Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - ASGN

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$ASGN Risk Factor changes from 00/03/01/21/2021 to 00/02/22/24/2024

Item 1A.

Risk Factors of this Annual Report on Form 10-K ("2023 10-K"). Other factors also may contribute to the differences between our forward-looking statements and our actual results. In addition, as a result of these and other factors, our past financial performance should not be relied on as an indication of future performance. All forward-looking statements in this document are based on information available to us as of the date we file this 2023 10-K, and we assume no obligation to update any forward-looking statement or the reasons why our actual results may differ.1PART IItem 1. BusinessOverview and History ASGN Incorporated ("ASGN," "we," or "us") is a leading provider of information technology (IT) services and solutions to the commercial and government sectors. BusinessOverview and History ASGN Incorporated ("ASGN," "we," or "us") is one of the foremost providers of information technology (IT) and professional services in the technology, digital, creative, engineering and life sciences fields across commercial and government sectors. We operate through two segments, Commercial and Federal Government, and across six industry verticals, which together promote balance, strength, and resiliency throughout economic cycles. From a revenue and margin perspective, ASGN has grown through a combination of organic growth and strategic acquisitions. Over the last five years, we completed 11 "tuck-in" acquisitions. Each of these acquisitions align with our strategy to expand our IT consulting services and solutions capabilities, offer higher-value technical solutions, and become a leading provider of these high-end services to the commercial and federal government markets.From a client perspective, ASGN has grown by effectively understanding our clients’ IT needs and providing them with qualified professionals who maintain a unique combination of skills, experience, and expertise to meet those needs.ClientsWe serve our clients by effectively understanding their IT and consulting services needs and providing them qualified professionals with a unique combination of skills, experience and expertise to meet those needs. Our clients set rigorous requirements for talent, which have only increased as we’ve evolved our business to offer higher-end, higher-value IT consulting solutions. To meet these talent requirements, we use our extensive databases and deep talent pool to quickly identify and pre-screen candidates. We are responsible for recruiting, verifying credentials upon request, hiring, administering pay and benefits, compliance and training, as applicable. As we support clients across a diverse set of industry verticals, no client, other than the U.S. federal government, represented more than 10 percent of revenues in 2023. Revenues from contracts directly with several U.S. federal government agencies combined were approximately 24. federal government were approximately 23. 3 percent of 2023 consolidated revenues.From a business advancement perspective, ASGN invests in six core areas, including leadership, recruitment of in-demand skillsets, training and skill development, partnerships, internal artificial intelligence ("AI") tools, and client AI roadmaps. ASGN was incorporated in 1992. Our principal office is located at 4400 Cox Road, Suite 110, Glen Allen, Virginia 23060, and our telephone number is (888) 482-8068. Commercial SegmentOur Commercial Segment (71.3 percent of 2023 consolidated revenues) provides a broad spectrum of IT services and solutions to Fortune 1000 and large enterprise clients. Growth in this segment is being driven by digital transformation and innovation requirements, including, but not limited to, that of AI, workforce mobilization, and modern enterprise needs across five industry verticals: (i) Financial Services, (ii) Consumer and Industrial, (iii) Technology, Media and Telecom ("TMT"), (iv) Healthcare, and (v) Business and Government Services.Our robust commercial talent pool, which includes onshore, nearshore, and offshore professionals, can be deployed in short duration, solution-specific engagements, or on long-term consultative roles. Our roots in IT staffing offer a strong account base and foothold in our clients’ businesses, while our consulting offerings enable us to offer more value to our accounts via higher-end, higher margin work including workforce mobilization, modern enterprise, and digital innovation IT consulting services. Our subject matter experts deliver solutions that are customer focused and value driven across a continuum of cloud, data and analytics, cyber/information security, artificial intelligence/machine learning ("AI/ML"), including generative AI (“GenAI”), and digital transformation solutions to support our clients’ modern enterprise and digital needs. Our clients are looking to meet their business challenges at greater speed and with more accuracy and precision. We are therefore harnessing developing technologies, such as Microsoft’s Copilot and Azure OpenAI, to increase the efficiency of our own teams, while at the same time developing AI roadmaps for our clients that leverage new generative technologies.Corporate support activities for this segment are primarily based in Richmond, Virginia. We also have a network of 90 branch offices across the United States, and four branch offices across Canada and Europe. In addition, we have two near-shore delivery centers in Mexico, and we maintain a small delivery center in India.Consulting — Our business focus and growth strategy of today lies in providing our clients with higher value IT consulting services. A byproduct of our decades-long, trusted client relationships over the years, our customers have engaged us in longer-term consulting contracts. Consulting contracts leverage the same talent pool as our assignment work but offer higher margin opportunities and increased revenue visibility. The average duration of commercial consulting projects is one year.Assignment — Our business heritage is in providing our clients with experienced IT and creative digital marketing billable professionals for temporary assignments and project engagements. Our billable professionals have knowledge and experience in specialized technical and creative digital marketing services that make them qualified to fill a given assignment or project. Our consultants typically have a great deal of knowledge and experience in specialized technical or creative fields, which make them uniquely qualified to fill a given assignment or project. Assignment contracts may vary in length but typically range between three and six months in duration. Federal Government SegmentOur Federal Government Segment (28.7 percent of 2023 consolidated revenues), our sixth industry vertical, delivers advanced solutions in cloud and enterprise IT, cybersecurity, AI/ML, application, and digital transformation to some of the world's leading agencies in both the public and private sectors. Our team of skilled experts tackle critical and highly-complex challenges for customers in the U. Our team of skilled experts tackle critical and highly complex challenges for customers in the U. S. defense, 2intelligence, and federal civilian agencies. We maintain relationships with leading cloud, cybersecurity, and AI/ML providers and hold specialized certifications in these technologies. We have over 1,000 combined certifications, accreditations, and awards in AI/ML alone, and continue to invest in our traditional and generative AI skillsets through our Data and AI Center of Excellence, our hub for training and innovation that empowers federal agencies to harness the full potential of AI technology.The segment provides services under time-and-materials, cost reimbursable, and firm-fixed-price contracts. Contracts range from approximately three to five years in length, providing longer-term revenue visibility and countercyclical support throughout market cycles. Contracts range from approximately three to five years in length. We have contract backlog of $3.0 billion as of December 31, 2023, which represents the estimated amount of future revenues to be recognized under awarded contracts including task orders and options. Corporate support activities for this segment are based in Fairfax, Virginia, and there are 19 branch offices located across the United States. Corporate support activities are based in Fairfax, Virginia, with 24 branch offices located across the United States. Industry and Market DynamicsASGN is a leading provider of IT services and solutions to the commercial and government sectors. ASGN helps leading corporate enterprises and government organizations develop, implement, and operate critical IT and business solutions through its integrated offering of IT consulting and professional staffing. Our total addressable market is approximately $580 billion, which includes $400 billion in commercial IT consulting, $121 billion in government IT consulting, and $59 billion in professional staffing. Our total addressable market has significantly expanded as clients have actively pulled us into higher-value consulting work for the commercial and government end markets.Our business model continues to evolve in line with client needs and expectations to focus on higher-end, higher-margin IT consulting services and solutions capabilities, particularly those related to digital transformation and other areas of technology change and specialization including data analytics, AI/ML, including both traditional and GenAI, big data, process automation, and information security. By employing our professional staffing and consulting services, our clients benefit from cost structure advantages, flexibility to address fluctuating demand in business, and access to greater expertise. By using our contract labor and professional staffing services, our clients benefit from cost structure advantages, flexibility to address fluctuating demand in business and access to greater expertise. We intend to continue to grow our diverse client base by focusing on large, stable accounts that are quick adopters of new technologies. We will continue to grow our diverse client base by focusing on large, stable accounts that are quicker adopters of new technologies. We will invest in our organic growth while simultaneously looking to execute acquisitions in the commercial and federal government end markets focusing on IT consulting companies that provide us with new solution capabilities, industry expertise, or government contract awards. We will invest in our organic growth, and we will look to execute acquisitions in the commercial and federal government end markets that provide us with new solution capabilities, industry expertise or contract vehicles. CandidatesWe recruit candidates with backgrounds in IT and creative digital marketing who seek contract or permanent work opportunities. When we place these candidates on projects with clients, they become our employees. When we place these candidates on assignments or consulting projects with