Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - CFFN

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Item 1A. Risk Factors" for a discussion of risks and uncertainties related to our business that could adversely impact our operations and/or financial results. We do not undertake to update any forward-looking statement, whether written or oral, that may be made from time to time by or on behalf of the Company or the Bank.

PART I
As used in this Form 10-K, unless we specify or the context indicates otherwise, "the Company," "we," "us," and "our" refer to Capitol Federal Financial, Inc. a Maryland corporation, and its subsidiaries. "Capitol Federal Savings," and "the Bank," refer to Capitol Federal Savings Bank, a federal savings bank and the wholly-owned subsidiary of Capitol Federal Financial, Inc.

Item 1. Business

General

The Company is a Maryland corporation with its common stock traded on the Global Select tier of the NASDAQ Stock Market. The Bank is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company and is a federally chartered and insured savings bank headquartered in Topeka, Kansas. We have been, and intend to continue to be, a community-oriented financial institution offering a variety of financial services to meet the needs of the communities we serve. We attract deposits primarily from the general public and from businesses, and invest those funds primarily in permanent loans secured by first mortgages on owner-occupied, one- to four-family residences and in commercial loans, either secured by real estate or for commercial and industrial purposes. We also participate with other lenders in commercial loans, originate consumer loans primarily secured by mortgages on one- to four-family residences, and invest in certain investment securities and mortgage-backed securities ("MBS") using funding from deposits and Federal Home Loan Bank Topeka ("FHLB") borrowings. We offer a variety of deposit accounts having a wide range of interest rates and terms, which generally include savings accounts, money market accounts, interest-bearing and non-interest-bearing checking accounts, and certificates of deposit with terms ranging from 91 days to 120 months.

The Company's results of operations are primarily dependent on net interest income, which is the difference between the interest earned on loans, securities, and cash, and the interest paid on deposits and borrowings. On a weekly basis, management reviews deposit flows, loan demand, cash levels, and changes in several market interest rates to assess all pricing strategies. The Bank's pricing strategy for first mortgage loan products includes setting interest rates based on secondary market prices and competitor pricing for our local lending markets, and secondary market prices and competitor pricing for our correspondent lending markets. Pricing for commercial loans is generally based on competitor pricing and the credit risk of the borrower with consideration given to the overall relationship of the borrower. Generally, deposit pricing is based upon a survey of competitors in the Bank's market areas, and the need to attract funding and retain maturing deposits.

The Company is significantly affected by prevailing economic conditions, including federal monetary and fiscal policies and federal regulation of financial institutions. Deposit balances are influenced by a number of factors, including interest rates paid on competing investment products, the level of personal income, and the personal rate of savings within our market areas. Lending activities are influenced by the demand for housing and business activity levels, our loan underwriting guidelines compared to those of our competitors, as well as the interest rate environment and interest rate pricing competition from other lending institutions. Lending activities are influenced by the demand for housing and business activity levels, our loan underwriting guidelines compared to those of our competitors, as well as interest rate pricing competition from other lending institutions.
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Management Strategy

We seek to provide qualified borrowers the broadest possible access to home ownership through our mortgage lending programs and to offer a complete set of personal and commercial banking products and services to our customers. We strive to enhance stockholder value while maintaining a strong capital position. To achieve these goals, we focus on the following strategies:

Lending. We are one of the leading originators of one- to four-family loans in the state of Kansas. We originate these loans primarily for our own portfolio, and we service the loans we originate. Historically, we have purchased one- to four-family loans from correspondent lenders but recently have reduced that activity for balance sheet management purposes. We offer several commercial lending options and participate in commercial loans with other lenders, both locally and outside our market areas. In addition, we offer several commercial lending options and participate in commercial loans with other lenders, both locally and outside our market areas. We offer both fixed- and adjustable-rate products with various terms to maturity and pricing options. We maintain strong relationships with local real estate agents to attract loan business. We rely on our marketing efforts and customer service reputation to attract business from walk-in customers, customers that apply online, and existing customers. Our business development efforts help to bring new business relationships to the Bank.
Deposit Services. We offer a wide array of retail and business deposit products and services. These products include checking, savings, money market, certificates of deposit, and retirement accounts. Our deposit services are provided through our network of traditional branches and retail in-store locations, our call center which operates on extended hours, mobile banking, telephone banking, and online banking and bill payment services.
Cost Control. We generally are very effective at controlling our costs of operations. We centralize our loan servicing and deposit support functions for efficient processing. We serve a broad range of customers through relatively few branch locations. Our average deposit base per traditional branch at September 30, 2023 was approximately $123.0 million. This large average deposit base per branch helps to control costs. Our one- to four-family lending strategy and our effective management of credit risk allows us to service a large portfolio of loans at efficient levels because it costs less to service a portfolio of performing loans. We recognize it is more expensive to offer a full suite of commercial products and services, but we will continue our efforts to control those costs. The Bank continues to invest in its infrastructure, which can increase costs.
Asset Quality. We utilize underwriting standards for all of our lending products, including the loans we purchase and participate in, that are designed to limit our exposure to credit risk. We require complete documentation for both originated and purchased loans, and make credit decisions based on our assessment of the borrower's ability to repay the loan in accordance with its terms. Additionally, we monitor the asset quality of existing loans and strive to work proactively with customers who face challenging financial conditions.
Capital Position. Our policy has always been to protect the safety and soundness of the Bank through credit and operational risk management, balance sheet strength, and sound operations. The end result of these activities has been capital ratios that meet or exceed the well-capitalized standards set by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (the "OCC"). We believe that maintaining a strong capital position safeguards the long-term interests of the Bank, the Company, and our stockholders.
Stockholder Value. We strive to provide stockholder value while maintaining a strong capital position. We continue to generate returns to stockholders through dividend payments. Total dividends declared and paid during fiscal year 2023 were $83.2 million. The Company's cash dividend payout policy is reviewed quarterly by management and the Board of Directors, and the ability to pay dividends under the policy depends upon a number of factors, including the Company's financial condition and results of operations, regulatory capital requirements, regulatory limitations on the Bank's ability to make capital distributions to the Company, and the amount of cash at the holding company level. If an adverse development arising from the digital transformation is not sufficiently remediated or is not remediated in a timely fashion, the Company's reputation could be significantly impacted which could result in loss of customer business, subject the Company to regulatory scrutiny, or expose the Company to possible litigation, any of which could have a material impact on the Company's financial condition and results of operations. For fiscal year 2024, it is the current intention of the Board of Directors to pay out the regular quarterly cash dividend of $0.085 per share. For fiscal year 2023, it is the current intention of the Board of Directors to continue the payout of 100% of the Company's earnings to its stockholders through regular quarterly dividends and a true-up dividend.
Interest Rate Risk Management. Changes in interest rates are our primary market risk as our balance sheet is almost entirely comprised of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. As such, fluctuations in interest rates have a significant impact not only upon our net income but also upon the cash flows related to those assets and liabilities and the market value of our assets and liabilities. In order to maintain what we believe to be acceptable levels of net interest income in varying interest rate environments, we actively manage our interest rate risk and assume a moderate amount of interest rate risk consistent with board policies.
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Market Area and Competition

