Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - COO

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Our business faces significant risks. These risks include those described below and may include additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks, and the trading prices of our common stock could decline by virtue of these risks. These risks should be read in conjunction with the other information in this report.

Risks Relating to Our Business

Current market conditions and recessionary pressures in one or more of our markets could impact our ability to grow our business.

Over the last few years in the United States and globally, market and economic conditions have been challenging.Over the last few years in the US and globally, market and economic conditions have been challenging, particularly in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. The United States and foreign countries have experienced recessionary pressures and face continued concerns about the systemic impacts of adverse economic conditions and geopolitical issues. Foreign countries, in particular the Euro zone, have experienced recessionary pressures and face continued concerns about the systemic impacts of adverse economic conditions and geopolitical issues. Any negative impact on economic conditions and international markets, continued volatility or deterioration in the debt and equity capital markets, inflation, deflation or other adverse economic conditions may adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition. It may limit our ability to replace maturing liabilities and to access the capital markets to meet liquidity needs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Ongoing uncertain economic and financial market conditions may also adversely affect the financial condition of our customers, suppliers and other business partners. When our customers’ financial conditions are adversely affected, customers may reduce their purchases of our products or we may not be able to collect accounts receivable, each of which could have a material adverse impact on our business. Our global business has been negatively affected by local economic conditions, including inflation, increasing labor costs, recession, and currency exchange rate fluctuations, which has adversely affected our cost to manufacture and provide our products and services and revenues generated through sales of such products and services. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to fully absorb any such additional costs or revenue declines in the prices for our products and services. There is no guarantee that we will be able to fully absorb any such additional costs or revenue declines in the prices for our products and services.

CooperVision and CooperSurgical are encountering consolidation in their customer bases and emergence of more centralized large customer groups and retail chains. Due to this trend, global and regional key account customers now represent a larger proportion or concentration of our business and any disruption to these relationships may have a material adverse impact on our business.

Inflation could materially adversely affect our business.Inflation could materially adversely affect our business and operations.

Our operating results could be materially impacted by changes in the overall macroeconomic environment and other economic factors that impact our cost structure and revenue. Changes in economic conditions, supply chain constraints, logistics challenges, labor shortages, the war in Ukraine and other international conflicts, and steps taken by governments and central banks, as well as other stimulus and spending programs, have led to higher inflation, which is likely to lead to an increase in costs and may cause changes in fiscal and monetary policy, including increased interest rates. Changes in economic conditions, supply chain constraints, logistics challenges, labor shortages, the war in Ukraine, and steps taken by governments and central banks, particularly in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as other stimulus and spending programs, have led to higher inflation, which is likely to lead to an increase in costs and may cause changes in fiscal and monetary policy, including increased interest rates. In a higher inflationary environment, we may be unable to raise the prices of our products and services sufficiently to keep up with the rate of inflation.

Our substantial and expanding international operations are subject to uncertainties which could affect our business.

A significant portion of our current operations are conducted and located outside the United States, and our growth strategy involves expanding our existing foreign operations and entering into new foreign jurisdictions.A significant portion of our current operations are conducted and located outside the US, and our growth strategy involves expanding our existing foreign operations and entering into new foreign jurisdictions. We have significant manufacturing and distribution sites in North America, Latin America and Europe. More than half of our net sales for the fiscal years ended October 31, 2023 and 2022, were derived from the sale of products outside the United States. We believe that sales outside the United States will continue to account for a material portion of our total net sales for the foreseeable future. International operations and business expansion plans are subject to numerous additional risks, including the following:

difficulty managing a large organization spread throughout various countries;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates adversely affecting our results;
challenges associated with enforcing intellectual property rights in some foreign countries;
difficulty gaining market share in countries such as China because of regulatory restrictions and customer preferences;
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difficulty growing our sales in emerging markets such as China, India, Russia, Brazil and other developing nations due to, among other things, customer acceptance, undeveloped and/or unfamiliar distribution channels, regulatory restrictions and changes, and business knowledge of these new markets;
foreign earnings being subject to withholding requirements or the imposition of tariffs, exchange controls or other restrictions, including the tariffs enacted by the Chinese government on certain U.S. goods, the scope and duration of which remain uncertain;
challenges in complying with a variety of international legal, compliance and regulatory requirements such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the UK Bribery Act, international data security and privacy laws, EU MDR and EU IVDR. and environmental laws and requirements applicable to our facilities, products or manufacturing processes, including evolving regulations regarding the use of hazardous substances or chemicals in our products.
foreign customers creating longer payment cycles than customers in the United States;
failure to comply with U.S. Department of Commerce and other nations' import-export controls may result in fines and/or penalties;
general economic and political conditions in the countries where we operate having an adverse effect on our operations in those countries or being unfavorable to our growth strategy;
natural disasters, pandemics, war, terrorism, labor disruptions and international conflicts may cause significant economic disruption and political and social instability, resulting in decreased demand for our products, adversely affecting our manufacturing and distribution capabilities, or causing interruptions in our supply chain;
foreign governments adopting regulations, including those similar to the EU MDR and EU IVDR or take other actions that would have a direct or indirect adverse impact on our business and market opportunities, including but not limited to increased enforcement of potentially conflicting and ambiguous anti-bribery and privacy laws;
challenges enforcing agreements and collecting receivables through some foreign legal systems; and
unforeseen economic or political events in certain countries that may have an impact on our customers' ability or preferences to buy our products.

As we continue to expand our business globally, our success will depend, in large part, on our ability to anticipate and effectively manage these and other risks associated with our international operations. However, any of these factors could adversely affect our international operations and, consequently, our business.

International Conflicts, such as the war between Russia and Ukraine, could adversely affect our business.

On February 24, 2022, Russian military forces launched a military action in Ukraine.On February 24, 2022, Russian military forces launched a military action in Ukraine, and sustained conflict and disruption in the region is likely. The military conflict is ongoing and the length, impact, and outcome is highly unpredictable. It has led and could continue to lead to significant market and other disruptions, including significant volatility in commodity prices and supply of energy resources, instability in financial markets, supply chain interruptions, political and social instability, trade disputes or trade barriers, changes in consumer or purchaser preferences, as well as an increase in cyberattacks and espionage. The length, impact, and outcome of this ongoing military conflict is highly unpredictable and could lead to significant market and other disruptions, including significant volatility in commodity prices and supply of energy resources, instability in financial markets, supply chain interruptions, political and social instability, trade disputes or trade barriers, changes in consumer or purchaser preferences, as well as an increase in cyberattacks and espionage.