clients, they become our employees. Many of these professionals, and those we place via subcontractors, are paid hourly wage or contract rates based on their specific skills. We pay the related costs of employment, including social security taxes, federal and state unemployment taxes, workers’ compensation insurance, and other similar costs for our employees. We pay the related costs of employment including social security taxes, federal and state unemployment taxes, workers’ compensation insurance and other similar costs for our employees. After achieving minimum service periods and/or hours worked, our professionals are offered access to medical and other voluntary benefit programs (e. After achieving minimum service periods and/or hours worked, our contract professionals are offered access to medical and other voluntary benefit programs (e. g., dental, vision, disability) and the right to participate in our 401(k) retirement savings plan. Each professional’s employment relationship with us is terminable at will. Each contract professional’s employment relationship with us is terminable at will. In 2023, we employed approximately 23,500 billable professionals on a full-time-equivalent basis.StrategyASGN's strategy is to be a leading provider of IT services and professional solutions to the commercial and federal government sectors. We are focused on high-margin, scalable IT work for large commercial enterprise accounts and federal government customers. We have built a sizable consulting platform, with over 55 percent of our revenues in a combination of commercial and federal government IT consulting work in the fourth quarter of 2023. We have grown our IT consulting revenues both organically and through acquisitions, and our goal is to continue this growth. To achieve this goal, our acquisition strategy specifically focuses on IT consulting companies that add new services, technical capabilities, and contracts that support our commercial and federal government customer needs and that are in high demand by our customer base.Our strategic innovation efforts and technology investments focus on putting the best productivity tools in the hands of our recruiters, our candidates, and our clients, so that it is seamless for clients and billable professionals to work with ASGN.Our strategic innovation efforts and technology investments focus on putting the best productivity tools in the hands of our recruiters, our candidates and our clients, making it easy for clients and consultants to work with ASGN. We position our teams to stay at the forefront of emerging trends in digitization and candidate sourcing, including GenAI technologies that assist teams in creating robust models around candidate search and match to best position our businesses and continuously improve how we serve clients and consultants.CompetitionWe compete with other large publicly-held and privately-owned providers of human capital in the IT consulting and professional services segments on a local, regional, national, and international basis across the commercial and government end markets. 3CompetitionWe compete with other large publicly held and privately owned providers of human capital in the professional staffing and IT consulting services segments on a local, regional, national and international basis across commercial and government sectors. With an industry focus that is supported by our solutions, our unique deployment model allows us to provide the right services at the right time. Our experienced engagement leaders and methodologies help our clients solve critical problems and create incremental value for their organizations.From a talent perspective, we offer more opportunities for the billable professional and are viewed as a better partner for their career objectives. In addition, competitive factors that attract qualified candidates are salaries and benefits; availability and variety of opportunities; quality, duration and location of assignments (if not remote/hybrid); and responsiveness to requests for placement.The principal competitive factors in attracting qualified candidates for contract placements are contract rates, salaries and benefits; availability and variety of opportunities; quality, duration and location of assignments; and responsiveness to requests for placement. Many people seeking 3contract employment through us may also be pursuing employment through other means. Many people seeking contract employment through us are also pursuing employment through other means, including other human capital providers. Therefore, the speed at which we assign prospective professionals, and the availability of attractive and appropriate assignments, are important factors in our ability to fill open positions. From a client perspective, the principal competitive factors in obtaining and retaining clients are properly assessing the clients’ specific job and project requirements, the appropriateness of the professional assigned to the client, the price of services, and monitoring our clients’ satisfaction. Although we believe we compete favorably with respect to these factors and maintain an intimacy and institutional knowledge with our clients that enables us to successfully compete in the market, we expect competition to continue to increase particularly as we grow our IT consulting footprint. Nevertheless, our now larger total addressable market in IT consulting offers us a greater revenue opportunity. In addition, unlike our competitors in the traditional consulting space, for the majority of our IT consulting business we do not rely upon a bench to support us; rather, we use our database and a deep labor pool of highly-skilled technical talent developed over decades to provide and build teams that offer our clients a full suite of services tailored to their individual needs. This sophisticated project delivery model offers us a cost advantage over the competition that has enabled us to grow above industry averages.Human CapitalOur workforce is and will always be the core of our business. Our diverse talent pool strengthens our position as a leading global IT professional services firm, and we aim to recruit diverse leaders in their respective areas of expertise that support ASGN’s high-performance, innovative, and collaborative culture. In 2023, we employed approximately 3,700 internal employees, including sales directors, account managers, recruiters, and corporate office employees. We support our employees and billable professionals through the following initiatives: Culture and Belonging — At ASGN, we strive for equity across all levels of employment. Our efforts include training, recruitment, retention, and advancement programs. These programs aim to remove bias in hiring and promotions. Our Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (“DEI”) Director leads programs aimed at promoting personal and professional growth for employees from diverse backgrounds, providing our employees with increased opportunities to feel motivated, valued, and fulfilled as they achieve personal and professional successes at ASGN. Over 40 percent of our senior level management positions are diverse by racial and ethnic diversity, sexual orientation, gender, disability, or veteran status. While we believe we have assembled a diverse workforce and leadership team, we are committed to continuous improvement to foster an increased sense of belonging. In 2023, we launched a Company-wide inclusion council to collaborate, strategize, and implement initiatives that enrich our workplaces, nurture inclusivity, and drive sustainable growth. Women comprise 27 percent of ASGN’s Board of Directors ("Board") and 18 percent of its members identify as being from an underrepresented group. Health, Safety, and Well-being — Our employees enjoy competitive compensation and benefits packages, which include medical, dental, and vision plans; flexible spending accounts; and savings plans. We further support our employees' emotional well-being and physical health with wellness programming and personal growth workshops. Guided by our Company-wide Employee Wellness and Workplace Health and Safety policies, we continue to seek opportunities to expand our offerings where feasible. Further, ASGN offers flexible and hybrid work schedules to support work-life balance and contribute to the well-being of our employees at work and at home. Our goal is to create and maintain a safe, healthy, and happy workplace that motivates and leads to retention across the Company. Employee Engagement, Retention and Development — We prioritize career growth through ongoing education and professional development. Employees are provided with comprehensive training, including programming on ethics and integrity, workplace inclusion and belonging, discrimination and harassment, cybersecurity, workplace safety, and career-specific modules. We achieved a 72 percent overall participation rate in our 2023 employee engagement survey. We continue to support ASGN’s Employee Resource Groups (“ERGs”) and Employee Community Groups (“ECGs”) across our brands to foster a diverse and inclusive environment. ERGs are voluntary, employee-led groups whose aim is to create a safe space, foster an inclusive workplace, and provide support, while ECGs are voluntary social circles of employees who join based on shared values, interests, and goals. We have initiated a mentorship program (“ASGN Engage & Empower”) which is a cornerstone of our commitment to foster an environment where every employee has the opportunity to grow, learn, and contribute to their fullest potential. Mentors value the fresh perspectives of the mentees, while mentees feel supported and gain insights into different business areas.Collaborative Performance Management — We believe in empowering our employees to drive their career growth.Collaborative Performance Management — We strongly support the belief that our employees should be the primary drivers of their own career growth. This includes seeking varied job roles, cross-functional training, and participating in special projects. Our performance management process focuses on developing clear goals at the start of each calendar year (or at the beginning of one’s term of employment) and providing constructive feedback and support throughout the year to best develop our employees’ careers and position them for success.For more information about our workforce programs and initiatives, please visit the Sustainability section of our website: ASGN.com/Sustainability. Nothing on our website shall be deemed incorporated by reference into this 2023 10-K. Government Regulation We take reasonable steps to ensure that our billable professionals possess all current licenses and certifications required for each placement.Government Regulation We take reasonable steps to ensure that our contract professionals possess all current licenses and certifications required for each placement. We provide workers’ compensation insurance, unemployment insurance, and professional liability insurance for our employees. For a further discussion of government regulation associated with our business, see Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.

