Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - AMSC

-New additions in green
-Changes in blue
-Hover to see similar sentence in last filing

Item 1A. Risk Factors” and in Part II under “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and located elsewhere herein regarding industry prospects, our addressable markets, our competitive position, the benefits of our acquisitions, the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial results and financial condition, expectations for when our products become operational, capabilities and potential uses of our products, steps taken to enhance liquidity, or our prospective results of operations or financial position, may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. Without limiting the foregoing, the words “believes,” “anticipates,” “plans,” “expects,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements represent management’s current expectations and are inherently uncertain. There are a number of important factors that could materially impact the value of our common stock or cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements. Such factors include the important factors discussed under the caption “Risk Factors” in Part 1. Item 1A of this Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2023, which among others, could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by forward-looking statements made herein and presented elsewhere by management from time to time. Any such forward-looking statements represent management’s estimates as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. While we may elect to update such forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we disclaim any obligation to do so, even if subsequent events cause our views to change. These forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

American Superconductor®, Amperium®, AMSC®, D-VAR®, PowerModule™, D-VAR VVO®, PQ-IVR®, SeaTitan®, Gridtec™ Solutions, Windtec™ Solutions, Smarter, Cleaner...Better Energy™, Orchestrate the Rhythm and Harmony of Power on the Grid™, actiVAR®, armorVAR™, NEPSI™, Neeltran™ and SafetyLOCK™ are trademarks or registered trademarks of American Superconductor Corporation or our subsidiaries. We reserve all of our rights with respect to our trademarks or registered trademarks regardless of whether they are so designated in this Annual Report on Form 10-K by an ® or ™ symbol. All other brand names, product names, trademarks or service marks appearing in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are the property of their respective holders.



Item 1.



American Superconductor Corporation (together with its subsidiaries, “AMSC®” or the “Company”) was founded on April 9, 1987. At AMSC, we believe that our creativity can meet today’s challenges and help us progress to a better future. That means using future-facing technologies to harmonize the world’s desire for decarbonization and clean energy with the need for more reliable, effective and efficient power delivery. Already, our transformative power solutions are moving the world forward.

We are a leading system provider of megawatt-scale power resiliency solutions that Orchestrate the Rhythm and Harmony of Power on the Grid™, and protect and expand the capability of the Navy’s fleet. Our system level products leverage the Company’s proprietary “smart materials” and “smart software and controls” to provide enhanced resiliency and improved performance of megawatt-scale power flow.

Right now, we are powering the evolution of a grid that is fit for the future: a more reliable and resilient grid that can incorporate renewable energy sources and our pioneering products, software and control solutions are creating more cost-effective ways for renewables to deliver a cleaner, less carbon-intensive tomorrow. This exciting energy future also depends on computer chips, batteries and fuel cells that are built from silicon, lithium and carbon. All of these building blocks must be mined, processed and assembled. Industrial manufacturers of these essential materials as well as semiconductor manufacturers must be able to power their factories in ways that scale without adding complexity or size. Our voltage compensators, capacitors, transformers and rectifiers can power the energy-intensive factories of the future while reducing the risk of costly power interruptions that could hinder this journey to a better future.

What's more, in an age of increasing global tensions, we are helping to move U.S. Navy ships into the future by installing protection systems that help them stay hidden from our enemies. We help protect and expand the capability of the U.S. Navy surface fleet with advanced superconductor-based systems that provide superior performance advantages to the traditional methods of mine field protection. We see the nascent business serving the Navy as an extension of what we do with our Grid business – this ship is a microcosm of the grid. Our products help manage power with a purpose.

In the wind power market, we enable manufacturers to field highly competitive wind turbines through our advanced power electronics and control system products, engineering, and support services. Our power grid and wind products and services provide exceptional reliability, security, efficiency, and affordability to our customers.

Our power system solutions help to improve energy efficiency, alleviate power capacity and other constraints, improve system resiliency, and increase the adoption of renewable energy generation. Demand for our solutions is driven by: the growing needs for modernized grids that improve power reliability, security, and quality, the U.S. Navy’s effort to upgrade in-board power systems to support fleet electrification, and the need for increased renewable sources of electricity, such as wind and solar energy. Concerns about these factors have led to increased spending by corporations and the military, as well as supportive government regulations and initiatives on local, state and national levels, including renewable portfolio standards, tax incentives, and international treaties. We estimate that the total annual addressable global market for our products and solutions is nearly $9 billion.