The war has led to significant sanctions programs imposed by the United States, the EU, the UK, Canada, Switzerland, Japan, and other countries against Russia, Belarus, the Crimea Region of Ukraine, the so-called Donetsk People’s Republic, and the so-called Luhansk People’s Republic. In retaliation against new international sanctions and as part of measures to stabilize and support the volatile Russian financial and currency markets, the Russian authorities also imposed significant currency control measures aimed at restricting the outflow of foreign currency and capital from Russia, imposed various restrictions on transacting with non-Russian parties, banned exports of various products, and imposed other economic and financial restrictions.In retaliation against new international sanctions and as part of measures to stabilize and support the volatile Russian financial and currency markets, the Russian authorities also imposed significant currency control measures aimed at restricting the outflow of foreign currency and capital from Russia, imposed various restrictions on transacting with non-Russian parties, banned exports of various products, and imposed other economic and financial restrictions. The situation continues to evolve and additional sanctions by Russia on the one hand, and by the other countries on the other hand, could adversely affect the global economy, financial markets, energy supply and prices, certain critical materials and metals, supply chains, and global logistics and could adversely affect our business. The situation is rapidly evolving, and additional sanctions by Russia on the one hand, and by the other countries on the other hand, could adversely affect the global economy, financial markets, energy supply and prices, certain critical materials and metals, supply chains, and global logistics and could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our business must be conducted in compliance with applicable economic and trade sanctions laws and regulations, including those administered and enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, the U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Department of Commerce, the United Nations Security Council, and other relevant governmental authorities. If we are found to be in violation of U.S. sanctions or export control laws, it could result in substantial fines and penalties for us and for individuals working for us. We are actively monitoring the situation in Ukraine and Russia and assessing its impact on our business, including our business partners, employees and customers. To date, we have not experienced any material interruptions in our infrastructure, supplies, technology systems, or networks needed to support our operations. The conflict has caused us to modify our operations in Russia and could lead to additional modifications in Russia. We cannot predict the progress or outcome of the war or its impacts in the territories where we operate. The extent and duration of the military action, sanctions, other consequences, such as Russia imposing restrictions on transactions or banning the export of energy products, including natural gas, and the resulting market disruptions could be significant and could potentially have substantial impact on the global economy and our business for an unknown period of time. Any such disruption may also magnify the impact of other risks described in this section.

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THE COOPER COMPANIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Acquisitions and other strategic transactions that we have made and may make in the future involve numerous risks.

We have a history of acquiring businesses and products that have significantly contributed to our growth in recent years. As part of our growth strategy, we intend to continue to consider acquiring complementary technologies, products and businesses and establishing joint ventures or other strategic relationships. As part of our growth strategy, we intend to continue to consider acquiring complementary technologies, products and businesses. Future transactions could result in potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the incurrence of debt and contingent liabilities and an increase in amortization and/or impairments of goodwill and other intangible assets, which could have a material adverse effect upon our business. Future acquisitions could result in potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the incurrence of debt and contingent liabilities and an increase in amortization and/or impairments of goodwill and other intangible assets, which could have a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition and results of operations. In fiscal 2022, CooperVision acquired a private Denmark-based ortho-k contact lens distributor. In fiscal 2022, CooperVision acquired a privately-held Denmark-based ortho-k contact lens distributor. In fiscal 2022, CooperSurgical acquired a private cryopreservation services company and Generate Life Sciences (Generate), a private provider of donor egg and sperm for fertility treatments, fertility cryopreservation services and newborn stem cell storage (cord blood and cord tissue). In fiscal 2022, CooperSurgical acquired a private cryopreservation services company and Generate Life Sciences (Generate), a privately-held provider of donor egg and sperm for fertility treatments, fertility cryopreservation services and newborn stem cell storage (cord blood & cord tissue). Risks we could face with respect to these acquisitions and other strategic transaction include:

failure to successfully obtain the anticipated revenues, margins and earnings benefits;
difficulties in, and expenses related to, the integration of the operations, technologies, information technology and other enterprise resource planning systems, products and personnel of the acquired company and establishment of appropriate accounting controls and reporting procedures, data protection systems and other regulatory compliance procedures, including but not limited to third-party compliance and due diligence;
increased leverage and the risk of lack of access to available financing, including financing for the acquisition or refinancing of debt owed by us on a timely basis and on reasonable terms;
risks of entering markets in which we have no or limited prior experience;
potential loss of employees;
an inability to identify and consummate future acquisitions on favorable terms or at all;
diversion of management's attention away from other business concerns;
risks of the acquired company’s noncompliance with applicable laws or regulations;
expenses of any undisclosed or potential liabilities, contingent liabilities or indemnification obligations of the acquired company;
expenses, including restructuring expenses, to shut down our own locations or terminate our employees;
application of and compliance with new and unfamiliar regulatory frameworks such as regulation applicable to our newly acquired fertility-related businesses;
failure to successfully obtain or maintain reimbursements under the third-party payor plans, including but not limited to governmental programs, due to complex reporting and payment obligations;
our ability to develop satisfactory working arrangements with our strategic partners in joint ventures or other affiliations;
a dilution of earnings per share; and
risks inherent in accounting allocations and the risk that we are required to record significant adjustments to the preliminary fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed within the measurement period.

We face risks associated with disruption of our manufacturing, distribution and storage operations, including possible failure to develop necessary manufacturing processes, or constrained, idle or excess capacity, which could adversely affect our business.

We manufacture a significant portion of the medical device products we sell. Any prolonged disruption in the operations of our existing manufacturing or distribution facilities or our fertility and stem cell storage facilities, whether due to work stoppages, technical or labor difficulties, integration difficulties, destruction of or damage to any facility (as a result of natural disaster, use and storage of hazardous materials or other events), enforcement action by the FDA or other regulatory body if we are found to be in non-compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) or similar foreign requirements or other reasons, could have a material adverse effect on our business. Any prolonged disruption in the operations of our existing manufacturing or distribution facilities or our fertility and stem cell storage facilities, whether due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and related work stoppages, technical or labor difficulties, integration difficulties, destruction of or damage to any facility (as a result of natural disaster, use and storage of hazardous materials or other events), enforcement action by the FDA or other regulatory body if we are found to be in non-compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) or similar foreign requirements or other reasons, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, materials such as silicone hydrogel require improvements to our manufacturing processes to make them cost-effective. While we have improved our manufacturing capabilities for our silicone hydrogel products, our failure to continue to develop improvements to our manufacturing processes and reduce our cost of goods could significantly impact our ability to compete. Conversely, constrained, excess or idle capacity, which could result from acquisitions, unexpected demand, inaccurate sales forecasting or unexpected manufacturing efficiencies, could significantly impact our profitability, capital investments, customer service levels and near-term financial condition.

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CooperVision manufactures molded contact lenses, which represent the majority of our contact lens revenues, primarily at our facilities in Costa Rica, Hungary, Puerto Rico, the United Kingdom and the United States, with other smaller facilities also existing in multiple locations around the world. CooperSurgical manufactures the majority of its products in Costa Rica, the United Kingdom and the United States, with other smaller locations also existing in multiple locations around the world. CooperSurgical manufactures the majority of its products in Costa Rica, the UK and the US, with other smaller locations also existing in multiple locations around the world. We manufacture certain products at only one manufacturing site for certain markets, and certain of our products are approved for manufacturing only at one site. Further, certain media products have limited storage lives, limiting inventory back-up strategies. If there were any prolonged disruption in the operations of the approved facility, it could take a significant amount of time to obtain required regulatory approvals, validate a second site and replace lost product, which could result in lost customers and thereby reduce sales, profitability and market share.