Our corporate office is located in Topeka, Kansas. We currently have a network of 51 branches (46 traditional branches and five in-store branches) located in nine counties throughout Kansas and three counties in Missouri. We currently have a network of 54 branches (45 traditional branches and nine in-store branches) located in nine counties throughout Kansas and three counties in Missouri. We primarily serve the metropolitan areas of Topeka, Wichita, Lawrence, Manhattan, Emporia, and Salina, Kansas and a portion of the metropolitan area of greater Kansas City.

The Bank ranked second in deposit market share, at 6.2%, in the state of Kansas as reported in the June 30, 2023 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") "Summary of Deposits - Market Share Report." Management considers our well-established banking network together with our reputation for financial strength and customer service to be major factors in our success at attracting and retaining customers in our market areas.

The Bank consistently has been one of the top one- to four-family lenders with regard to mortgage loan origination volume in the state of Kansas. This has been achieved through strong relationships with real estate agents and our other marketing efforts, which are based on our reputation and competitive pricing. Competition in originating one- to four-family loans primarily comes from other savings institutions, commercial banks, credit unions, mortgage brokers, and mortgage bankers.

Available Information

Our website address is www.capfed.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports can be obtained free of charge from our website. These reports are available on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. These reports are also available on the SEC's website at http://www.sec.gov.

Regulation and Supervision

The Bank is examined and regulated by the OCC, its primary regulator, and its deposits are insured up to applicable limits by the Deposit Insurance Fund ("DIF"), which is administered by the FDIC. The Company, as a savings and loan holding company, is examined and regulated by the FRB.

Set forth below is a description of certain laws and regulations that are applicable to Capitol Federal Financial, Inc. and the Bank. This description is intended as a brief summary of selected features of such laws and regulations and is qualified in its entirety by references to the laws and regulations applicable to the Company and the Bank.

General. The Bank, as a federally chartered savings bank, is subject to regulation and oversight by the OCC extending to all aspects of its operations. This regulation of the Bank is intended for the protection of depositors and other customers and not for the purpose of protecting the Company's stockholders. The investment and lending authority of the Bank is prescribed by federal laws and regulations and the Bank is prohibited from engaging in any activities not permitted by such laws and regulations. The Bank and Company are required to maintain minimum levels of regulatory capital and the Bank is subject to limitations on making capital distributions to the Company.

The Company is a unitary savings and loan holding company within the meaning of the Home Owners' Loan Act ("HOLA"). As such, the Company is registered with the FRB and subject to the FRB regulations, examinations, supervision, and reporting requirements. In addition, the FRB has enforcement authority over the Company. Among other things, this authority permits the FRB to restrict or prohibit activities that are determined to be a serious risk to the Bank.

The OCC and FRB enforcement authority includes, among other things, the ability to assess civil monetary penalties, to issue cease-and-desist or removal orders, and to initiate injunctive actions. In general, these enforcement actions may be initiated for violations of laws and regulations and unsafe or unsound practices. Other actions or inactions may provide the basis for enforcement action, including misleading or untimely filed reports. Except under certain circumstances, public disclosure of final enforcement actions by the OCC or the FRB is required by law.

As a federally chartered savings bank, the Bank is required to maintain a significant portion of its assets in residential housing-related loans and investments. An institution that fails to do so is immediately subject to restrictions on its operations, including a prohibition against capital distributions, except with the prior approval of both the OCC and the FRB.
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Failure to meet this qualification is a statutory violation subject to enforcement action. As of September 30, 2023, the Bank met the qualification.

The Bank's relationship with its depositors and borrowers is regulated to a great extent by federal laws and regulations, especially in such matters as the ownership of savings accounts and the form and content of mortgage requirements. In addition, the branching authority of the Bank is regulated by the OCC. The Bank is generally authorized to branch nationwide.

The Bank is subject to a statutory lending limit on aggregate loans to one person or a group of related persons. The general limit is 15% of our unimpaired capital and surplus, plus an additional 10% for loans fully secured by readily marketable collateral. At September 30, 2023, the Bank's lending limit under this restriction was $139.8 million. The Bank has no loans or loan relationships in excess of its lending limit. Total loan commitments and loans outstanding to the Bank's largest borrowing relationship was $76.2 million at September 30, 2023, all of which was current according to its terms.

The OCC has adopted guidelines establishing safety and soundness standards on such matters as loan underwriting and documentation, asset quality, earnings standards, internal controls and audit systems, interest rate risk exposure, and compensation and other employee benefits. The Bank is subject to periodic examinations by the OCC regarding these and related matters. During these examinations, the examiners may require the Bank to increase its ACL, change the classification of loans, and/or recognize additional charge-offs based on their judgments, which can impact our capital and earnings.

Regulatory Capital Requirements. The Bank and the Company are required to maintain specified levels of regulatory capital under regulations of the OCC and FRB, respectively. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements - Note 13. Regulatory Capital Requirements" for additional regulatory capital information. At September 30, 2023, the Bank was considered well capitalized under OCC regulations.

The OCC has the ability to establish individual minimum capital requirements for a particular institution which vary from the capital levels that would otherwise be required under the applicable capital regulations based on such factors as concentrations of credit risk, levels of interest rate risk, the risks of non-traditional activities, and other circumstances. The OCC has not imposed any such requirements on the Bank.