4Available Information and Access to Reports We electronically file our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, Proxy Statements, and all amendments to those reports and statements with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). Available Information and Access to Reports We electronically file our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, Proxy Statements and all amendments to those reports and statements with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). The SEC maintains an internet site sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information technology regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. You may also read and copy any of our reports that are filed with the SEC by visiting: •Our website, asgn.com; or•By contacting our Investor Relations Department at info@asgn.com; or•By contacting our Investor Relations Department at (818) 878-7900. com.Our reports are available through any of the foregoing means and are available free of charge on our website as soon as practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Also available on our website are copies of our Code of Ethics for the Principal Executive Officer and Senior Financial Officers, Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, Corporate Governance Guidelines, and the charters for the committees of our Board. We intend to disclose any amendment to, or waiver from, a provision of our Code of Ethics for our Principal Executive Officer and Senior Financial Officers on our website promptly after the amendment or waiver has been granted. We intend to disclose any amendment to, or waiver from, a provision of our Code of Ethics for Principal Executive Officer and Senior Financial Officers on our website promptly after the amendment or waiver has been granted. 5Item 1A. Risk FactorsOur business is subject to various risks, including, but not limited to those described below, any of which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition, and as a result, could cause a decline in the trading price of our common stock. Risk FactorsOur business is subject to a number of risks including, but not limited to, the following:Profitability and Operational RisksThe continuing impacts of COVID-19 are highly unpredictable and could be significant, and may have an adverse effect on our business, operations and our future financial performance. Profitability and Operational RisksIf we are not able to remain competitive in obtaining and retaining clients, our future growth will suffer. Many of our agreements may be terminated by clients at will and the termination of a significant number of such agreements would adversely affect our revenues and results of operations.The professional staffing and consulting services industry is highly competitive and fragmented with limited barriers to entry. We compete in national, regional, and local markets with full-service agencies and in regional and local markets with specialized contract staffing agencies and consulting businesses. The success of our business depends upon our ability to continually secure new consulting projects and assignment contracts from clients and to fill them with our billable professionals. The success of our business depends upon our ability to continually secure new orders from clients and to fill those orders with our contract professionals. Most of our agreements with clients do not provide for exclusive use of our services and many of our agreements may be terminated at will.Most of our agreements with clients do not provide for exclusive use of our services, many of our agreements may be terminated at will and, in some instances, we provide services without entering into contracts. As such, clients are free to place orders with our competitors. If clients terminate a significant number of our staffing and consulting agreements or do not use us for future assignments and we are unable to generate new work to replace lost revenues, the growth of our business could be adversely affected, and our revenues and results of operations could be harmed. As a result, it is imperative to our business that we maintain positive relationships with our clients. In our consulting business, clients may delay or cancel bookings which may cause expected revenues to be realized in a later period or not at all. If we are not able to comply with performance requirements, our revenues and relationships with our clients may be adversely affected. If we are not able to comply with these performance requirements, our revenues and relationships with our clients may be adversely affected. To the extent that competitors seek to gain or retain market share by reducing prices or increasing marketing expenditures, we could lose revenues and our margins could decline, which could harm our operating results and cause the trading price of our stock to decline. We expect competition for clients to increase in the future, and the success and growth of our business depends on our ability to remain competitive. In addition, we participate in a number of third-party contracts as a subcontractor and that requires us to participate in vendor management contracts, which may subject us to greater risks or lower margins.If we are unable to attract and retain qualified billable professionals, our business could be adversely affected.If we are unable to attract and retain qualified contract professionals, our business could be adversely affected. Our business is substantially dependent upon our ability to attract and retain billable professionals who possess the skills, experience, advanced degrees, certifications, licenses, and clearances which may be required to meet the specified requirements of our clients.Our business is substantially dependent upon our ability to attract and retain contract professionals who possess the skills, experience and licenses which may be required to meet the specified requirements of our clients. We compete for such billable professionals with other staffing and consulting companies, government contractors, and our clients and potential clients. We compete for such contract professionals with other temporary staffing and consulting companies and with our clients and potential clients. There can be no assurance that qualified professionals will be available to us in adequate numbers to staff our temporary assignments or client projects. Moreover, the employment of our temporary billable professionals is terminable at will and they are often hired to become regular employees of our clients. Moreover, our contract professionals are often hired to become regular employees of our clients and their employment is terminable at will. Attracting and retaining billable professionals depends on several factors, including our ability to provide billable professionals with desirable assignments and competitive wages and benefits. Attracting and retaining contract professionals depends on several factors, including our ability to provide contract professionals with desirable assignments and competitive wages and benefits. The cost of attracting and retaining billable professionals may be higher than we anticipate if there is an increase in competitive wages and benefits and, as a result, if we are unable to pass these costs on to our clients, our likelihood of achieving or maintaining profitability could decline. The cost of attracting and retaining contract professionals in the future may be higher than we anticipate if there is an increase in competitive wages and benefits and, as a result, if we are unable to pass these costs on to our clients, our likelihood of achieving or maintaining profitability could decline. In periods of low unemployment, there may be a shortage of, and significant competition for, the skilled professionals sought by our clients. In periods of low unemployment, there may be a shortage of and significant competition for, the skilled contract professionals sought by our clients. If we are unable to attract and retain a sufficient number of billable professionals to meet client demand, we may be required to forgo revenue opportunities, which may hurt the growth of our business. If we are unable to attract and retain a sufficient number of contract professionals to meet client demand, we may be required to forgo revenue opportunities, which may hurt the growth of our business. In periods of high unemployment, due to a large pool of available candidates, clients are able to directly hire and recruit qualified candidates without the involvement of our services.Sometimes we utilize subcontractors to provide us with qualified professionals. The subcontractors are generally small companies that may lack the resources or experience to comply with complex and fluid wage and hour and other laws. A subcontractor’s failure in this regard could adversely affect our ability to perform and subject us to additional legal liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our relationships with clients and on our results of operations. Current and future restrictions on the availability of such visas could limit our subcontractors’ ability to employ and/or retain the skilled professionals we need to meet our clients’ needs, which could have a material adverse impact on our business. Our future performance depends on the Company’s effective execution of our business strategy.In prior years, we have experienced revenue and earnings growth both organically and through acquisitions. There is no assurance that we will be able to continue this pace of growth in the future or meet our strategic objectives for growth, and in fact our growth declined this past year due to macroeconomic conditions. There is no assurance that we will be able to continue this pace of growth in the future or meet our strategic objectives for growth. Our growth could be adversely affected by many other factors, including future technology industry conditions, macroeconomic events such as inflation, recession, and interest rate increases, competition, and labor market trends or regulations. Our growth could be adversely affected by many factors, including future technology industry conditions, macroeconomic events such as the recent global pandemic, competition and labor market trends or regulations. If our growth