CooperVision distributes products out of Belgium, Hungary, the United Kingdom and the United States and various smaller international distribution sites.CooperVision distributes products out of Belgium, Hungary, the UK and the US and various smaller international distribution sites. CooperSurgical primarily distributes products out of its facilities in the United States and the Netherlands and operates fertility and stem cell storage facilities in the United States, Canada and Australia. Any prolonged disruption in the operations of our existing distribution or storage facilities, whether due to technical or labor difficulties, challenges related to system implementation, destruction of or damage to any facility (as a result of natural disaster, use and storage of hazardous materials or other events) or other reasons, could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Cybersecurity threats continue to increase in frequency and sophistication; a successful cybersecurity attack could interrupt or disrupt our information technology systems, or those of our third-party service providers, or cause the loss of confidential or protected data which could disrupt our business, force us to incur excessive costs or cause reputational harm.

Security breaches, computer malware and computer hacking attacks have become more prevalent across industries and may occur on our systems or those of our third-party service providers or partners. The size and complexity of our information systems make such systems potentially vulnerable to service interruptions or to security breaches from inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees or vendors, or from attacks by malicious third parties. Such attacks are increasing in their frequency, levels of persistence, levels of sophistication and intensity, and are being conducted by sophisticated and organized groups and individuals with a wide range of motives and expertise, especially given increased vulnerability of corporate information technology systems as distributed work environments have become prevalent. In addition to unauthorized access to or acquisition of personal data, confidential information, intellectual property or other sensitive information, such attacks could include the deployment of harmful malware and ransomware, and may use a variety of methods, including denial-of-service attacks, social engineering and other means, to attain such unauthorized access or acquisition or otherwise affect service reliability and threaten the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. Like many other companies, we experience attempted cybersecurity actions on a frequent basis, and the frequency of such attempts could increase in the future. While we have invested in the protection of data and information technology, we cannot be assured that our efforts will prevent or quickly identify service interruptions or security breaches. While we have invested in the protection of data and information technology, there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent or quickly identify service interruptions or security breaches. The techniques used by cybercriminals change frequently, may not be recognized until launched and can originate from a wide variety of sources, including outside groups such as external service providers, organized crime affiliates, terrorist organizations or hostile foreign governments or agencies. We cannot be assured that our data protection efforts and our investment in information technology will prevent significant breakdowns, data leakages or breaches in our systems or those of our third-party services providers or partners. We cannot assure that our data protection efforts and our investment in information technology will prevent significant breakdowns, data leakages or breaches in our systems or those of our third-party services providers or partners. Any such interruption or breach of our systems could adversely affect our business operations and/or result in the loss of critical or sensitive confidential information or intellectual property, and could result in financial, legal, business and reputational harm to us. We maintain cyber liability insurance; however, this insurance may not be sufficient to cover the financial, legal, business or reputational losses that may result from an interruption or breach of our systems.

We manage our businesses utilizing multiple complex integrated software and hardware information technology operating systems that are regularly maintained and upgraded; an interruption or disruption to these systems could disrupt our business or force us to incur excessive costs.We manage our businesses utilizing complex integrated software and hardware information technology operating systems that are regularly maintained and upgraded; an interruption or disruption to these systems could disrupt our business or force us to incur excessive costs.

We utilize multiple complex integrated software and hardware operating systems, including enterprise resource planning and warehouse management systems, to support our business units and we have a continuous improvement strategy in place to keep our systems and overarching technology stable and in line with business needs and growth.We utilize complex integrated software and hardware operating systems, including enterprise resource planning and warehouse management systems, to support our business units and we have a continuous improvement strategy in place to keep our systems and overarching technology stable and in line with business needs and growth. Regular upgrades of our computer hardware and software revisions are typical and expected. We employ controlled change management methodologies to plan, test and execute all such system upgrades and improvements, and we believe that we assign adequate staffing and other resources to projects to ensure successful implementation. However, we cannot be assured that our systems will meet our future business needs or that upgrades will operate as designed. However, we cannot assure that our systems will meet our future business needs or that upgrades will operate as designed. We cannot be assured that there will not be associated excessive costs or disruptions in portions of our business in the course of our maintenance, support and/or upgrade of these systems. We cannot assure that there will not be associated excessive costs or disruptions in portions of our business in the course of our maintenance, support and/or upgrade of these systems.

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We are in the midst of a multiyear process of implementing new enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems at CooperVision and CooperSurgical. Implementing a new ERP system is not only costly but complex and difficult. Implementing a new ERP system can negatively affect not only financial accounting and reporting processes but also external commercial activities such as order receipt and product delivery. We cannot be assured that we will successfully implement our new ERP system or that we will avoid these and other negative impacts from our implementation efforts. There can be no assurance that we will successfully implement our new ERP system or that we will avoid these and other negative impacts from our implementation efforts.

Pricing pressure from our competitors, customers and changes in third-party coverage and reimbursement may adversely affect demand for our products and negatively impact our operating results.

Competition in our industry has increased as a result of new market entrants, new technologies and as more established companies have intensified competitive pricing pressure. As a result of these competitive forces, we believe there will continue to be pricing pressure in the future. Because our CooperSurgical products are generally purchased by hospitals and surgical centers, OB/GYN medical offices and fertility clinics, and billed to various third-party payors, changes in the purchasing behavior of such customers or the amount such payors are willing to reimburse our customers for procedures using our products, including as a result of healthcare reform initiatives, could create additional pricing pressure on us. In addition to these competitive forces, we continue to see pricing pressure as our customers introduce new pricing structures into their contracts and agreements, including fixed price formulas, capitated pricing and structured pricing intended to contain healthcare costs. Such trends may adversely affect demand for our products and may drive down the prices we are able to charge for our products, both of which would negatively affect our operating results.

We rely on independent suppliers in our supply chain for raw materials, packaging materials and components, mechanical equipment and some finished goods; we could experience inventory shortages if any of these suppliers encounter a manufacturing or distribution disruption.We rely on independent suppliers in our supply chain for raw materials, packaging materials and components, mechanical equipment and some finished goods; we could experience inventory shortages if any of these suppliers encounter a manufacturing or distribution disruptionOur businesses utilize various chemicals, packaging materials, components, parts and raw materials which are generally available from more than one source.

Our businesses utilize various chemicals, packaging materials, components, parts and raw materials which are generally available from more than one source. However, in certain instances we acquire components and materials from sole or primary suppliers to make our silicone hydrogel contact lens, certain medical devices and IVF products. We also source mechanical equipment and in certain instances finished goods from OEM suppliers. Supply of these goods, items and materials is protected by contractual agreements, availability of alternative suppliers and/or safety stocks. However, if current suppliers fail to supply sufficient goods, items or materials to us on a timely basis, or at all for any reason, we could experience inventory shortages and disruption in our supply of products. For example, among other situations, some of the primary material used to make our silicone hydrogel contact lens products, including MyDay, Biofinity, Avaira and clariti, are supplied by few or sole suppliers, and the failure of a key or sole supplier to timely supply sufficient items and materials necessary for the manufacture of our silicone hydrogel contact lenses could in turn disrupt our supply of those lenses to the market, which would have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our supply chain and our cost of goods also may be negatively impacted by unanticipated price increases due to factors such as inflation, including wage inflation, or to supply restrictions beyond our control or the control of our suppliers.