The OCC is authorized and, under certain circumstances, required to take certain actions against federal savings banks that are not adequately capitalized because they fail to meet the minimum requirements associated with their elected capital framework. Any such institution must submit a capital restoration plan for OCC approval and may be restricted in, among other things, increasing its assets, acquiring another institution, establishing a branch or engaging in any new activities, and may not make capital distributions. As of September 30, 2023, the Bank and the Company met all capital adequacy requirements to which they are subject.

Limitations on Dividends and Other Capital Distributions. OCC regulations impose restrictions on savings institutions with respect to their ability to make distributions of capital, which include dividends, stock redemptions or repurchases, cash-out mergers and other transactions charged to the capital account. Under FRB and OCC safe harbor regulations, savings institutions generally may make capital distributions during any calendar year equal to earnings of the previous two calendar years and current year-to-date earnings (to the extent not previously distributed). A savings institution that is a subsidiary of a savings and loan holding company, such as the Company, that proposes to make a capital distribution must submit written notice to the OCC and FRB 30 days prior to such distribution. The OCC and FRB may object to the distribution during that 30-day period based on safety and soundness or other concerns. Savings institutions that desire to make a larger capital distribution, are under special restrictions, or are not, or would not be, sufficiently capitalized following a proposed capital distribution must obtain regulatory non-objection prior to making such a distribution.

The long-term ability of the Company to pay dividends to its stockholders is based primarily upon the ability of the Bank to make capital distributions to the Company. So long as the Bank remains well capitalized after each capital distribution, and operates in a safe and sound manner, it is management's belief that the OCC and FRB will continue to allow the Bank to distribute its earnings to the Company, although no assurance can be given in this regard.
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Insurance of Accounts and Regulation by the FDIC. The Bank also is subject to regulation and examination by the FDIC, which insures the deposits of the Bank to the maximum extent permitted by law. The DIF of the FDIC insures deposit accounts in the Bank up to applicable limits, with a maximum amount of deposit insurance for banks, savings institutions, and credit unions of $250 thousand per separately insured deposit ownership right or category.

The FDIC assesses deposit insurance premiums on all FDIC-insured institutions quarterly based on annualized rates. Under these rules, assessment rates for an institution with total assets of less than $10 billion are determined by weighted average capital adequacy, asset quality, management, earnings, liquidity, and sensitivity (CAMELS) composite ratings and certain financial ratios, and range from 1.5 to 30.0 basis points, subject to certain adjustments. Assessment rates for an institution with $10 billion or more in total assets are assigned an individual rate based on a scorecard that measures the institution's composite rating, ability to withstand asset-related and funding-related stress and the magnitude of potential losses to the FDIC in the event of failure. In October 2022, the FDIC adopted a final rule that increased the initial base deposit assessment rate schedule uniformly by two basis points, beginning with the first quarterly assessment period of 2023. While the Bank exceeded $10 billion in total assets at September 30, 2023, an institution is not considered a large institution under the FDIC assessment regulations until the institution exceeds $10 billion in total assets for four consecutive quarters. The Bank's total assets were in excess of $10 billion at March 31, 2023, June 30, 2023 and September 30, 2023, but total assets are anticipated to be below $10 billion at December 31, 2023. For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, the Bank paid $4.5 million in FDIC premiums. Assessment rates are applied to an institution's assessment base, which is its average consolidated total assets minus its average tangible equity during the assessment period.
The FDIC has authority to further increase insurance assessments in the future, and any significant increases would have an adverse effect on the operating expenses and results of operations of the Company. Management cannot predict what assessment rates will be in the future. In a banking industry emergency, the FDIC may also impose a special assessment.

Insurance of deposits may be terminated by the FDIC upon a finding that an institution has engaged in unsafe or unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the FDIC. We do not currently know of any practice, condition, or violation that may lead to termination of our deposit insurance.

Community Reinvestment and Consumer Protection Laws. In connection with its lending activities, the Bank is subject to a number of federal laws designed to protect borrowers and promote lending to various sectors of the economy and population. These include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Truth-in-Lending Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Secure and Fair Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008 ("SAFE Act"), and the Community Reinvestment Act ("CRA"). In addition, federal banking regulators have enacted regulations limiting the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose nonpublic consumer information to non-affiliated third parties. The regulations require disclosure of privacy policies and allow consumers to prevent certain personal information from being shared with non-affiliated third parties. With respect to federal consumer protection laws, regulations are generally promulgated by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB"), but the OCC examines the Bank for compliance with such laws.

The CRA requires the appropriate federal banking agency, in connection with its examination of an FDIC-insured institution, to assess its record in meeting the credit needs of the communities served by the institution, including low and moderate income neighborhoods. The federal banking regulators take into account the institution's record of performance under the CRA when considering applications for mergers, acquisitions, and branches. Under the CRA, institutions are assigned a rating of outstanding, satisfactory, needs to improve, or substantial non-compliance. The Bank received a satisfactory rating in its most recently completed CRA evaluation.

On October 24, 2023, the federal banking agencies, including the OCC, issued a final rule designed to strengthen and modernize the regulations implementing the CRA. The changes are designed to encourage banks to expand access to credit, investment and banking services in low- and moderate-income communities, adapt to changes in the banking industry, including mobile and internet banking, provide greater clarity and consistency in the application of the CRA regulations and tailor CRA evaluations and data collection to bank size and type.

Bank Secrecy Act /Anti-Money Laundering Laws. Bank Secrecy Act /Anti-Money Laundering Laws. The Bank is subject to the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering laws, including the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 and regulations thereunder. These laws and regulations require
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the Bank to implement policies, procedures, and controls to detect, prevent, and report money laundering and terrorist financing and to verify the identity and source of deposits and wealth of its customers. Violations of these laws and regulations can result in substantial civil and criminal sanctions. In addition, provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act require the federal financial institution regulatory agencies to consider the effectiveness of a financial institution's anti-money laundering activities when reviewing mergers and acquisitions.

Federal Reserve System. The FRB requires all depository institutions to maintain reserves at specified levels against their transaction accounts, primarily checking accounts. In response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 ("COVID-19") pandemic, the FRB reduced reserve requirement ratios to zero percent effective on March 26, 2020, to support lending to households and businesses. At September 30, 2023, the reserve requirement of zero percent was still in place.

