially and adversely affect our ability to conduct our business and operations. In addition, if such a future outbreak or pandemic results in an economic downturn, our customers and other contractual parties may be unable to pay amounts owed to us from time to time and to otherwise satisfy their contractual obligations to us, and may be unable to access the credit and capital markets for such purposes. In addition, if the COVID-19 outbreak were to worsen, resulting in another economic downturn, our customers and other contractual parties may be unable to pay amounts owed to us from time to time and to otherwise satisfy their contractual obligations to us, and may be unable to access the credit and capital markets for such purposes. Such inability of our customers and other contractual counterparties may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Such inability of our customers and other contractual counterparties may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. There would be many variables and uncertainties associated with any future outbreak or pandemic, including (but not limited to) the duration and severity of the outbreak; the extent of travel restrictions, business closures and other measures imposed by governmental authorities; increased risk of cyberattacks on information technology systems used in remote working arrangements; absence of employees due to illness; the impact of the pandemic on EOG's customers and contractual counterparties; and other factors that may be currently unknown or considered immaterial, to fully assess the potential impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.Terrorist activities and military and other actions could materially and adversely affect us.Terrorist attacks and the threat of terrorist attacks (including cyber-related attacks), whether domestic or foreign, as well as military or other actions taken in response to these acts, could cause instability in the global financial and energy markets. The U.S. government has from time to time issued public warnings that indicate that energy-related assets, such as transportation and refining facilities, might be specific targets of terrorist organizations. Any such actions and the threat of such actions, including any resulting political instability or societal disruption, could materially and adversely affect us in unpredictable ways, including, but not limited to, the disruption of energy supplies and markets, the reduction of overall demand for crude oil, NGLs and natural gas, increased volatility in crude oil, NGLs and natural gas prices or the possibility that the facilities and other infrastructure on which we rely could be a direct target or an indirect casualty of an act of terrorism, and, in turn, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any such actions and the threat of such actions, including any resulting political instability or societal disruption, could materially and adversely affect us in unpredictable ways, including, but not limited to, the disruption of energy supplies and markets, the reduction of overall demand for crude oil and natural gas, increased volatility in crude oil and natural gas prices or the possibility that the facilities and other infrastructure on which we rely could be a direct target or an indirect casualty of an act of terrorism, and, in turn, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Weather and climate may have a significant and adverse impact on us.Demand for crude oil and natural gas is, to a degree, dependent on weather and climate, which impacts, among other things, the price we receive for the commodities that we produce and, in turn, our cash flows and results of operations. For example, relatively warm temperatures during a winter season generally result in relatively lower demand for natural gas (as less natural gas is used to heat residences and businesses) and, as a result, lower prices for natural gas production during that season.In addition, there has been public discussion that climate change may be associated with more frequent or more extreme weather events, changes in temperature and precipitation patterns, changes to ground and surface water availability, and other related phenomena, which could affect some, or all, of our operations. Our exploration, exploitation and development activities and equipment could be adversely affected by extreme weather events, such as winter storms, flooding and tropical storms and hurricanes, which may cause a loss of production from temporary cessation of activity or damaged facilities and equipment. Our exploration, exploitation and development activities and equipment could be adversely affected by extreme weather events, such as winter storms, flooding and tropical storms and hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, which may cause a loss of production from temporary cessation of activity or damaged facilities and equipment. Such extreme weather events could also impact other areas of our operations, including access to our drilling and production facilities for routine operations, maintenance and repairs, the installation and operation of gathering, processing, compression, storage and/or transportation facilities and the availability of, and our access to, necessary third-party services and facilities, such as gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation and export services and facilities. Such extreme weather events could also impact other areas of our operations, including access to our drilling and production facilities for routine operations, maintenance and repairs, the installation and operation of gathering, processing, compression, storage, transportation and/or export facilities and the availability of, and our access to, necessary third-party services, such as gathering, processing, compression, storage and transportation services and export services. Such extreme weather events and changes in weather patterns may materially and adversely affect our business and, in turn, our financial condition and results of operations.28ITEM 1B.ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff CommentsNot applicable. ITEM 1C.ITEM 1A. CybersecurityEOG relies on information technology systems across its business. As its reliance on data and information technology systems has increased, EOG has continued to evolve and modify its cybersecurity processes and strategy and related governance and oversight practices as well as enhance the expertise of its cybersecurity team.