Our results of operations have been adversely affected, and our results of operations, cash flow and financial condition could be materially adversely affected in the future, by the global COVID-19 pandemic and related economic disruptions.

The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted business and healthcare activity globally and has created significant volatility, uncertainty and economic disruption within the markets in which we operate. The pandemic has adversely affected and is likely to further adversely affect nearly all aspects of our business and markets, including our sales, operations, cash flow and workforce and the operations of our customers, suppliers, vendors and business partners.

The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic and related economic disruptions impact our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial condition will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain, difficult to predict and largely outside of our control. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, we may continue to experience materially adverse effects on our business. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, we may continue to experience materially adverse effects on our results of operations and financial condition.

If we fail to protect our intellectual property adequately, our business could suffer.

We consider our intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets, trademarks and licensing agreements, to be an integral component of our business. We attempt to protect our intellectual property rights through a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws, as well as licensing agreements and third-party nondisclosure and assignment agreements. Our failure to obtain or maintain adequate protection of our intellectual property rights for any reason could have a material adverse effect on our business. Our failure to obtain or maintain adequate protection of our intellectual property rights for any reason could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We also may seek to enforce our intellectual property rights on others through litigation. Our claims, even if meritorious, may be found invalid or inapplicable to a party we believe infringes or has misappropriated our intellectual property rights. In addition, litigation can:

be expensive and time consuming to prosecute or defend;
result in a finding that we do not have certain intellectual property rights or that such rights lack sufficient scope or strength;
divert management's attention and resources; or
require us to license our intellectual property.

We have applied for patent protection in the United States, the United Kingdom and other foreign jurisdictions relating to certain existing and proposed processes and products.We have applied for patent protection in the US, the UK and other foreign jurisdictions relating to certain existing and proposed processes and products. We cannot be assured that any of our patent applications will be approved. We cannot assure that any of our patent applications will be approved. Patent applications in the United States, the United Kingdom and other foreign jurisdictions are maintained in secrecy for a period of time, which may last until patents are issued, and since publication of discoveries in the scientific or patent literature tends to lag behind actual discoveries by several months, we cannot be certain that we will be the first creator of inventions covered by any patent application we make or the first to file patent applications on such inventions. Patent applications in the US, the UK and other foreign jurisdictions are maintained in secrecy for a period of time, which may last until patents are issued, and since publication of discoveries in the scientific or patent literature tends to lag behind actual discoveries by several months, we cannot be certain that we will be the first creator of inventions covered by any patent application we make or the first to file patent applications on such inventions. The patents we own could be challenged, invalidated or circumvented by others and may not be of sufficient scope or strength to provide us with any meaningful protection or commercial advantage. We also cannot assure that we will have adequate resources to enforce our patents.

Both CooperVision and CooperSurgical also rely on proprietary technology that is unpatented. It is possible that others will independently develop the same or similar technology or otherwise obtain access to our unpatented technology. To protect our trade secrets and other proprietary information, our employees, consultants, advisors and collaborators enter into confidentiality agreements and assignment agreements, which generally provide that inventions conceived by the party in the course of rendering services to us will be our exclusive property. To protect our trade secrets and other proprietary information, we require employees, consultants, advisors and collaborators to enter into confidentiality agreements and assignment agreements, which generally provide that inventions conceived by the party in the course of rendering services to us will be our exclusive property. However, we cannot be assured that these confidentiality agreements will provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets, know-how or other proprietary information in the event of any unauthorized use, misappropriation or disclosure of such trade secrets, know-how or other proprietary information. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally obtained and is using our trade secrets is difficult, expensive and time consuming and the outcome is unpredictable.

We rely on trademarks to establish a market identity for our products. To maintain the value of our trademarks, we might have to file lawsuits against third parties to prevent them from using trademarks confusingly similar to or dilutive of our registered or unregistered trademarks. We also might not be successful in obtaining registrations for our pending or future trademark applications and might have to defend our registered trademark and pending applications against challenge by third parties. We also might not obtain registrations for our pending or future trademark applications and might have to defend our registered trademark and pending applications from challenge by third parties. Enforcing or defending our registered and unregistered trademarks might result in significant litigation costs and damages, including the inability to continue using certain trademarks.

The laws of foreign countries in which we do business or contemplate doing business in the future may not recognize intellectual property rights or protect them to the same extent as do the laws of the United States.The laws of foreign countries in which we do business or contemplate doing business in the future may not recognize intellectual property rights or protect them to the same extent as do the laws of the US Adverse determinations in a judicial or administrative proceeding could prevent us from manufacturing and selling our products or prevent us from stopping others from manufacturing and selling competing products, and thereby have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Adverse determinations in a judicial or administrative proceeding could prevent us from manufacturing and selling our products or prevent us from stopping others from manufacturing and selling competing products, and thereby have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our products or processes could be subject to claims of infringement of the intellectual property of others.

Our competitors in both the United States and foreign countries, some of which have substantially greater resources and have made substantial investments in competing technologies, as well as other third parties, may have applied for or obtained, or may in the future apply for and obtain, patents that will prevent, limit or otherwise interfere with our ability to make and sell our existing and planned products.Our competitors in both the US and foreign countries, some of which have substantially greater resources and have made substantial investments in competing technologies, as well as other third parties, may have applied for or obtained, or may in the future apply for and obtain, patents that will prevent, limit or otherwise interfere with our ability to make and sell our existing and planned products. In the contact lens industry, CooperVision, its competitors and other third parties hold patents covering contact lens designs, materials, processes and business methods. Claims that our products, business methods or processes infringe upon the proprietary rights of others often are not asserted until after commencement of commercial sales of products incorporating our technology.

Significant litigation regarding intellectual property rights exists in our industries. For example, CooperVision in the past faced significant patent litigation over its silicone hydrogel contact lens products. Third parties have made, and may make in the future, claims of infringement against us or our contract manufacturers in connection with the use of our technology. Any claims, even those without merit, could:

be expensive and time consuming to defend;
cause us to cease making, licensing or selling products that incorporate the challenged intellectual property;
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require us to redesign or re-engineer our products, if feasible;
divert management's attention and resources; or
require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements in order to obtain the right to use a necessary product, component or process.

We cannot be certain of the outcome of any litigation. A successful claim of infringement against us or our contract manufacturers in connection with the use of our technology, in particular if we are unable to manufacture or sell any of our planned products in any major market, could adversely affect our business.A successful claim of infringement against us or our contract manufacturers in connection with the use of our technology, in particular if we are unable to manufacture or sell any of our planned products in any major market, could adversely affect our business. Any royalty or licensing agreement, if required, may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. Our failure to obtain the necessary licenses or other rights could prevent the sale, manufacture, or distribution of some of our products and, therefore, could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We could experience losses from product liability claims or legal claims relating to our service offerings, including such claims and other losses resulting from sales of counterfeit and other infringing products.