The Bank is authorized to borrow from the Federal Reserve Bank "discount window." An eligible institution need not exhaust other sources of funds before going to the discount window, nor are there restrictions on the purposes for which the institution can use primary credit. At September 30, 2023, the Bank had no outstanding borrowings from the discount window.
In March 2023, the FRB created a Bank Term Funding Program ("BTFP") to make additional funding available to eligible depository institutions. The BTFP offers loans up to one year in length that can be prepaid without penalty. The amount that can be borrowed under the BTFP is based upon the par value of the securities pledged as collateral to the FRB. Advances can be requested under the BTFP until at least March 11, 2024. At September 30, 2023, the Bank had $500.0 million of BTFP borrowings. In October 2023, the Bank paid off the $500.0 million of BTFP borrowings.
Federal Home Loan Bank System. The Bank is a member of one of 11 regional Federal Home Loan Banks, each of which serves as a reserve, or central bank, for its members within its assigned region and is funded primarily from proceeds derived from the sale of consolidated obligations of the Federal Home Loan Bank System. The Federal Home Loan Banks make loans, called advances, to members and provide access to a line of credit in accordance with policies and procedures established by the Board of Directors of FHLB, which are subject to the oversight of the Federal Housing Finance Agency. At September 30, 2023, the Bank had $2.38 billion of FHLB advances, at par. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Financial Statements – Note 8. Deposits and Borrowed Funds" for additional information regarding FHLB advances. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Financial Statements – Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" for additional information regarding FHLB stock.

As a member, the Bank is required to purchase and maintain capital stock in FHLB. As a member, the Bank is required to purchase and maintain capital stock in FHLB. The minimum required FHLB stock amount is generally 4.5% of the Bank's FHLB advances and outstanding balance against the FHLB line of credit, and 2% of the outstanding principal balance of loans sold into the Mortgage Partnership Finance Program. At September 30, 2023, the Bank had a balance of $110.7 million in FHLB stock, which was in compliance with the FHLB's stock requirement. In past years, the Bank has received dividends on its FHLB stock, although no assurance can be given that these dividends will continue. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Financial Statements – Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" for additional information regarding FHLB stock.

Federal Savings and Loan Holding Company Regulation. The HOLA prohibits a savings and loan holding company (directly or indirectly, or through one or more subsidiaries) from acquiring another savings association, or holding company thereof, without prior written approval from the FRB; acquiring or retaining, with certain exceptions, more than 5% of a non-subsidiary savings association, a non-subsidiary holding company, or a non-subsidiary company engaged in activities other than those permitted by the HOLA; or acquiring or retaining control of a depository institution that is not federally insured. In evaluating applications by savings and loan holding companies to acquire savings associations, the FRB must consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the company and institution involved, the effect of the acquisition on the risk to the insurance funds, the convenience and needs of the community, competitive factors, and other factors.

The FRB has long set forth in its regulations its "source of strength" policy, which requires bank holding companies to act as a source of strength to their subsidiary depository institutions by providing capital, liquidity and other support in times of financial stress. This policy now also applies to savings and loan holding companies.

Transactions with Affiliates. Transactions between the Bank and its affiliates are required to be on terms as favorable to the institution as transactions with non-affiliates, and certain of these transactions are restricted to a percentage of the Bank's
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capital, and, in the case of loans, require eligible collateral in specified amounts. In addition, the Bank may not lend to any affiliate engaged in activities not permissible for a bank holding company or purchase or invest in the securities of affiliates.

Taxation

Federal Taxation. The Company and the Bank are subject to federal income taxation in the same general manner as other corporations. The Company files a consolidated federal income tax return. The Company has not received notification from the IRS of any potential tax liability for any years still subject to audit. The Bank has not received notification from the state of any potential tax liability for any years still subject to audit. For federal income tax purposes, the Bank currently reports its income and expenses on the accrual method of accounting and uses a fiscal year ending on September 30 for filing its federal income tax return. Changes to the corporate federal income tax rate would result in changes to the Company's effective income tax rate and would require the Company to remeasure its deferred tax assets and liabilities based on the tax rate in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled.

State Taxation. The earnings/losses of Capitol Federal Financial, Inc., Capitol Funds, Inc. and Capital City Investments, Inc. are combined for purposes of filing a consolidated Kansas corporate tax return. The Kansas corporate tax rate is 4.0%, plus a surcharge of 3.0% on earnings greater than $50 thousand.

The Bank files a Kansas privilege tax return. For Kansas privilege tax purposes, the minimum tax rate is 4.5% of earnings, which is calculated based on federal taxable income, subject to certain adjustments. The Bank has not received notification from the state of any potential tax liability for any years still subject to audit.

Additionally, the Bank files state tax returns in various other states where it has significant purchased loans and/or foreclosure activities. In these states, the Bank has either established nexus under an economic nexus theory or has exceeded enumerated nexus thresholds based on the amount of interest derived from sources within the state.

Employees and Human Capital Resources

At September 30, 2023, we had a total of 649 employees, including 57 part-time employees. The full-time equivalent of our total employees at September 30, 2023 was 632, a decrease from 707 at September 30, 2022. The decrease was largely attributable to the Bank's improved ability to provide a comprehensive digital experience as a result of its implementation of a new core processing system ("the digital transformation"). A large majority of our customers became comfortable carrying out daily transactions through the adoption of our technology efforts, resulting in decreased walk-in traffic and management's ability to more efficiently staff our branches. Our new staffing model includes officer-level decision makers at each of our locations, as well as narrowly focused efforts to hire and develop a more universal employee who can not only execute basic teller transactions, but also participate in consumer loan activity. The overall decrease in headcount was not achieved through layoffs, but rather management's decision to not backfill non-essential employees through natural attrition. We believe the new staffing model comprised of decision makers and well-rounded employees will add an elevated customer experience for those who still choose to bank with us in-person.

Our employees are not represented by any collective bargaining group. Management considers its employee relations to be good. We believe our ability to attract and retain employees is a key to our success. Accordingly, we strive to offer competitive salaries and employee benefits to all employees and monitor salaries in our market areas. Physical well-being is supported by the Company's health, dental, vision, life and various other insurances, and a wellness program that incentivizes employees to live a healthy and balanced lifestyle. Volunteer opportunities are provided and encouraged for all employees. Capitol Federal employees recorded over 3,628 hours in volunteer time for local organizations and charities during fiscal year 2023.