Our Company’s addressable market is driven by (i) the nearly $500 billion investment in renewables to update the aging grid for better support in the adoption of intermittent renewable power sources, (ii) the nearly $100 billion investment in the mining and processing of materials as well as the $160 billion investment in semiconductor capacity—both of which are driven by the electrification of transportation, the need to prioritize energy security and bolster domestic supply chains—and (iii) the over $30 billion investment by the U.S. federal government in U.S. military ship systems and capabilities to help ensure performance and security amid geopolitical uncertainty.

Market opportunities

We provide solutions that address four key drivers of our business:

the global demand for renewable energy;

the global demand for materials for the electrification of transportation, in particular for - electric vehicles;

the global demand for semiconductors, driven by the electrification of everything; and

the electrification of the Naval fleet to enhance capability.

This all requires an electric grid that is fit for the future.

The Global Demand for Renewables:

We design wind turbines and provide electrical control systems for inside the turbine, that control the wind turbine’s voltage, current, frequency, pitch and yaw. At the substation level, we provide interconnection solutions that allows wind farms to meet utility’s grid code requirements for voltage, power factor and dynamic performance of the plant during unforeseen system disturbances, by utilizing our dynamic voltage management solutions as well as our static voltage management solutions and harmonic filters. We provide field service and spare parts to our global installed base of over 17GW.

The Global Demand for Materials and Electric Vehicles:

We provide transformation, rectification, voltage management and harmonic filtering systems at the substation level that manage input power from the grid and control power for the operation of large-scale industrial equipment such as furnaces, chemical plants, or semiconductor fabrication plants. Our capabilities to control and convert power help ensure continuous flow of stable high-quality power for our customers.

The Global Demand for Semiconductors:

We provide sag mitigation systems, which are a substation level power conditioning system. These systems protect and isolate the factory’s critical processes from power system events that could otherwise trip these sensitive processes causing severe disruptions and loss of a customer’s manufactured products. These systems monitor the semiconductor fabrication plant’s incoming electric supply very closely and react in sub-cycle time frames to mitigate voltage sags and swells to provide a conditioned power to the processes. These sag mitigation systems can include both our dynamic and static voltage management as well as our harmonic filter solutions which are specifically designed to improve the facility's overall power factor and harmonic compliance needs.

The Electrification of the Navy Fleet:

We provide advanced ship protection systems, that are designed to help fleets increase system efficiencies, enhance warfare capabilities, and boost reliability, performance, and security. We are developing additional solutions for this important market which may include power management and power generation similar to what we do for electric grids.

Our power system products address the renewable power generation and electrical grid and power infrastructure markets:

Transmission grid. We provide complete systems that enable electric utilities and renewable energy project developers to connect and transmit power with exceptional efficiency, reliability, security and affordability. We provide planning services that allow us to identify power grid congestion, poor power quality, and other risks, which help us determine how our solutions can improve network performance. These services often lead to sales of our grid interconnection solutions and power quality systems for wind farms and solar power plants.

Distribution grid. We provide a direct-connect power quality system that is installed on the primary distribution network in communities, business parks, or wherever enhanced power quality is beneficial and is designed to increase the reliability and resiliency of the distribution grid to serve the needs of modern energy consumers. Our systems save utilities time and money by avoiding costly options to strengthen the distribution grid. Our offerings also serve industrial customers looking to power the energy-intensive factories of the future without the risk of costly power interruptions. These industrial customers utilize our voltage compensators, capacitors, harmonic filters, transformers and rectifiers.

Urban Grid Infrastructure. We design systems to increase the reliability, security and capacity of the urban grid infrastructure. Today, many urban substations are not networked and can only power a small section of a city. Our power dense technology based on proprietary smart materials allows for the inter-connection of substations, controlling the high fault currents that naturally result from such interconnections. If one substation is compromised, other substations help increase capacity and reliability. Our system allows instantaneous power outage recovery, potentially doubling to quadrupling a city’s reliability and resiliency while minimizing grid investment. We design systems that leverage existing grid assets while protecting cities against storms, outages, and cyber- and physical attacks.