We face an inherent risk of exposure to product liability claims in the event that the use of our products results in personal injury. We also face the risk that defects in the design or manufacture of our products or sales of counterfeit or other infringing products might necessitate a product recall and other actions by manufacturers, distributors or retailers in order to safeguard the health of consumers and protect the integrity of the subject brand. Additionally, we face the inherent risk of exposure to legal claims, including negligence, relating to our provision of certain service offerings, including the accuracy and quality of our genomic services, fertility cryopreservation, fertility donor gamete supply, and stem cell storage services. These risks may be heightened due to our direct-to-consumer marketing efforts for some of our products and services (e.g., stem cell storage and Paragard IUDs). Consumers may halt or delay purchases of a product or service that is the subject of a claim or recall or has been counterfeited. We handle some risk with third-party carrier policies that are subject to deductibles and limitations. These insurance policies may become more expensive (or not be available) for new risks we may assume when we acquire new businesses. We cannot be assured that we will not experience material losses due to product liability claims or recalls, legal claims relating to our service offerings, or a decline in sales resulting from sales of counterfeit or other infringing products, in the future. There can be no assurance that we will not experience material losses due to product liability claims or recalls, legal claims relating to our service offerings, or a decline in sales resulting from sales of counterfeit or other infringing products, in the future.

If our products are not accepted by the market, we will not be able to sustain or expand our business.

Certain of our proposed products have not yet been clinically tested or commercially introduced, and some of our existing products are marketed and sold on the basis of potential future medical or therapeutic value (assuming technology advances), and we cannot be sure that any of them will achieve market acceptance or generate revenues or operating profits. The development of a market for our products may be influenced by many factors, some of which are out of our control, including:

acceptance of our products by eye care and health care practitioners;
the cost competitiveness of our products;
consumer reluctance to try and use a new product;
regulatory and legislative requirements;
adequate coverage and reimbursement by third-party payors;
lack of scientific advancements to validate the medical value of certain products, such as stored cord blood or cord tissue (or scientific advancements in other medical approaches that reduce or eliminate the value of such products); and
the earlier release of competitive products, such as new silicone hydrogel products or contraceptive technologies, into the market by our competitors; and the emergence of newer and more competitive products.

We operate in the highly competitive health care industry, and we cannot be assured that we will be able to compete successfully.We operate in the highly competitive health care industry and there can be no assurance that we will be able to compete successfully.

Each of our businesses operates within a highly competitive environment. In our soft contact lens business, CooperVision faces intense competition from competitors' products, in particular silicone hydrogel contact lenses, and may face increasing competition as other new products enter the market. Our largest competitors in the contact lens business, Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Inc., Alcon Inc. and Bausch Health Companies Inc. may have substantially greater financial resources, larger research and development budgets, larger sales forces, greater market penetration and/or larger manufacturing volumes than CooperVision. They offer competitive products and differentiated materials, plus a variety of other eye care products including lens care products and ophthalmic pharmaceuticals, which may give them a competitive
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THE COOPER COMPANIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

advantage in marketing their lenses. The market for contact lenses is intensely competitive and is characterized by declining sales volumes for older product lines and growing demand for silicone hydrogel-based products. Our ability to respond to these competitive pressures will depend on our ability to decrease our costs and maintain gross margins and operating results and to introduce new products successfully, on a timely basis in the Americas, EMEA and Asia Pacific, and to achieve manufacturing efficiencies and sufficient manufacturing capacity and capabilities for such products. Any significant decrease in our costs per lens will depend, in part, on our ability to increase sales volume and production capabilities and our ability to secure adequate supply of materials used in production at reasonable costs. Our failure to respond to competitive pressures in a timely manner could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

To a lesser extent, CooperVision also competes with manufacturers of eyeglasses and providers of other forms of vision correction including ophthalmic surgery.

We cannot be assured that we will not encounter increased competition in the future, for example with increased product entries from Asia Pacific contact lens manufacturers, or that our competitors' newer contact lens products will not successfully erode CooperVision's contact lens business, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.There can be no assurance that we will not encounter increased competition in the future, for example with increased product entries from Asia Pacific contact lens manufacturers, or that our competitors' newer contact lens products will not successfully erode CooperVision's contact lens business, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The contact lens industry also continues to evolve with respect to the introduction of new distribution and fulfillment models and service technologies which may conflict with CooperVision’s strategy or interfere with its customers’ relationships and loyalty. For example, more contact lenses are being fulfilled directly to the consumer by manufacturers and wholesalers via online platforms, telemedicine is gaining popularity and more vision correction prescriptions are being provided through online refractive exams rather than in office by an eye care practitioner. CooperVision’s failure to adapt to the threats posed by these new and emerging distribution models and Internet driven services may have a material adverse impact on our business.

CooperSurgical focuses on selected segments of the family and women's health care market with a diversified portfolio of products and services including fertility products and services, medical devices, cryostorage (such as cord blood and cord tissue storage) and contraception. Competitive factors in these segments in which CooperSurgical competes include technological and scientific advances, product quality and availability, price, customer service including response time and effective communication of product information to physicians, consumers, fertility clinics and hospitals. Competition in the medical device industry is dynamic and involves the search for technological and therapeutic innovations.

CooperSurgical competes with a number of manufacturers and service providers in its women’s family health care market areas. Some of these competitors have substantially greater financial and personnel resources and sell a broader range of products, which may give them an advantage in marketing competitive products. In addition, some of CooperSurgical’s markets, such as genomics, contraception and cord blood and cord tissue storage, are characterized by rapid technological advancement. We face the risk that demand for our products will not grow or will decline if our competitors are more successful than us at innovating in these and other areas. There is also risk that emerging technologies or technology advancements could reduce the medical value of certain of our products and services, such as cord blood and cord tissue storage, which could adversely affect our business. In recent years, CooperSurgical has also expanded direct-to-consumer products and services, which requires implementing new competitive strategies and increases the importance of customer service and consumer reputation as competitive factors.

New medical and technological developments may reduce the need for our products.

Technological developments in the vision, fertility and women’s health, may limit demand for our products and services. For example, corneal refractive surgical procedures such as Lasik surgery and the development of new pharmaceutical products may decrease the demand for our optical products. If these new advances provide a practical alternative to traditional vision correction, the demand for contact lenses and eyeglasses may materially decrease. We cannot be assured that medical advances and technological developments will not have a material adverse effect on our business. We cannot assure that medical advances and technological developments will not have a material adverse effect on our businesses.

Product innovations are important in the industry in which we operate, and we face the risk of product obsolescence if we are unable to develop new products or gain regulatory approvals or certifications or if our competitors introduce new products.