Our Company respects, values and encourages diversity in our employees and customers. We seek to recognize and develop the unique contributions each individual brings to our Company, and we are fully committed to maintaining a culture of diversity as a pillar of our values and our success. We seek to recognize and develop the unique contributions which each individual brings to our Company, and we are fully committed to supporting a culture of diversity as a pillar of our values and our success. These efforts are supported by our Board of Directors. Since 1977, at least one woman has served as a director of the Bank and, since its inception in 1999, at least one woman has served on the Board of Directors of the Company. In addition, since 2012, at least one underrepresented minority has served as a director of the Company and the Bank. The Board of Directors annually reviews the Company's diversity recruitment efforts and employment statistics.

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To assist in expanding diversity, the Company recruits employees through sources and organizations targeted at diverse communities. The Company also provides multiple opportunities for professional development and growth, including continuing education when applicable and specialty education within banking. Leadership development is supported through our Leadership Forum services, on a biannual basis, for mid-level leaders within the organization. Education for this program is currently provided by Banktastic. Annual employee educational requirements include targeted diversity, equity and inclusion training for all managers. All employees receive annual training on providing fair service, which is targeted at addressing implicit bias in providing customer service.

The Company actively participates in initiatives to promote diversity and inclusion, both internally and externally. Our employees, together with the Capitol Federal Foundation, contribute to programs that promote educational opportunities in all communities as well as housing in low-and-moderate income communities, including scholarships specifically for diverse candidates.

Item 1A. Risk Factors
There are risks inherent in the Bank's and Company's business. The following is a summary of material risks and uncertainties relating to the operations of the Bank and the Company. Adverse experiences with these could have a material impact on the Company's financial condition and results of operations. Some of these risks and uncertainties are interrelated, and the occurrence of one or more of them may exacerbate the effect of others. These material risks and uncertainties are not necessarily presented in order of significance. In addition to the risks set forth below and the other risks described in this Annual Report, there may be risks and uncertainties that are not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial that could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or operating results.

Risks Related to Macroeconomic Conditions

Changes in interest rates could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
Our results of operations are primarily dependent on net interest income, which is the difference between the interest earned on loans, securities, cash at the Federal Reserve Bank and dividends received on FHLB stock, and the interest paid on deposits and borrowings. Changes in interest rates could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition because the majority of our interest-earning assets are long-term, fixed-rate loans, while the majority of our interest-bearing liabilities are shorter term, and therefore subject to a greater degree of interest rate fluctuations. This type of risk is known as interest rate risk and is affected by prevailing economic and competitive conditions that are beyond the Company's control, including general economic conditions, inflationary trends and/or monetary policies of the FRB and fiscal policies of the United States federal government. This type of risk is known as interest rate risk and is affected by prevailing economic and competitive conditions, including inflationary trends and/or monetary policies of the FRB and fiscal policies of the United States federal government.

The impact of changes in interest rates is generally observed on the income statement. The magnitude of the impact will be determined by the difference between the amount of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, both of which either reprice or mature within a given period of time. This difference provides an indication of the extent to which our net interest rate spread will be impacted by changes in interest rates. In addition, changes in interest rates will impact the expected level of repricing of the Bank's mortgage-related assets and callable debt securities. Generally, as interest rates decline, the amount of interest-earning assets expected to reprice will increase as borrowers have an economic incentive to reduce the cost of their mortgage or debt, which would negatively impact the Bank's interest income. Conversely, as interest rates rise, the amount of interest-earning assets expected to reprice will decline as the economic incentive to refinance the mortgage or debt is diminished. As this occurs, the amount of interest-earning assets repricing could diminish to the point where interest-bearing liabilities reprice to a higher interest rate at a faster pace than interest-earning assets, thus negatively impacting the Bank's net interest income. For additional information about the interest-rate risk we face, see "Part II, Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk."

Changes in interest rates can also have an adverse effect on our financial condition as available-for-sale ("AFS") securities are reported at estimated fair value. Stockholders' equity, specifically accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) ("AOCI"), is increased or decreased by the amount of change in the estimated fair value of our AFS securities, net of deferred income taxes. Increases in interest rates generally decrease the fair value of AFS securities, which adversely impacts stockholders' equity. For additional information, see "Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Strategic Securities Transaction," "Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Stockholders' Equity" and "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements
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and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 15. Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income."

Changes in interest rates, as they relate to customers, can also have an adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations. In times of rising interest rates, default risk may increase among borrowers with adjustable-rate loans as the rates on their loans adjust upward and their payments increase. Fluctuations in interest rates also affect customer demand for loan and deposit products. Competition from other financial institutions and/or brokerage firms could affect our ability to attract and retain deposits and could result in us paying more for deposits.

In addition to general changes in interest rates, changes that affect the shape of the yield curve could negatively impact the Bank. The Bank's interest-bearing liabilities are generally priced based on short-term interest rates while the majority of the Bank's interest-earning assets are priced based on long-term interest rates. Income for the Bank is primarily driven by the spread between these rates. As a result, a steeper yield curve, meaning long-term interest rates are significantly higher than short-term interest rates, would provide the Bank with a better opportunity to increase net interest income. When the yield curve is flat, meaning long-term interest rates and short-term interest rates are essentially the same, or when the yield curve is inverted, meaning long-term interest rates are lower than short-term interest rates, the yield between interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities that reprice is compressed or diminished and would likely negatively impact the Bank's net interest income. See "Part II, Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" for additional information about the Bank's interest rate risk management.