rate continues to decline, or we fail to grow at the pace anticipated and we are unsuccessful in our growth initiatives and strategies, our financial results could be less than our expectations or those of investors or analysts. If our growth rate slows, or if it fails to grow at the pace anticipated and we are unable to be successful in our growth initiatives and strategies, our financial results could be less than our expectations or those of investors or analysts and our stock price could be adversely affected. Our business strategy also includes continuing efforts to integrate and optimize our organization, programs, technology, and delivery of services to make us a more agile and effective competitor, to reduce the cost of operating our business, and to increase our operating profit and operating profit margin. We may not be successful in our continuing integration and optimization efforts, which may cause us to fail to achieve the cost savings we anticipate or limit our ability to scale growth. We may not be successful in our continuing integration and optimization efforts, and they may fail to achieve the cost savings we anticipate or limit our ability to scale growth. Further, we may fail to prevent the return of costs eliminated in 6these efforts. If we are not successful in implementing our integration and optimization efforts, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.Performance under contracts, including those on which we have partnered with third parties, may be adversely affected if we or the third parties fail to deliver on commitments or otherwise breach obligations to our clients.Our contracts are complex and, in some instances, may require that we partner with other parties, including software and hardware vendors, to provide the complex solutions required by our clients. Our ability to deliver the solutions and provide the services required by our clients is dependent on our and our partners’ ability to meet our clients’ delivery schedules and other expectations. Our partners may at times be impacted by global events, the changing macroeconomic environment and supply chain disruptions, as well as rapid increases in demand for their products and services, any of which may impact their ability to provide their products and services within our expected timeframes or at anticipated prices. If we or our partners fail to deliver services on time, our ability to complete the contracts may be adversely affected. Our results of operations could be adversely affected if we cannot successfully keep pace with technological changes in the development and implementation of our services.Our results of operations could be adversely affected if we cannot successfully keep pace with technological changes in the development and implementation of our services. Our success depends on our ability to keep pace with rapid technological changes in the development and implementation of our services. We rely on a variety of technologies to support important functions in our business, including the recruitment, placement and monitoring of our billable professionals, our billings, and candidate and client data analytics. We rely on a variety of technologies to support important functions in our business, including the recruitment, placement and monitoring of our contract professionals, our billings, and candidate and client data analytics. If we do not sufficiently invest in new technology and industry developments (such as emerging job and resume posting services), appropriately implement new technologies, or evolve our business at sufficient speed and scale in response to such developments, or if we do not make the right strategic investments to respond to these developments, our services, results of operations, and ability to develop and maintain our business could be adversely affected. If we do not sufficiently invest in new technology and industry developments, such as emerging job and resume posting services, appropriately implement new technologies, or evolve our business at sufficient speed and scale in response to such developments, or if we do not make the right strategic investments to respond to these developments, our services, results of operations and ability to develop and maintain our business could be adversely affected. AI, including GenAI, is a growing component of our business in both the commercial market and government space. We work both internally and with our enterprise customer base to develop strategic use cases for GenAI technologies. For example, we recently announced a collaboration with Microsoft to invest in and pilot NextGen AI technologies, including Copilot for Microsoft 365 and Azure OpenAI Service. AI technologies are complex and rapidly evolving, and we face significant competition, including from our own clients, who may develop their own internal AI-related capabilities, which in each case, can lead to reduced demand for our services or solutions. As these technologies evolve, some services and tasks currently performed by our people will likely be replaced by automation. The failure to prevent a cybersecurity incident affecting our systems could result in the disruption of our services or the disclosure or misuse of sensitive information, which could harm our reputation, decrease demand for our services and products, expose us to liability, penalties, and remedial costs, or otherwise adversely affect our financial performance.Cybersecurity and Technology RisksThe failure to prevent a cybersecurity incident affecting our systems could result in the disruption of our services or the disclosure or misuse of sensitive information, which could harm our reputation, decrease demand for our services and products, expose us to liability, penalties and remedial costs, or otherwise adversely affect our financial performance. Our daily business operations depend on our information technology systems for a wide variety of functions, including, among other things, identifying consulting and staffing resources, matching personnel with client assignments, and managing our accounting and financial reporting functions.Our daily business operations depend on our information technology systems for a wide variety of functions, including, among other things, identifying staffing resources, matching personnel with client assignments and managing our accounting and financial reporting functions. In conducting our business, we routinely collect and retain personal information on these systems about our employees and billing professionals and their dependents. In conducting our business, we routinely collect and retain personal information on these systems about our employees and contract professionals and their dependents including, without limitation, full names, social security numbers, addresses, birth dates and payroll-related information. Any information-technology systems are at risk of being compromised, whether through malicious activity or human or technological error. Although we devote significant resources to maintain and regularly upgrade our information security technologies, and we have implemented security controls to help protect the security and privacy of our business information, our information technology systems are subject to potential security breaches through third-party service providers, employee negligence, fraud or misappropriation, business email compromise and cybersecurity threats, including denial of service attacks, viruses, ransomware, or other malicious software programs, and third parties gaining unauthorized access to our information technology systems for purposes of misappropriating assets or confidential information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption. We are continuously exposed to unauthorized attempts to compromise such sensitive information through cyber attacks, insider threats and other information security threats, including physical break-ins and malicious insiders, and we have, from time to time, experienced security incidents. Any security incident that results in the compromise of personal information we collect and retain, or that otherwise disrupts or negatively impacts our operations, could harm our reputation, lead to customer or employee attrition, and expose us to regulatory enforcement action or litigation.Any security incident that results in the compromise of personal information we collect and retain, or that otherwise disrupts or negatively impacts our operations, could harm our reputation, lead to customer attrition, and expose us to regulatory enforcement action or litigation. Because the techniques used in cyber attacks change frequently and may be difficult to detect for periods of time, we may face difficulties in anticipating and implementing adequate security measures to prevent security breaches. In addition, our information technology systems are vulnerable to fire, storm, flood, power loss, computer and network failures, problems with transitioning to upgraded or replacement systems or platforms, flaws in third-party software or services, terrorist attacks, and similar events. All of these risks are also applicable wherever we rely on outside vendors to provide services. For information on our cybersecurity risk management, strategy, and governance, see Item 1C. Cybersecurity.We may not successfully make or integrate acquisitions, which could harm our business and growth.As part of our growth strategy, we have made numerous acquisitions, and we intend to continue to pursue select acquisitions in the future. We compete with other companies for acquisition opportunities and there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully identify suitable acquisition candidates or be able to complete future acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all. We compete with other companies in the professional staffing and consulting industries for acquisition opportunities and there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully identify suitable acquisition candidates or be able to complete future acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all. In making acquisitions, we may pay substantial amounts of cash, incur debt, or issue securities to finance our acquisitions, which would adversely affect our liquidity or capital resources