Product innovations are important in the contact lens market in which CooperVision competes and in the areas of the health care industry in which CooperSurgical competes. CooperVision, both internally and externally with third parties, invests in new product development, including the development of new silicone hydrogel-based contact lenses. While much of CooperVision’s research and development activities are performed internally, it also uses external research and development investment in collaborations and joint development with third parties. CooperSurgical has historically purchased, leveraged or licensed the technology developments of others. CooperSurgical also has invested in expanding the internal research and development function with the goal of organic growth and to complement our acquisitions
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THE COOPER COMPANIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

strategy. Research and development time commitments, higher feasibility risk with longer term projects, greater dependence on, and reduced control over, third-party deliverables, the cost of obtaining necessary regulatory approval or certification and other costs related to product innovations can be substantial. We cannot be assured that we will successfully obtain necessary regulatory approvals, certifications or clearances for our new products or that our new products will successfully compete in the marketplace and, as a result, justify the expense involved in their development and regulatory approval or certification. There can be no assurance that we will successfully obtain necessary regulatory approvals, certifications or clearances for our new products or that our new products will successfully compete in the marketplace and, as a result, justify the expense involved in their development and regulatory approval or certification. In addition, our competitors may have developed or may in the future develop new products or technologies. Failure to develop new product offerings and technological changes and to offer products that provide performance that is at least comparable to competing products could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We face risks related to environmental, social and governance matters.

We and our facilities are subject to a broad range of U.S federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and requirements, including those governing discharges to the air and water, the handling or disposal of solid and hazardous substances and wastes, remediation of contamination associated with the release of hazardous substances at our facilities and offsite disposal locations and occupational safety and health. We have made, and will continue to make, expenditures to comply with such laws and requirements. Future events, such as changes in existing laws and regulations, or the enforcement thereof, or the discovery of contamination at our facilities, may give rise to additional compliance or remediation costs that could have a material adverse effect on our business. Such laws and requirements are constantly changing, are different in every jurisdiction and can impose substantial fines and sanctions for violations. As a manufacturer of various products, we are exposed to some risk of claims with respect to environmental matters, and we cannot be assured that material costs or liabilities will not be incurred in connection with any such claims. As a manufacturer of various products, we are exposed to some risk of claims with respect to environmental matters, and there can be no assurance that material costs or liabilities will not be incurred in connection with any such claims.

We continue to evaluate the necessary steps for compliance with regulations as they are enacted. These regulations include, for example, regulations enacted in the EU such as the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances, which requires the registration of and regulates use of certain chemicals, the Restriction on the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive, which regulates the use of certain hazardous substances in certain products our CooperSurgical division manufactures. These regulations include, for example, regulations enacted in the European Union such as the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances, which requires the registration of and regulates use of certain chemicals, the Restriction on the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive, which regulates the use of certain hazardous substances in certain products our CooperSurgical division manufactures. These and similar legislation that has been or is in the process of being enacted in Japan, China and various states of the United States may require us to re-design certain products to ensure compliance with the applicable laws and regulations. These and similar legislation that has been or is in the process of being enacted in Japan, China and various states of the US may require us to re-design certain products to ensure compliance with the applicable laws and regulations.

In addition, new disclosure standards and rules related to environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG) matters have been adopted and may continue to be introduced in various states and other jurisdiction. For example, the European Union Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD) became effective in 2023 and applies to both EU and non-EU entities. In October 2023, California adopted new carbon and climate-related reporting requirements for large public and private companies doing business in the state. Further, the SEC is expected to finalize a climate change disclosure proposal in 2023. International ESG disclosure standards have also been produced (and further standards will be produced) under the auspices of the International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB), which some countries (such as the UK) have indicated they may incorporate into ESG disclosure standards required of certain companies. As the nature, scope and complexity of ESG reporting, diligence and disclosure requirements expand, significant effort and expenses could be required to comply with the evolving requirements. As our disclosure obligations increase, third parties may make claims or bring litigation relating to those disclosures which may be costly.

Environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG) issues, including those related to climate change and sustainability, may have an adverse effect on our business and damage our reputation.

There is an increasing focus from certain investors, customers, consumers, employees and other stakeholders concerning ESG matters. Additionally, public interest and legislative pressure related to public companies’ ESG practices continue to grow. If our ESG practices fail to meet regulatory requirements or investor, customer, consumer, employee or other stakeholders' evolving expectations and standards for responsible corporate citizenship in areas including environmental stewardship, support for local communities, Board of Director and employee diversity, human capital management, employee health and safety practices, product quality, supply chain management, corporate governance and transparency, our reputation, brand and employee retention may be negatively impacted, and our customers and suppliers may be unwilling to continue to do business with us.

Customers, consumers, investors and other stakeholders are increasingly focusing on environmental issues, including climate change, energy and water use, plastic waste and other sustainability concerns. Concern over climate change or plastics and packaging materials, in particular, may result in new or increased legal and regulatory requirements to reduce or mitigate impacts to the environment. Changing customer and consumer preferences or increased regulatory requirements may result in increased demands or requirements regarding plastics and packaging materials, including single-use and non-recyclable plastic products and packaging, other components of our products and their environmental impact on sustainability, or increased customer and consumer concerns or perceptions (whether accurate or inaccurate)
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THE COOPER COMPANIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

regarding the effects of substances present in certain of our products. Complying with these demands or requirements could cause us to incur additional manufacturing, operating or product development costs.

If we do not adapt to or comply with new regulations, or fail to meet evolving investor, industry or stakeholder expectations and concerns regarding ESG issues, investors may reconsider their capital investment in our Company, and customers and consumers may choose to stop purchasing our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and business.

If we do not retain our key personnel and attract and retain other highly skilled employees, our business could suffer.

If we fail to recruit, develop and retain the necessary personnel, our business and our ability to obtain new customers, develop new products and provide acceptable levels of customer service could suffer. The success of our business is heavily dependent on the leadership of our key management personnel. Our success also depends on our ability to recruit, develop and retain and motivate highly skilled sales, marketing, manufacturing engineering and scientific personnel. Competition for these persons in our industry is intense, and we may not be able to successfully recruit, train or retain qualified personnel. We are experiencing increasing challenges in building and retaining our workforce in certain markets, where pressure from inflation and competition have exacerbated turnover and retention trends continuing from the COVID-19 pandemic. Labor shortages and competition for qualified personnel could cause disruptions in our business operations.

Provisions of our governing documents and Delaware law may have anti-takeover effects. AND SUSDIARIESProvisions of our governing documents and Delaware law may have anti-takeover effects.

Certain provisions of our Second Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated By-Laws may inhibit changes in control of the Company not approved by our Board of Directors. These provisions include advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and nominations. We also have the protections of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which could have anti-takeover effects.

Risks Relating to Government Regulation of Manufacture and Sale of Our Products and Services.

Legislative or regulatory reforms in the United States, Europe or other countries may make it more difficult and costly for us to obtain regulatory clearances, approvals or certifications for our products or to manufacture, market or distribute our products after clearance or approval is obtained. See Risk Factors – “Legislative or regulatory reforms in the United States or Europe may make it more difficult and costly for us to obtain regulatory clearances, approvals or certifications for our products or to manufacture, market or distribute our products after clearance or approval is obtained”.