An economic downturn, especially one affecting our geographic market areas and certain regions of the country where we have correspondent loans secured by one- to four-family properties or commercial real estate participation loans, could have an adverse impact on our business and financial results.
Our primary lending emphasis is the origination of one- to four-family first mortgage loans secured by residential properties. We have also purchased one- to four-family first mortgage loans, secured by properties that are typically outside our local market areas, from correspondent lenders. As we have grown our commercial real estate lending portfolio, we have continued to maintain relationships not only in our local markets but in geographically diverse markets. As a result, we are particularly exposed to downturns in regional housing and commercial real estate markets and, to a lesser extent, the U.S. housing and commercial real estate markets, along with changes in the levels of unemployment or underemployment. We monitor the current status and trends of local and national employment levels and trends and current conditions in the real estate and housing markets, as well as commercial real estate markets, in our local market areas and certain areas where we have correspondent loans and commercial real estate participation loans. Decreases in local real estate values could adversely affect the value of the property used as collateral for our loans, which could cause us to realize a loss in the event of a foreclosure. Adverse conditions in our local economies and in certain areas where we have correspondent loans and commercial real estate participation loans, such as inflation, unemployment, supply chain disruptions, recession, natural disasters or pandemics, or other factors beyond our control, could impact the ability of our borrowers to repay their loans. Any one or a combination of these events may have an adverse impact on borrowers' ability to repay their loans, which could result in increased delinquencies, non-performing assets, loan losses, and future loan loss provisions.

Risks Related to Lending Activities

The increase in commercial loans in our loan portfolio exposes us to increased lending and credit risks, which could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.
A growing portion of our loan portfolio consists of commercial loans. These loan types tend to be larger than and in different geographic regions from most of our existing loan portfolio and are generally considered to have different and greater risks than one- to four-family residential real estate loans and may involve multiple loans to groups of related borrowers. A growing commercial loan portfolio also subjects us to greater regulatory scrutiny. Furthermore, these loan types can expose us to a greater risk of delinquencies, non-performing assets, loan losses, and future loan loss provisions than one- to four-family residential real estate loans because repayment of such loans often depends on the successful operation of a business or of the underlying property. Repayment of such loans may be affected by factors outside the borrower's control, such as adverse conditions in the real estate market, the economy, environmental factors, natural disasters or pandemics, and/or changes in government regulation. Also, there are risks inherent in commercial real estate construction lending as the value of the project is uncertain prior to the completion of construction and subsequent lease-up. A sudden downturn in the economy, labor and/or supply chain issues, or other unforeseen events could result in stalled projects or collateral shortfalls, thus exposing us to increased credit risk.
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Commercial and industrial loans are primarily made based on the identified cash flow of the borrower and secondarily on the collateral underlying the loans. The borrowers' cash flow may prove to be unpredictable, and collateral securing these loans may fluctuate in value. Most often, this collateral consists of accounts receivable, inventory and equipment. Significant adverse changes in a borrower's industries and businesses could cause rapid declines in values of, and collectability associated with, those business assets, which could result in inadequate collateral coverage for our commercial and industrial loans and expose us to future losses. In the case of loans secured by accounts receivable, the availability of funds for the repayment of these loans may be substantially dependent on the ability of the borrower to collect amounts due from its clients. Inventory and equipment may depreciate over time, may be difficult to appraise, may be illiquid and may fluctuate in value based on the success of the business. If the cash flow from business operations is reduced, the borrower's ability to repay the loan may be impaired. An increase in valuation allowances and charge-offs related to our commercial and industrial loan portfolio could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and future prospects.

Risks Related to Cybersecurity, Third Parties, and Technology.

The occurrence of any information system failure or interruption, breach of security or cyberattack, at the Company, at its third-party service providers or counterparties may have an adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.
Information systems are essential to the conduct of our business, as we use such systems to manage our customer relationships, our general ledger, our deposits and our loans. In the normal course of our business, we collect, process, retain and transmit (by email and other electronic means) sensitive and confidential information regarding our customers, employees and others. We also outsource certain aspects of our data processing, data processing operations, remote network monitoring, engineering and managed security services to third-party service providers. In addition to confidential information regarding our customers, employees and others, we, and in some cases a third party, compile, process, transmit and store proprietary, non-public information concerning our business, operations, plans and strategies.

Information security risks for financial institutions continue to increase in part because of evolving technologies, the use of the internet and telecommunications technologies (including mobile devices) to conduct financial and other business transactions and the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, perpetrators of fraud, hackers, terrorists and others. Cyber criminals use a variety of tactics, such as ransomware, denial of service, and theft of sensitive business and customer information to extort payment or other concessions from victims. In some cases, these attacks have caused significant impacts on other businesses' access to data and ability to provide services. In some cases, these attacks have caused 10 significant impacts on other businesses' access to data and ability to provide services. We are not able to anticipate or implement effective preventive measures against all incidents of these types, especially because the techniques used change frequently and because attacks can originate from a wide variety of sources, including attacks on third-party vendors and their applications and products used by the Bank.

We use a variety of physical, procedural and technological safeguards to prevent or limit the impact of system failures, interruptions and security breaches and to protect confidential information from mishandling, misuse or loss, including detection and response mechanisms designed to contain and mitigate security incidents. However, there can be no assurance that such events will not occur or that they will be promptly detected and adequately addressed if they do, and early detection of security breaches may be thwarted by sophisticated attacks and malware designed to avoid detection. If there is a failure in or breach of our information systems, or those of a third-party service provider, the confidential and other information processed and stored in, and transmitted through, such information systems could be jeopardized, or could otherwise cause interruptions or malfunctions in our operations or the operations of our customers, employees, or others.

Our business and operations depend on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential and other information in our information systems and those of our third-party service providers. Although we devote significant resources and management focus to ensuring the integrity of our information systems through information security measures, risk management practices, relationships with threat intelligence providers and business continuity planning, our facilities, computer systems, software and networks, and those of our third-party service providers, may be vulnerable to external or internal security breaches, acts of vandalism, unauthorized access, misuse, computer viruses or other malicious code and cyberattacks that could have a security impact. In addition, breaches of security may occur through intentional or unintentional acts by those having authorized or unauthorized access to our confidential or other information or the confidential or other information of our customers, employees or others. While we regularly conduct security and risk
11

assessments on our systems and those of our third-party service providers, there can be no assurance that their information security protocols are sufficient to withstand a cyberattack or other security breach. Across our industry, the cost of minimizing these risks and investigating incidents has continued to increase with the frequency and sophistication of these threats.