or result in dilution to our stockholders. There also can be no assurance that we will realize the benefits expected from any transaction or receive a favorable return on investment from our acquisitions.7The integration of an acquisition involves a number of factors that may affect our operations. These factors include diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns, difficulties or delay in the integration of acquired operations, retention of key personnel, significant unanticipated costs or legal liabilities, and tax and accounting issues. These factors include diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns, difficulties or delay in the integration of acquired operations, retention of key personnel, entry into unfamiliar markets, significant unanticipated costs or legal liabilities and tax and accounting issues. Furthermore, once we have integrated an acquired business, the business may not achieve anticipated levels of revenue, profitability or productivity, or otherwise perform as expected. Any of these factors may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.An impairment in the carrying amount of goodwill and other intangible assets could require a write-down that materially and adversely affects our results of operations and net worth.An impairment in the carrying amount of goodwill and other intangible assets could require a write down that materially and adversely affects our results of operations and net worth. As of December 31, 2023, we had $1.9 billion of goodwill and $497.9 million of net acquired intangible assets. We review goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets (consisting entirely of trademarks) for impairment at least annually, and when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Intangible assets having finite lives are amortized over their useful lives and are tested for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. We may be required to record a charge, which could be material, in our financial statements during the period in which we determine an impairment has occurred. Impairment charges could materially and adversely affect our results of operations in the periods that such charges are recorded.Failure to comply with the terms of our debt agreements could affect our operating flexibility. Our outstanding debt at December 31, 2023 included a term loan of $498.Our outstanding debt at December 31, 2020 included a term loan of $490. 8 million under our senior secured credit facility due 2030, and $550.8 million under our senior secured credit facility and $550. 0 million of 4.625 percent unsecured senior notes due 2028. We have a $500.0 million senior secured revolving credit facility due 2028, which is fully available as of December 31, 2023. Our term loan has a variable interest rate, making us vulnerable to increases in interest rates. Our term loan has a variable interest rate, making us more vulnerable to increases in interest rates. Additionally, we use a portion of our cash provided by operations for interest payments on our debt rather than for our operations. Additionally, we use a portion of our cash flow from operations for interest payments on our debt rather than for our operations. Our failure to comply with restrictive covenants under our debt instruments could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could result in the requirement to repay such borrowings before their due date. Some covenants are tied to our operating results and thus may be breached if we do not perform as expected. We expect to use cash on hand and cash provided by operations to pay our expenses and repay our debt. If we do not have enough cash, we may be required to refinance all or part of our existing debt, sell assets or borrow additional funds. If we do not have enough money, we may be required to refinance all or part of our existing debt, sell assets or borrow additional funds. The lenders may require fees and expenses to be paid or other changes to terms in connection with waivers or amendments. If we refinance these borrowings on less favorable terms or our costs and/or the interest rates on our outstanding debt increase, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected by increased costs and/or rates.U.S. and global market and economic developments could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.Demand for the IT services and solutions that we provide is significantly affected by global market and economic conditions, including recessions, inflation, interest rates, tax rates, and economic uncertainty. Our business is particularly susceptible to economic conditions in the United States where our clients or operations are concentrated. As economic activity slows, many clients or potential clients reduce their use of and reliance upon billable professionals, which reduces the demand for the Company’s services and could significantly decrease the Company’s revenues and profits. As economic activity slows, many clients or potential clients reduce their use of and reliance upon contract professionals. During periods of reduced economic activity, we may also be subject to increased competition for market share and pricing pressure. As a result, any significant economic downturn in the United States or other countries in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Natural disasters, the effects of climate change, pandemics, and other events beyond our control could harm our business. Natural disasters or other catastrophic events may cause damage or disruption to our operations, international commerce, and the global economy, and thus could have a negative effect on us. Our business operations are subject to interruption from earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, fires, severe weather, power shortages, pandemics and other public health concerns, terrorism, political unrest, telecommunications failure, vandalism, cyber-attacks, geopolitical instability, war and other actual or threatened military conflicts, the effects of climate change, actions taken by the U.S. or other governments in response to any of the foregoing, and other events beyond our control. Although we maintain disaster recovery plans, such events could disrupt our operations or those of our customers and suppliers, including through the inability of employees and billable professionals to work, destruction of facilities, loss of life, and adverse effects on supply chains, power, infrastructure and the integrity of information technology systems, any of which could materially increase our costs and expenses, delay or decrease revenue from our customers, disrupt our ability to maintain business continuity, or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects. Further, our insurance may not be sufficient to cover losses or additional expenses that we may sustain. In addition, we could incur significant costs to improve the climate-related resiliency of our infrastructure and otherwise prepare for, respond to, and mitigate the effects of climate changes. Our business relies heavily on the health and safety of our employees, billable professionals, and customers. The impact of a health crisis such as a pandemic on our business, operations, and future financial performance could include, but is not limited to, adverse impacts to our operating income, operating margin, net income, earnings per share and operating cash flows, as expenses may not decrease at the same rate as revenues decline.The impact of the pandemic on our business, operations and future financial performance could include, but are not limited to, adverse impacts to our operating income, operating margin, net income, earnings per share and operating cash flows, as expenses may not decrease at the same rate as revenues decline. In addition, our quarterly and annual revenue growth rates and expenses as a percentage of our revenues may differ significantly from our historical rates, and our future operating results may fall below expectations. 8Our environmental, social and governance (ESG) commitments and disclosures may expose us to reputational risks and legal liability. We, as with other companies, are facing increasing scrutiny related to our environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) practices and disclosures from certain investors, shareholder advocacy groups, customers, employees, federal, state, and local governments, and other stakeholders. With this increased focus, public reporting regarding ESG practices is becoming more broadly expected. Such increased scrutiny may result in increased costs, enhanced compliance or disclosure obligations, or other adverse impacts on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. Further, our brand and reputation are associated with our public commitments to various corporate ESG initiatives, including our goals relating to sustainability. Our disclosures on these matters and any failure or perceived failure to achieve or accurately report on our commitments, could harm our reputation and adversely affect our client relationships or our recruitment and retention efforts, as well as expose us to potential legal liability.We are required to comply with numerous laws and regulations related to government contracts, some of which are complex, and our failure to comply could result in fines or civil or criminal penalties, or suspension or debarment, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. Increasing focus on ESG matters has resulted in, and is expected to continue to result in, the adoption of legal and regulatory requirements designed to mitigate the effects of climate change on the environment, as well as legal and regulatory requirements requiring climate-related disclosures. If new laws or regulations are more stringent than current legal or regulatory requirements, we may experience increased compliance burdens and costs to meet such obligations. Our selection or application of disclosure frameworks and standards, and the interpretation or application of those frameworks and standards, may change from time to time or may not meet the expectations of investors or other stakeholders. Our processes and controls for reporting ESG matters across our operations and supply chain are evolving along with multiple disparate standards