Marine protection systems. We sell advanced degaussing systems to the U.S. Navy. Our degaussing system creates a magnetic signature around a ship to mask the ship against sea mines and torpedoes. Our degaussing system is comprised of much smaller, lighter and higher performing HTS cable coils eliminating an estimated 50-80% of the system weight and reducing overall energy consumption versus copper-based degaussing systems. Our degaussing system is comprised of much smaller, lighter and higher performing HTS cable coils eliminating 50-80% of the system weight and reducing overall energy consumption versus copper-based degaussing systems.

Solar Power. Our solutions enable the grid to handle more distributed generation in the form of rooftop solar. Our products are designed to allow the existing grid to handle more renewable capacity.

Wind Power. Our solutions enable manufacturers to field wind turbines with exceptional power output, reliability, and affordability. We supply advanced power electronics and control systems, license our highly engineered wind turbine designs, and provide extensive customer support services to wind turbine manufacturers. Our design portfolio includes a broad range of drive trains and power ratings of 2 megawatts (“MW”) and higher. We provide a broad range of power electronics and software-based control systems that are highly integrated and designed for optimized performance, efficiency, and grid compatibility.

Our fiscal year begins on April 1 and ends on March 31. When we refer to a particular fiscal year, we are referring to the fiscal year beginning on April 1 of that same year. For example, fiscal 2022 refers to the fiscal year that began on April 1, 2022. Other fiscal years follow similarly.


Competitive strengths

We believe our competitive strengths position us well to execute on our growth plans in the markets we serve.

Differentiated technologies. Our products leverage the Company’s proprietary smart materials and smart software and controls to provide enhanced resiliency and improved performance of megawatt-scale power flow. Conventional conductors of electricity, such as aluminum and copper wire, lose energy due to resistance. Using a compound of yttrium barium copper oxide (“YBCO”), we manufacture and provide high-temperature superconductor ("HTS") wire that can conduct many times more electricity than conventional conductors with minimal power loss. Our proprietary Amperium® superconductor wire was engineered to allow us to tailor the product via laminations to meet the electrical and mechanical performance requirements of widely varying end-use applications, including power cables and fault current limiters for the Grid market. Our PowerModule™ power converters are based on proprietary software and hardware combinations and are used in a broad array of applications, including our D-VAR® grid interconnection and voltage control systems, as well as our wind turbine electrical control systems. Our unique proprietary cooler technology enables our ship protection systems ("SPS") to perform in harsh environmental conditions in a quiet and efficient manner.

Turnkey systems. We have developed full system solutions that we sell directly to customers. This business model leverages our applications expertise, drives value beyond our power electronic and our superconductor based products, and enables us to recognize revenue and take ownership over the marketing and sales of the full systems. Industrial manufacturers of these essential materials must be able to power their factories in ways that scale without adding complexity or size.

Scalable, low-cost manufacturing platform. Our manufacturing of proprietary wind turbine electrical control systems and power electronics products are primarily assembly operations with minimal fixed costs. We can increase the production of these products at costs that we believe are low relative to our competitors. Our proprietary manufacturing technique for Amperium superconductor wire is modular in nature, which allows us to expand manufacturing capacity at a relatively low incremental cost and differentiate ourselves from solutions assembled in the field. Our proprietary manufacturing technique for Amperium superconductor wire is modular in nature, which allows us to expand manufacturing capacity at a relatively low incremental cost.

Robust patent position and engineering expertise. We have a robust portfolio of awarded patents and patent applications worldwide and have rights through exclusive and non-exclusive licenses to additional patents and patent applications worldwide. We have an extensive portfolio of awarded patents and patent applications worldwide and have rights through exclusive and non-exclusive licenses to additional patents and patent applications worldwide. We believe our technology and manufacturing knowledge base, customer and product expertise and patent portfolio provide a strong competitive position.

Unique solutions for the markets we serve. We believe we provide wind turbine manufacturers with a unique and integrated approach for wind turbine design and engineering, customer support services and power electronics and control systems. We also believe we are the only company in the world that is able to provide transmission planning services, grid interconnection and voltage control systems, as well as superconductor-based distribution systems for power grid operators. This unique scope of supply provides us with greater insight into our customers’ evolving needs and greater cross-selling opportunities.


Building on these competitive strengths, we plan to focus on driving revenue growth and enhancing our operating results through the objectives defined below.