From time to time, legislation is drafted and introduced in Congress that could significantly change the statutory provisions governing the regulation of drugs and medical devices. In addition, the FDA may change its premarket clearance and approval policies for drugs and medical devices, adopt additional regulations or revise existing regulations, or take other actions, which may prevent or delay approval or clearance of our future products under development or impact our ability to modify our currently cleared products on a timely basis. In addition, the FDA may change its clearance and approval policies, adopt additional regulations or revise existing regulations, or take other actions, which may prevent or delay approval or clearance of our future products under development or impact our ability to modify our currently cleared products on a timely basis. For example, over the last several years, the FDA has proposed reforms to its 510(k) clearance process, and such proposals could include increased requirements for clinical data and a longer review period, or could make it more difficult for manufacturers to utilize the 510(k) clearance process for their products.

In addition, FDA regulations and guidance are often revised or reinterpreted by the FDA in ways that may significantly affect our business and our products. Any new statutes, regulations or revisions or reinterpretations of existing regulations may impose additional costs or lengthen review times of any future products or make it more difficult to obtain clearance or approval for, manufacture, market or distribute our products. We cannot determine what effect changes in regulations, statutes, legal interpretation or policies, when and if promulgated, enacted or adopted may have on our business in the future. Such changes could, among other things, require additional testing prior to obtaining clearance or approval; changes to manufacturing methods; recall, replacement or discontinuance of our products; or additional record keeping.

In addition to traditional regulatory controls on drugs and medical devices, our business could be affected by emerging laws or regulations limiting our ability to offer certain of our products and services.In addition to traditional regulatory controls on medical devices, our business could be affected by emerging laws or regulations limiting our ability offer certain of our products and services. For example, in the United States, the reversal by the U.S. Supreme Court of Roe v. Wade has raised concerns in the fertility industry that more restrictive laws could limit access to various reproductive services. New and emerging laws may be interpreted to limit access to contraceptive technologies or cryostorage services, which could adversely affect certain aspects of CooperSurgical’s business.

In addition, the EU landscape concerning medical devices (including IVDs) has recently evolved. AND SUSDIARIESIn addition, the EU landscape concerning medical devices (including IVDs) has recently evolved. A new set of two EU regulations have been adopted on April 5, 2017. On May 26, 2021, the EU MDR became applicable and replaced previous directives and established transitional provisions. A new set of two EU regulations have been adopted on April 5, 2017. On May 26, 2021, the EU MDR became applicable and replaced previous directives. The EU IVDR became applicable on May 26, 2022. However, on October 14, 2021, the European Commission proposed a “progressive” roll-out of the EU IVDR to prevent disruption in the supply of IVDs. As to the EU IVDR, it became applicable on May 26, 2022. However, on October 14, 2021, the European Commission proposed a “progressive” roll-out of the EU IVDR to prevent disruption in the supply of IVDs. The European Parliament and Council adopted the proposed regulation on December 15, 2021. The
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THE COOPER COMPANIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

EU IVDR fully applies since May 26, 2022, but there is a tiered system extending the grace period for many devices (depending on their risk classification) before they have to be fully compliant with the regulation. Both regulations have been adopted to establish a uniform, transparent, predictable and sustainable regulatory framework across the EU for medical devices (including IVDs) and ensure a high level of safety and health while supporting innovation.

These modifications may have an effect on the way we intend to develop our business in the EU and EEA. For example, as a result of the transition towards the new regimes, notified body review times have lengthened, and product introductions could be delayed or canceled. Additionally, only a few notified bodies have been designated for EU IVDR certification, which could adversely affect our ability to grow our business.

Following the end of the “Brexit” transitional period, from January 1, 2021, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) became the UK’s independent regulatory agency for medical devices. Post-Brexit, amendments have been made to the existing UK medical devices legislation which require medical devices to be registered with the MHRA before being placed on the Great Britain market. Manufacturers based outside of the UK need to appoint a UK Responsible Person to register devices with the MHRA. Following a government consultation on changes to the UK’s medical device regulations, the response to which was published on June 26, 2022, it is anticipated that the core aspects of the future regime will now apply from July 1, 2025 so that medical devices placed on the market in Great Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales) will require a UK Conformity Assessment (UKCA) mark. Following a government consultation on changes to the UK’s medical device regulations, the response to which was published on June 26, 2022, it is anticipated that amendments to the legislation will soon be published by the government and should become applicable by July 1, 2023 so that medical devices placed on the market in Great Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales) will require a UK Conformity Assessment (UKCA) mark. However, the MHRA has recently confirmed that, subject to certain conditions, general medical devices compliant with the EU medical devices directive (EU MDD) or EU active implantable medical devices directive (EU AIMDD) with a valid declaration and CE marking can be placed on the Great Britain market up until the sooner of expiry of certificate or June 30, 2028. IVDs with valid certification can continue to be placed on the market until the earlier of certificate expiry or June 30, 2030. In advance of the new regime, the government also intends to introduce specific legislation on post-market surveillance, with new provisions expected to apply from mid-2024. However, UKCA marking alone will not be recognized in the EU. The rules for placing medical devices on the Northern Ireland market will differ from those in Great Britain. These modifications may have an effect on the way we intend to conduct our business in these countries.

Our medical device products are subject to reporting requirements and recalls, even after receiving regulatory clearance, approval or certification, which could harm our reputation and business.

After a device is placed on the market, numerous regulatory requirements apply, including the FDA's QSR regulations, which require manufacturers to follow, among other things, design, testing, production, control, documentation and other quality assurance procedures during the manufacturing process; labeling regulations; and medical device reporting regulations that require us to report to FDA or similar governmental bodies in other countries if our products may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or malfunction in a way that would be reasonably likely to contribute to death or serious injury if the malfunction were to recur.After a device is placed on the market, numerous regulatory requirements apply, including the FDA's QSR regulations, which require manufacturers to follow, among other things, design, testing, production, control, documentation and other quality assurance procedures during the manufacturing process; labeling regulations, which prohibit the promotion of products for unapproved or “off-label” uses and impose other restrictions on labeling; and medical device reporting regulations that require us to report to FDA or similar governmental bodies in other countries if our products may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or malfunction in a way that would be reasonably likely to contribute to death or serious injury if the malfunction were to recur. The FDA and similar governmental bodies in other countries have the authority to require the recall of our products in the event of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture or in the event that a product poses an unacceptable risk to health. Medical device manufacturers, such as CooperVision and CooperSurgical, may, under their own initiative, recall a product if a reasonable possibility of serious injury or any material deficiency in a device is found, or withdraw a product to improve device performance or for other reasons. The FDA requires that certain corrections or removals, including recalls, be reported to the FDA within ten working days of initiating the correction or removal. The FDA requires that certain classifications of recalls be reported to the FDA within 10 working days after the recall is initiated. Recalls of any of our products may divert managerial and financial resources and have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. A recall could harm our reputation with customers and consumers which could reduce the sales of our products. In addition, the FDA or other foreign governmental agencies may implement enforcement actions in connection with a recall which could impair our product offerings and be harmful to our business and financial results.