for identifying, measuring, and reporting ESG metrics, including ESG-related disclosures that may be required by the SEC, European, and other regulators. Such standards may change over time, which could result in significant revisions to our current goals, reported progress in achieving such goals, or ability to achieve such goals in the future.Risks Related to Government ContractsWe may not realize the full value of our Federal Government Segment contract backlog, which may result in lower revenues than anticipated. Contract backlog, which was $3.0 billion at December 31, 2023, is a useful measure of potential future revenues for our Federal Government Segment.6 billion at December 31, 2020, is a useful measure of potential future revenues for our ECS segment. Contract backlog consists of contracts for which funding has been formally awarded (funded backlog of $0.5 billion at December 31, 2023) and unfunded backlog, which represents the estimated future revenues to be earned from negotiated contract awards for which funding has not been awarded, and from unexercised contract options (unfunded backlog of $2.5 billion at December 31, 2023). The U.S. government’s ability to not exercise contract options, to reduce orders, or to modify, curtail or terminate our contracts, makes the calculation of our Federal Government Segment contract backlog subject to numerous uncertainties. government's ability to elect to not exercise contract options or to modify, curtail or terminate our contracts makes the calculation of our ECS segment contract backlog subject to numerous uncertainties. Due to the uncertain nature of our contracts with the U.S. government, we may never realize revenue from some of the contracts that are included in our contract backlog. government, we may never realize revenue from some of the engagements that are included in our contract backlog. Changes in U.S. government spending or budgetary priorities, the failure of government budgets to be approved on a timely basis, or delays in contract awards and other procurement activity may significantly and adversely affect our future financial results.Our business depends upon continued U.S. government expenditures on cybersecurity, cloud and enterprise IT, AI/ML, digital transformation, and other programs that we support. During 2023, revenues from contracts directly with U.S. federal government agencies were approximately 24. federal government were approximately 23. 3 percent of consolidated revenues. All of our government contracts can be terminated by the U. All of our government contracts can be terminated by the U. S. government either for its convenience or if we default by failing to perform under the contract. The U.S. government conducts periodic reviews of U.S. defense strategies and priorities, which may shift Department of Defense budgetary priorities, reduce overall spending, or delay contract or task order awards for defense-related programs from which we would otherwise expect to derive a significant portion of our future revenues. defense strategies and priorities which may shift Department of Defense budgetary priorities, reduce overall spending, or delay contract or task order awards for defense-related programs from which we would otherwise expect to derive a significant portion of our future revenues. Any of these changes could impair our ability to obtain new contracts or contract renewals. Any new contracting requirements or procurement methods could be costly or administratively difficult for us to implement. Our revenues, cash flows, and operating results could be adversely affected by spending caps or changes in budgetary priorities, as well as by delays in the government budget process, program starts, the award of contracts or task orders under contracts, or by a government shutdown. Our revenues, cash flows and operating results could be adversely affected by spending caps or changes in budgetary priorities, as well as by delays in the government budget process, program starts or the award of contracts or task orders under contracts. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding how future budget and program decisions will unfold, including the spending priorities of the U.S. government. government agencies. Because the U.S. Congress did not complete a budget before the end of the 2023 fiscal year, government operations are currently being funded through short-term continuing resolutions. These continuing resolutions authorize agencies of the U.S. government to continue to operate, but do not authorize new spending initiatives. When the U.S. government operates under a continuing resolution, contract awards may be delayed, canceled, or funded at lower levels which could adversely impact our operations, cash flows, and financial results. Failure to complete a budget for fiscal year 2024 or to provide for another continuing resolution by applicable deadlines may result in a federal government shutdown, which could cause us to incur labor or other costs without reimbursement under customer contracts or the delay or cancellation of key programs, and could adversely impact our operations, cash flows, and financial results.We derive significant revenues from contracts and task orders awarded through a competitive bidding process. Our revenues and profitability may be adversely impacted if we fail to compete effectively in such processes.Our contracts and task orders with the federal government are awarded through a competitive bidding process, which creates significant competition and pricing pressure.Our contracts and task orders with the federal government are typically awarded through a competitive bidding process, which creates significant competition and pricing pressure. We spend time and resources to prepare bids and proposals for contracts. Some of these contracts may not be awarded to us or, if awarded, we may not receive meaningful task orders under these contracts. We may encounter delays and additional expenses if our competitors protest or challenge contracts awarded to us in competitive bidding, and any such protest or challenge could result in the resubmission of bids on modified specifications, or in the termination, reduction, or modification of the awarded contract. If we are unable to win particular contracts, we may be prevented from providing services to customers that are purchased under those contracts for a number of years. In addition, upon the expiration of a contract, if the customer requires further services of the type provided by the contract, 9there is frequently a competitive rebidding process. There can be no assurance that we will win any particular bid, or that we will be able to replace business lost upon expiration or completion of a contract, and the termination or non-renewal of any of our significant contracts could cause our actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.Our earnings and profitability may vary based on the mix of our contracts and may be adversely affected by our failure to accurately estimate and manage costs, time, and resources.Our Federal Government Segment generates revenues under various types of contracts: firm-fixed-price, cost reimbursable, and time and materials.Our ECS segment generates revenues under various types of contracts: firm-fixed-price, cost reimbursable and time and materials. Our earnings and profitability may vary materially depending on changes in the proportionate amount of revenues derived from each type of contract. Our earnings and profitability may vary materially depending on changes in the proportionate amount of revenues derived from each type of contract, the costs incurred in their performance and the nature of services or solutions provided. Under firm-fixed-price contracts, we perform specific tasks and services for a fixed price. Compared with cost reimbursable, firm-fixed-price contracts generally offer higher margin opportunities, but involve greater financial risk because we bear the impact of cost overruns. Failure to accurately estimate costs, resources, and technology needed to perform our contracts or to effectively manage and control our costs during the performance of work could result in reduced profits or in losses. Under cost reimbursable contracts, we are reimbursed for allowable costs plus a profit margin or fee. These contracts generally have lower profitability and less financial risk. Under time and materials contracts, we are reimbursed for labor at negotiated hourly billing rates and for certain expenses. We assume financial risk on time and materials contracts because we assume the risk of performing those contracts at negotiated hourly rates.A significant loss or suspension of our facility or employee security clearances with the federal government could lead to a reduction in our revenues, cash flows, and operating results.8Risks Related to Government ContractsA significant loss or suspension of our facility security clearances with the federal government could lead to a reduction in our revenues, cash flows and operating results. We act as a contractor and a subcontractor to the U.S. federal government and many of its agencies. Some government contracts require us to maintain facility security clearances and require some of our employees to have advanced degrees and/or to maintain individual security clearances. Some government contracts require us to maintain facility security clearances and require some of our employees to maintain individual security clearances. If we are unable to attract or retain qualified employees, our employees lose or are unable to timely obtain security clearances, or we lose a facility clearance, a government agency client may terminate the contract or decide not to renew it upon its expiration. In addition, a security breach by us could cause serious harm to our business, damage our reputation, and prevent us from being eligible for further work on sensitive or classified systems for federal government clients.We are required to comply with numerous laws and regulations related to government contracts, some of which are complex, and our failure to comply could result in fines or civil or criminal penalties, or suspension or debarment, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.We must comply with laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration, and performance of federal government contracts. These laws and regulations affect how we conduct business with our federal government customers. Such laws and regulations may potentially impose added costs on our business and our failure to comply with them may lead to civil or criminal penalties, termination of our U.S. government contracts, and/or suspension or debarment from contracting with U.S. government agencies. All of our U.S. government contracts can be terminated by the U.S. government either for its convenience or if we default by failing to perform under the contract. Termination for convenience provisions provide only for our recovery of costs incurred or committed settlement expenses and profit on the work completed prior to termination. Termination for default provisions provide for the contractor to be liable for excess costs incurred by the U.S. government in procuring undelivered items from another source and could damage our reputation and impair our ability to compete for future contracts. Failure to comply with regulations and required practices and procedures could harm our reputation or influence the award of new contracts. We depend on our teaming arrangements and relationships with other contractors and subcontractors. If we are not able to maintain these relationships, or if these parties fail to satisfy their obligations to us or the customer, our revenues, profitability, and growth prospects could be adversely affected.We rely on teaming relationships with other prime contractors and subcontractors in order to submit bids for large procurements or other opportunities where we believe the combination of services, products, and solutions provided by us and our teammates will help us to win and perform the contract. Our future revenues and growth prospects could be adversely affected if other contractors eliminate or reduce their contract relationships with us, or if the U.S. government terminates or reduces these other contractors’ programs, does not award them new contracts, or refuses to pay under a contract. We may have disputes with our subcontractors arising from, among other things, the quality and timeliness of work performed by the subcontractor, customer concerns about the subcontractor, our failure to extend existing task orders or issue new task orders under a subcontract, our hiring of a subcontractor’s personnel, or the subcontractor’s failure to comply with applicable law. If any of our subcontractors fail to satisfactorily perform the agreed-upon services or have regulatory compliance or other problems, our ability to fulfill our obligations as a prime contractor or higher tier subcontractor may be jeopardized. When we are in the role of a subcontractor, we often lack control over fulfillment of a contract, and poor performance on the contract could impact our customer relationship, even when we perform as required. Moreover, our revenues and operating results could be adversely affected if any prime contractor chose to offer directly to the customer services of the type that we provide, or if they team with other companies to provide those services.10Audits by U.Audits by U. S. government agencies for contracts with federal government clients could result in unfavorable audit results that could subject us to a variety of penalties and sanctions and could harm our reputation and relationships with our customers and adversely impact results of operations.Federal government agencies, including the Defense Contract Audit Agency and the Defense Contract Management Agency, routinely audit and investigate government contracts and government contractors’ administrative processes and systems. These agencies review our performance on contracts, pricing practices, cost structure, and compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and standards. Any costs found to be improperly allocated to a specific contract will not be reimbursed, while such costs already reimbursed must be refunded. If a government audit uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines, and suspension or debarment from doing business with federal government agencies in the future.Legal and Regulatory RisksSignificant legal actions, claims or investigations could subject us to substantial uninsured liabilities, result in damage to our business reputation, result in the discontinuation of our client relationships, and adversely affect our recruitment and retention efforts.Legal and Regulatory RisksSignificant legal actions and claims could subject us to substantial uninsured liabilities, result in damage to our business reputation, result in the discontinuation of our client relationships and adversely affect our recruitment and retention efforts. We employ people internally and in the workplaces of other businesses. Our ability to control or influence the workplace environment of our clients is limited. Further, many of the individuals that we place with our clients have access to client information systems and confidential information. As the employer of record of our billable professionals, we incur a risk of liability due to the actions of our billable professionals at client sites or with client information and systems, and to our billable professionals for various workplace events, including claims of physical injury, discrimination, harassment, or failure to protect confidential personal information. Other inherent risks include possible claims of errors and omissions, claims related to acquisitions and their earn-outs, intentional misconduct, release, misuse or misappropriation of client intellectual property, criminal activity, torts, or other claims. Other inherent risks include possible claims of errors and omissions; intentional misconduct; release, misuse or misappropriation of client intellectual property; criminal activity; torts; or other claims. We have been and could, in the future, be subject to large collective, class, or Private Attorneys General Act ("PAGA") actions alleging violation of wage and hour laws. These types of actions typically involve substantial claims and significant defense costs. These types of actions could involve large claims and significant defense costs. We also have been subject to legal actions alleging vicarious liability, negligent hiring, discrimination, sexual harassment, retroactive entitlement to employee benefits or pay, retaliation, and related legal theories. We also have been subject to legal actions alleging vicarious liability, negligent hiring, discrimination, sexual harassment, retroactive entitlement to employee benefits, violation of wage and hour requirements, retaliation and related legal theories. We may be subject to liability in such cases even if the contribution to the alleged injury was minimal. Moreover, in most instances, we are required to indemnify clients against some or all of these risks if they are caused by us or our employees, and we could be required to pay substantial sums to fulfill our indemnification obligations. Moreover, in most instances, we are required to indemnify clients against some or all of these risks and we could be required to pay substantial sums to fulfill our indemnification obligations. A failure of any of our employees internally, or billable professionals in clients' workplaces, to observe our policies and guidelines intended to reduce these risks could result in negative publicity, injunctive relief, investigations and/or charges, payment of monetary damages or fines, or other material adverse impacts on our business.A failure of any of our employees internally, or contract professionals in client's workplaces, to observe our policies and guidelines intended to reduce these risks could result in negative publicity, injunctive relief, criminal investigations and/or charges, payment of monetary damages or fines, or other material adverse impacts on our business. Claims raised by clients stemming from the improper actions of our billable professionals, even if without merit, could cause us to incur significant expense associated with the costs or damages related to such claims. Claims raised by clients stemming from the improper actions of our contract professionals, even if without merit, could cause us to incur significant expense associated with the costs or damages related to such claims. Further, such claims by clients could damage our business reputation and result in the discontinuation of client relationships. Any associated negative publicity could adversely affect our ability to attract and retain clients and qualified billable professionals in the future. Any associated negative publicity could adversely affect our ability to attract and retain qualified contract professionals in the future. We proactively address many of these issues with our robust compliance program. Further, to protect ourselves from the costs and damages of significant legal actions and claims, we maintain workers’ compensation, errors and omissions, cybersecurity, employment practices, and general liability insurance coverage in amounts and with deductibles that we believe are appropriate for our operations. Further, to protect ourselves from the costs and damages of significant legal actions and claims, we maintain workers’ compensation, errors and omissions, employment practices and general liability insurance coverage in amounts and with deductibles that we believe are appropriate for our operations. Our insurance policies include a retention amount and may not cover all claims against us or continue to be available to us at a reasonable cost. In addition, we face various employment-related risks not covered by insurance, such as wage and hour laws and employment tax responsibility. If we do not maintain adequate insurance coverage or are made party to significant uninsured claims, we may be exposed to substantial liabilities that could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.Our business is subject to government regulation, which in the future could restrict the types of employment services we are permitted to offer or result in additional or increased costs that reduce our revenues and earnings.The IT consulting and staffing services industry is regulated in the United States and other countries in which we