During June 2023, a third-party service provider (the "Service Provider") to the Bank advised the Bank that files with personally identifiable information related to Bank customers had been compromised during a security incident experienced by the Service Provider (the "Incident"). The Bank used the Service Provider to process transactions. The Incident resulted from a zero-day vulnerability in a managed file sharing software called MOVEit. MOVEit is used by thousands of organizations around the world for securely transferring sensitive and confidential information and other data. The vulnerability was exploited in a large-scale, cyber campaign that impacted government agencies, universities, and corporations around the world. As a result of the Incident, an unauthorized party was able to obtain access to certain Bank customers' data in the Service Provider's possession that contained social security numbers, account numbers, and other personally identifiable information. The Bank confirmed the Service Provider has fixed the vulnerability noted above and the Bank has implemented additional security procedures when sharing files with the Service Provider. When the Bank received notice of the Incident from the Service Provider, the Bank promptly enacted response protocols. The Service Provider has provided appropriate notifications to potentially affected customers. The Bank worked with the Service Provider to identify any others potentially impacted by the Incident. The Bank is not aware of any other third-party incidents related to the MOVEit vulnerability that has affected personally identifiable information associated with Bank customers.

The occurrence of any of the foregoing could subject us to litigation or regulatory scrutiny, cause us significant reputational damage or erode confidence in the security of our information systems, products and services, cause us to lose customers or have greater difficulty in attracting new customers, have an adverse effect on the value of our common stock or subject us to financial losses that may not be covered by insurance, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. As information security risks and cyber threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to further enhance or modify our information security measures and/or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities or other exposures arising from operational and security risks.

Furthermore, there continues to be heightened legislative and regulatory focus on privacy, data protection and information security. New or revised laws and regulations may significantly impact our current and planned privacy, data protection and information security-related practices, the collection, use, sharing, retention and safeguarding of consumer and employee information, and current or planned business activities. Compliance with current or future privacy, data protection and information security laws could result in higher compliance and technology costs and could restrict our ability to provide certain products and services, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our customers are also targets of cyberattacks and identity theft. There continues to be instances involving financial services and consumer-based companies reporting the unauthorized disclosure of client or customer information or the destruction or theft of corporate data. Large scale identity theft could result in customers' accounts being compromised and fraudulent activities being performed in their names. We have implemented certain safeguards against these types of activities, but they may not fully protect us from financial losses. The occurrence of a security breach involving our customers' information, regardless of its origin, could damage our reputation and result in a loss of customers and business, subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny, and expose us to litigation and possible financial liability. The occurrence of a breach of security involving our customers' information, regardless of its origin, could damage our reputation and result in a loss of customers and business and subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny, and could expose us to litigation and possible financial liability. Any of these events could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any of these events could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Third-party vendors subject the Company to potential business, reputation and financial risks.11 Third party vendors subject the Company to potential business, reputation and financial risks.
Third-party vendors are sources of operational and information security risk to the Company, including risks associated with operations errors, information system interruptions or breaches, and unauthorized disclosures of sensitive or confidential customer information. The Company requires third-party vendors to maintain certain levels of information security; however, vendors may remain vulnerable to breaches, unauthorized access, misuse, computer viruses, and/or other malicious attacks that could ultimately compromise sensitive information. The Company requires third party vendors to maintain certain levels of information security; however, vendors may remain vulnerable to breaches, unauthorized access, misuse, computer viruses, and/or other malicious attacks that could ultimately compromise sensitive information. We have developed procedures and processes for selecting and monitoring third-party vendors, but ultimately are dependent on these third-party vendors to secure their information. We have developed procedures and processes for selecting and monitoring third party vendors, but ultimately are dependent on these third party vendors to secure their information. If these vendors encounter any of these types of issues, or if we have difficulty communicating with them, we could be exposed to disruption of operations, loss of service or connectivity to customers, reputational damage, and litigation risk that could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
12


The failure of an external vendor to perform in accordance with the contracted arrangements under service level agreements, because of changes in the vendor's organizational structure, financial condition, support for existing products and services or strategic focus or for any other reason, could be disruptive to our operations, which could have an adverse effect on our business and, in turn, our financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, replacing certain third-party vendors could also entail significant delay and expense. Additionally, replacing certain third party vendors could also entail significant delay and expense.

We are heavily reliant on technology, and a failure to effectively implement technology initiatives or anticipate future technology needs or demands could adversely affect our business or performance.
Like most financial institutions, the Bank significantly depends on technology to deliver its products and services and to otherwise conduct business. To remain technologically competitive and operationally efficient, the Bank invests in system upgrades, new technological solutions, and other technology initiatives. Many of these solutions and initiatives have a significant duration, are tied to critical information systems, and require substantial resources. Although the Bank takes steps to mitigate the risks and uncertainties associated with these solutions and initiatives, there is no guarantee that they will be implemented on time, within budget, or without negative operational or customer impact. The Bank also may not succeed in anticipating its future technology needs, the technology demands of its customers, or the competitive landscape for technology. If the Bank were to falter in any of these areas, it could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In August 2023, the Company implemented a new core processing system ("digital transformation"). While the digital transformation was completed successfully, the Company may face operational risks, such as disruptions in technology systems, which may impact customers. The Company will work to remediate any such disruptions, if they occur, but no assurance can be given that a potential adverse development will be quickly or completely remediated. If an adverse development arising from the digital transformation is not sufficiently remediated or is not remediated in a timely fashion, the Company's reputation could be significantly impacted, which could result in loss of customer business, subject the Company to regulatory scrutiny, or expose the Company to litigation, any of which could have a material impact on the Company's financial condition and results of operations. If an adverse development arising from the digital transformation is not sufficiently remediated or is not remediated in a timely fashion, the Company's reputation could be significantly impacted which could result in loss of customer business, subject the Company to regulatory scrutiny, or expose the Company to possible litigation, any of which could have a material impact on the Company's financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Competition

Strong competition may limit growth and profitability.
While we are one of the largest mortgage loan originators in the state of Kansas, we compete in the same market areas as local, regional, and national banks, credit unions, mortgage brokerage firms, investment banking firms, investment brokerage firms, mortgage bankers, and savings institutions. We also compete with online investment and mortgage brokerages and online banks that are not confined to any specific market area. Many of these competitors operate on a national or regional level, are a conglomerate of various financial services providers housed under one corporation, or otherwise have substantially greater financial or technological resources than the Bank. We compete primarily on the basis of the interest rates offered to depositors, the terms of loans offered to borrowers, and the benefits afforded to customers as a local institution and portfolio lender. Should we face competitive pressure to increase deposit rates or decrease loan rates, our net interest income could be adversely affected. Additionally, our competitors may offer products and services that we do not or cannot provide, as certain deposit and loan products fall outside of our accepted level of risk. Our profitability depends upon our ability to compete in our local market areas.