If our manufacturing operations fail to comply with applicable regulations, our manufacturing could be delayed or disrupted, our products could be subject to recall, and sales and profitability could suffer.

Our manufacturing operations and processes are required to comply with numerous federal, state and foreign regulatory requirements, including the FDA's cGMP for medical devices, known as the QSR regulations, which govern the procedures related to the design, testing, production processes, controls, quality assurance, labeling, packaging, storage, importing, exporting and shipping of our products. We also are subject to state requirements and licenses applicable to manufacturers of medical devices. In addition, we must engage in extensive recordkeeping and reporting and must make available our manufacturing facilities and records for periodic unscheduled inspections by governmental agencies, including the FDA, state authorities and comparable agencies (as well as audits by notified bodies) in other countries. Failure to comply with QSR requirements and other applicable domestic or international regulatory requirements or to respond to any adverse inspectional observations or product safety issues could result in disruption of our operations and manufacturing delays in addition to, among other things, warning letters, significant fines, injunctions, suspension of approvals, seizures, recalls or import holds of products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions. AND SUSDIARIESFailure to comply with QSR requirements and other applicable domestic or international regulatory requirements or to respond to any adverse inspectional observations or product safety issues could result in disruption of our operations and manufacturing delays in addition to, among other things, warning letters, significant fines, injunctions, suspension of approvals, seizures, recalls or import holds of products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions. As a result, any failure to comply with applicable requirements could adversely affect our product sales and profitability.

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On February 23, 2022, the FDA issued a proposed rule to amend the QSR regulations to align more closely with the International Organization for Standardization standards. This proposal has not yet been finalized or adopted. Accordingly, it is unclear the extent to which this or any other proposals, if adopted, could impose additional or different regulatory requirements on CooperVision and CooperSurgical that could increase the costs of compliance or otherwise create competition that may negatively affect our business.

The manufacture of pharmaceutical therapeutics, such as Paragard, is complex and requires significant expertise and capital investment. We and our contract manufacturers must comply with cGMP regulations and guidelines. Manufacturers of pharmaceutical therapeutics often encounter difficulties in production, including difficulties with production costs and yields, quality control, quality assurance testing, operator error, shortages of qualified personnel, as well as compliance with strictly enforced federal, state and foreign regulations. Furthermore, if microbial, viral or other contaminations are discovered in our therapeutics or in the manufacturing facilities in which our therapeutics, if approved, are made, such manufacturing facilities may need to be closed for an extended period of time to investigate and remedy the contamination. We cannot be assured that any stability or other issues relating to the manufacture of any of our therapeutics will not occur in the future. Additionally, our manufacturers may experience manufacturing difficulties due to resource constraints or as a result of labor disputes or unstable political environments. If our manufacturers were to encounter any of these difficulties, or otherwise fail to comply with their contractual obligations, our ability to provide any therapeutic candidates to patients in clinical trials would be jeopardized. Any delay or interruption in the supply of clinical trial supplies could delay the completion of clinical trials, increase the costs associated with maintaining clinical trial programs and, depending upon the period of delay, require us to commence new clinical trials at additional expense or terminate clinical trials completely.

Any adverse developments affecting clinical or commercial manufacturing of our therapeutics may result in shipment delays, inventory shortages, lot failures, therapeutic withdrawals or recalls, or other interruptions in the supply of our therapeutics or therapeutic candidates. We may also have to take inventory write-offs and incur other charges and expenses for therapeutics or therapeutic candidates that fail to meet specifications, undertake costly remediation efforts or seek more costly manufacturing alternatives. Accordingly, failures or difficulties faced at any level of our supply chain could materially adversely affect our business and delay or impede the development and commercialization of any of our therapeutics or therapeutic candidates and could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our failure to comply with regulatory requirements or to receive regulatory clearance, approval or certification for our products or operations could adversely affect our business. Our failure to comply with regulatory requirements or to receive regulatory clearance, approval or certification for our products or operations could adversely affect our business.

Our products and operations are subject to rigorous regulation by the FDA, and numerous other federal, state and foreign governmental authorities. In the United States, the FDA regulates virtually all aspects of medical device and pharmaceutical design, development, testing, manufacture, safety, labeling (including, for example, unique device identifier regulations), storage, recordkeeping, reporting, marketing, promotion, advertising and distribution, as well as product import and export. In the US, the FDA regulates virtually all aspects of medical device and pharmaceutical design, development, testing, manufacture, safety, labeling (including, for example, unique device identifier regulations), storage, recordkeeping, reporting, marketing, promotion, advertising and distribution, as well as product import and export. Our failure to comply with FDA regulations could lead to the imposition of administrative or judicial sanctions, including injunctions, fines, warning letters, suspensions or the loss of regulatory approvals, product recalls, termination of distribution or product seizures. In the most egregious cases, criminal sanctions or closure of our manufacturing facilities are possible.

Our medical devices and pharmaceutical products require clearance or approval by the FDA before they can be commercially distributed in the United States and may require similar approvals by foreign regulatory agencies before distribution in foreign jurisdictions.Our medical devices and pharmaceutical products require clearance or approval by the FDA before they can be commercially distributed in the US and may require similar approvals by foreign regulatory agencies before distribution in foreign jurisdictions. Medical devices and drug products may only be marketed for the indications for which they are approved or cleared. The process of obtaining, renewing and maintaining regulatory clearances and approvals to market a medical device, particularly from the FDA, can be costly and time consuming. We cannot be assured that such clearances and approvals will be granted on a timely basis, if at all, and significant delays in the introduction of any new products or product enhancements may occur, which could adversely affect our competitive position and results of operations. There can be no assurance that such clearances and approvals will be granted on a timely basis, if at all, and significant delays in the introduction of any new products or product enhancements may occur, which could adversely affect our competitive position and results of operations. In addition, the FDA and authorities in foreign jurisdictions may change their policies, adopt additional regulations or revise existing regulations, each of which could prevent or delay premarket approval or clearance of our products, increase the cost of compliance, impose additional regulatory requirements on us, or otherwise impact our ability to market our currently approved or cleared products.

Modifications and enhancements to medical devices also require a new FDA clearance or approval if they could significantly affect its safety or effectiveness or would constitute a major change in its intended use, design or manufacture. The FDA requires every medical device manufacturer to make this determination in the first instance, but the FDA may review any manufacturer's decision. The FDA requires every manufacturer to make this determination in the first instance, but the FDA may review any manufacturer's decision. We have made modifications and enhancements to our medical devices that we do not believe require a new clearance or application, but we cannot confirm that the FDA will agree with our decisions. If the FDA requires us to seek clearance or approval for a modification of a previously cleared product for which we have concluded that new clearances or approvals are unnecessary, we may be required to cease marketing or to recall the modified product until we obtain clearance or approval, and we may be subject to significant regulatory fines or penalties, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results and competitive position. We also cannot assure that we will be successful in obtaining clearances or approvals for our modifications, if required.
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