operate.The professional staffing and IT services industry is regulated in the United States and other countries in which we operate. We are subject to federal, state, and local laws and regulations governing the employer/employee relationship, such as those related to payment of federal, state, and local payroll and unemployment taxes for our corporate employees and billable professional employees, tax withholding, social security or retirement benefits, licensing, wage and hour requirements, paid sick leave, paid family leave and other leaves, employee benefits, pay equity, non-discrimination, sexual harassment, and workers’ compensation; and we must further comply with immigration laws and a wide variety of notice and administrative requirements, such as record keeping, written contracts, notification, and reporting. We are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations governing the employer/employee relationship, such as those related to payment of federal, state and local payroll and unemployment taxes for our corporate employees and contractor professional employees, tax withholding, social security or retirement benefits, licensing, wage and hour requirements, paid sick leave, paid family leave and other leaves, employee benefits, pay equity, non-discrimination, sexual harassment and workers’ compensation; and we must further comply with immigration laws and a wide variety of notice and administrative requirements, such as record keeping, written contracts and reporting. We are also subject to U.S. laws and regulations relating to government contracts with federal agencies. laws and regulations relating to government contracts with federal agencies, as well as the requirements of the ACA. In certain other countries, we may not be considered the legal employer of our temporary personnel, however we are still responsible for collecting taxes and social security deductions and transmitting these amounts to the taxing authorities. In certain other countries, we may not be considered the legal employers of our temporary personnel, however we are still responsible for collecting taxes and social security deductions and transmitting these amounts to the taxing authorities. In addition, we are subject to data privacy, protection, and security laws and regulations, the most significant of which are the European General Data Protection Act ("GDPR") and the U.K.’s Data Protection Act 2018 (which implements the GDPR into U.K. law). These laws impose stringent data protection requirements on personal information and provide for significant penalties for noncompliance. These laws impact our U. This law impacts our U. S. operations as well as our European operations as they apply not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information among the Company and its subsidiaries. operations as well as our European operations as it applies not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information among the Company and its subsidiaries. Certain U.S. states have also enacted data privacy laws requiring security measures for personal information. Any non-compliance with the data privacy laws applicable to our business could result in governmental enforcement actions, fines, and other penalties that could potentially have an adverse effect on our operations and reputation. Any inadvertent non-compliance of the GDPR or other data privacy laws could result in governmental enforcement actions, fines and other penalties that could potentially have an adverse effect our operations and reputation. 11Future changes in the laws or governmental regulations affecting our business may result in the prohibition or restriction of certain types of employment services that we are permitted to offer, or the imposition of new or additional compliance requirements that could increase our costs and reduce our revenues and earnings. Due to the substantial number of state and local jurisdictions in which we operate, there also is a risk that we may be unable to adequately monitor actual or proposed changes in, or the interpretation of, the laws or governmental regulations of such states and localities. Any delay in our compliance with changes in such laws or governmental regulations could result in potential fines, penalties, or other sanctions for non-compliance. In addition, although we may elect to bill some or all of any additional costs to our customers, there can be no assurances that we will be able to increase the fees charged to our customers in a timely manner and in a sufficient amount to fully cover any increased costs as a result of future changes in laws or government regulations.Our development and use of emerging AI services and solutions involves risks and uncertainties that could expose us to legal, reputational, and financial harm.Applicable laws and regulations, both existing and forthcoming, often focus on AI use when that technology is used to influence outcomes or make inferences about individuals, groups, or communities. These new and emerging technologies require use-case-specific governance, with oversight that adequately addresses AI-specific areas of concern, such as transparency, explainability, fairness, harmful bias mitigation, and unique third-party privacy and security risks. If we fail to establish and maintain sufficient oversight, which evolves at the rapid pace with which AI technology is changing, we could be subject to sanctions under the relevant laws, breach of contract claims, contract termination, class action, or individual lawsuits from affected parties, negative press articles, reputational damage, and a loss of confidence from our clients, all of which could adversely affect our existing business, future opportunities, and financial condition.Our business may be materially affected by changes to fiscal and tax policies that could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows.Our business is subject to taxation in the United States and the foreign jurisdictions where we operate. Due to economic and political conditions, tax rates in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change. Our future effective tax rates could be affected by changes made by the current administration in the United States and in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates or by changes in the tax laws or their interpretation.Various levels of government also are increasingly focused on tax reform and other legislative action to increase tax revenue. Further changes in tax laws in the United States or foreign jurisdictions where we operate, or in the interpretation of such laws, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows.We are subject to various business and regulatory risks associated with international operations, which could increase our costs, cause our results of operations to fluctuate, and adversely affect our business.We are subject to various business, regulatory and currency risks associated with international operations, which could increase our costs, cause our results of operations to fluctuate and adversely affect our business. We conduct business outside the United States primarily in Canada and Europe, and we have delivery centers in Mexico and India. We conduct business outside the United States primarily in Canada and Europe, and we have a nearshore delivery center in Mexico. Our international operations, which represented approximately two percent of our consolidated revenues in 2023, expose us to, among other things, operational, regulatory, and political risks in the countries in which we operate. Our international operations, which in the aggregate represented less than five percent of our consolidated revenues in 2020, expose us to, among other things operational, regulatory, political and currency risks in the countries in which we operate. General RisksThe loss of key members of our senior management team could adversely affect the execution of our business strategy and our financial results.11The loss of key members of our senior management team could adversely affect the execution of our business strategy and our financial results. We believe that the successful execution of our business strategy and our ability to build upon our business and acquisitions of new businesses depends on the continued employment of key members of our senior management team and good succession plans for their retirement or other departure.We believe that the successful execution of our business strategy and our ability to build upon our business and acquisitions of new businesses depends on the continued employment of key members of our senior management team. As the Company continues to expect to have key personnel retire, we need to implement appropriate succession plans, and if we cannot attract and retain qualified personnel or effectively implement appropriate succession plans, it could have a material adverse impact to our business, financial condition, and/or results of operations. We have provided short-term and long-term incentive compensation to our key management in an effort to retain them, and have prepared succession plans at such time as their employment ends. We have provided short-term and long-term incentive compensation to our key management in an effort to retain them. However, if members of our senior management team become unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, or our succession plans are not adequate, we could incur significant costs and experience business disruption related to time spent on efforts to replace them, and our financial results and our business could be adversely affected. However, if members of our senior management team become unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we could incur significant costs and experience business disruption related to time spent on efforts to replace them, and our financial results and our business could be adversely affected. Failure of internal controls may leave us susceptible to errors and fraud.Management does not expect that our disclosure controls and internal controls will prevent all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. Furthermore, because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, would be detected, particularly in our newly acquired companies and international operations.