Risks Related to Regulation

We operate in a highly regulated environment which limits the manner and scope of our business activities, and we may be adversely affected by new and/or changes in laws and regulations or interpretation of existing laws and regulations.
We are subject to extensive regulation, supervision, and examination by the OCC, the FRB, and the FDIC. These regulatory authorities exercise broad discretion in connection with their supervisory and enforcement activities, including the ability to impose restrictions on a bank's operations, reclassify assets, determine the adequacy of a bank's ACL, and determine the level of deposit insurance premiums assessed. The CFPB has broad powers to supervise and enforce consumer protection laws, including a wide range of consumer protection laws that apply to all banks and savings institutions, like the authority to prohibit unfair, deceptive or abusive acts and practices. The CFPB also has examination and enforcement authority over all banks with regulatory assets exceeding $10 billion at four consecutive quarter-ends. The Bank exceeded $10 billion in
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regulatory assets at March 31, 2023, June 30, 2023 and September 30, 2023. The Bank intends to be below $10 billion in regulatory assets at December 31, 2023 so it will not exceed $10 billion in regulatory assets at four consecutive quarter-ends. There are increased direct costs, additional regulatory burdens with indirect costs, and lost revenue, mainly related to interchange fees, associated with the Bank being over $10 billion in regulatory assets at certain points in time and for four consecutive quarter-ends. As long as the Bank does not exceed $10 billion in regulatory assets for four consecutive quarter ends, it will continue to be examined for compliance with consumer protection laws and the regulations of the CFPB by the Bank's primary bank regulator, the OCC. The Dodd-Frank Act also weakens the federal preemption rules that have been applicable for national banks and federal savings associations and gives state attorneys general the ability to enforce federal consumer protection laws.

Any change in such regulation and oversight, whether in the form of regulatory policy, regulations, legislation, interpretation or application, could have an adverse impact on our operations. Any change in such regulation and oversight, whether in the form of regulatory policy, regulations, legislation, interpretation or application, could have an adverse impact on our operations. Moreover, bank regulatory agencies have been active in responding to concerns and trends identified in examinations and have issued formal enforcement orders requiring capital ratios in excess of regulatory requirements and/or assessing monetary penalties. Bank regulatory agencies, such as the OCC, the FRB and the FDIC, govern the activities in which we may engage, primarily for the protection of depositors' funds, the DIF and the safety and soundness of the banking system as a whole, and not for the protection or benefit of investors. Bank regulatory agencies, such as the OCC, the FRB and the FDIC, govern the activities in which we may engage, primarily for the protection of depositors, and not for the protection or benefit of investors. The CFPB enforces consumer protection laws and regulations for the benefit of the consumer and not the protection or benefit of investors. In addition, new laws and regulations, including those related to environmental, social, and governance initiatives, may continue to increase our costs of regulatory compliance and of doing business, and otherwise affect our operations. New laws and regulations may significantly affect the markets in which we do business, the markets for and value of our loans and securities, the products we offer, the fees we can charge and our ongoing operations, costs, and profitability.

The Company is also directly subject to the requirements of entities that set and interpret accounting standards such as the Financial Accounting Standards Board, and indirectly subject to the actions and interpretations of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, which establishes auditing and related professional practice standards for registered public accounting firms and inspects registered firms to assess their compliance with certain laws, rules, and professional standards in public company audits. These regulations, along with existing tax, accounting, securities, and monetary laws, regulations, rules, standards, policies and interpretations, control the methods by which financial institutions and their holding companies conduct business, engage in strategic and tax planning, implement strategic initiatives, and govern financial reporting. These regulations, along with the currently existing tax, accounting, securities, and monetary laws, regulations, rules, standards, policies and interpretations, control the methods by which financial institutions and their holding companies conduct business, engage in strategic and tax planning, implement strategic initiatives, and govern financial reporting.

The Company's failure to comply with laws, regulations or policies could result in civil or criminal sanctions and money penalties by state and federal agencies, and/or reputational damage, which could have an adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. See "Part I, Item 1. Business - Regulation and Supervision" for more information about the regulations to which the Company is subject.

Other Risks

The Company's ability to pay dividends is subject to the ability of the Bank to make capital distributions to the Company.
The long-term ability of the Company to pay dividends to its stockholders is based primarily upon the ability of the Bank to generate earnings and to, therefore, make capital distributions to the Company, and on the availability of cash at the holding company level in the event earnings are not sufficient to pay dividends. Under certain circumstances, capital distributions from the Bank to the Company may be subject to regulatory approvals. See "Item 1. Business – Regulation and Supervision" for additional information.

Our risk management and compliance programs and functions may not be effective in mitigating risk and loss.13 Our risk management and compliance programs and functions may not be effective in mitigating risk and loss.
We maintain an enterprise risk management program that is designed to identify, quantify, monitor, report, and control the risks that we face. These risks include: interest-rate, credit, liquidity, operations, reputation, compliance and litigation. We also maintain a compliance program to identify, measure, assess, and report on our adherence to applicable laws, policies and procedures. While we assess and improve these programs on an ongoing basis, there can be no assurance that our risk management or compliance programs, along with other related controls, will effectively mitigate all risk and limit losses in our business. If conditions or circumstances arise that expose flaws or gaps in our risk management or compliance programs, or if our controls do not function as designed, the performance and value of our business could be adversely affected.

14

The Company may not be able to attract and retain skilled employees.
The Company's success depends, in large part, on its ability to attract and retain key people. Competition for the best people can be intense, and the Company spends considerable time and resources attracting and hiring qualified people for its operations. The unexpected loss of the services of one or more of the Company's key personnel could have an adverse impact on the Company's business because of their skills, knowledge of the Company's market, and years of industry experience, as well as the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement personnel.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
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