Provide solutions from power generation to delivery. From the generation source to the distribution system, we focus on providing best-in-class engineering, support services, technologies and solutions that make the world’s power supplies smarter, cleaner and more resilient.

Focus on “megawatt-scale” power offerings. Our research, product development, and sales efforts focus on megawatt-scale offerings ranging from designs of power electronics for large wind turbine platforms to systems that stabilize power flows, integrate renewable power into the grid and carry power to and from transmission and distribution substations.

Product innovation. We have a strong record of developing unique solutions for megawatt-scale power applications and intend to continue our focus on investing in innovation. Recently, our product development efforts have included our Resilient Electric Grid ("REG") system for the transmission electricity grid, SPS for the U.S. Navy, and D-VAR Volt Var Optimization (“VVO”) for the distribution electricity grid.

Provide resiliency and protection capabilities. Our products provide resiliency and protection capabilities that support an evolving power grid and protect the navy fleet from rising global threats.

Pursue Emerging Overseas Markets and Serve Key Markets Locally. We focus our sales efforts on overseas markets that are investing aggressively in renewable energy and power grid projects. As part of our strategy, we serve our key target markets with local sales and field service personnel, which enables us to understand market dynamics and more effectively anticipate customer needs while also reducing response time. We currently serve target markets such as Australia, Canada, India, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, South Africa, the United Kingdom, Jordan, Mexico, Spain and the United States. We currently serve target markets such as Australia, Canada, China, India, Korea, Japan, Singapore, South Africa, the United Kingdom, Jordan, Mexico, Spain and the United States.

Grid market overview

It is widely believed that the electricity grids around the world require modernization through widespread technology upgrades if they are to maintain reliability while solving rapidly evolving challenges such as more frequent severe weather, threats of physical- and cyber-attacks, expanded renewable generation (both large and small scale) and new types of customer loads such as electric vehicles. In fact, a series of reports written by the Electric Power Research Institute ("EPRI") in 2016 emphasize the need for increased resiliency, flexibility and connectivity in electric grids. According to the EPRI reports, the number of geophysical, meteorological, hydrological, and climatological events in the U.S. rose to an all-time high of 247 events in 2010 – up from approximately 200 in 2009 and less than 200 in all years combined from 1980 to 2010. Available data further indicate that the existing U.S. electrical grid has been stressed by U.S. wind power generation increasing from 6 Gigawatts ("GW") in 2003 to approximately 142.9 GW in 2022, and photovoltaics ("PV") power generation increasing from almost zero in 2003 to approximately 125.9 GW as of the end of 2022.

Growth in both wind power and PV is expected to continue with the vast majority of such intermittent generation sources unsupported by energy storage, placing stress on the power grid. Finally, the Edison Electric Institute estimates that the number of electric vehicles on the road in the U.S. is projected to reach 18.7 million in 2030, up from more than 1.0 million at the end of 2018. These facts and the dependence on the safety, security and economy of the electricity grid have prompted broad recognition worldwide of the need to modernize and enhance the reliability and security of power grids.

The Biden Administration’s energy plan could positively impact the demand for our new energy power systems solutions. The energy plan intends to reform and extend the tax incentives that generate energy efficiency and clean energy jobs as well as to develop financing mechanisms that leverage private sector dollars to maximize investment in the clean energy revolution. We plan to seek to collaborate with top tier wind turbine manufacturers to provide new wind farm connectivity to the U.S. power grid.

The Biden Administration also intends to spur the installation of millions of solar panels – including utility-scale, rooftop, and community solar systems. Our systems are primarily focused on addressing renewable energy installations for project developers and wind turbine manufacturers. Because solar power is dynamic and intermittently variable in nature, distribution grids will need to enhance their network’s capabilities to accommodate this new resource, while maintaining efficiency and power quality for their customers. Our system offers electric utilities superior power quality, environmental benefits, and significant cost-savings over traditional solutions.

The Biden Administration's energy policy also focuses on the next generation of electric grid transmission and distribution, which has been the heart of our long-term growth strategy. We believe our new energy power systems products are well suited to address this enormous challenge.

The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (the “Inflation Reduction Act”) was enacted in August 2022, in part, to address the challenges of climate change. The Inflation Reduction Act is expected to result in the investment of $369 billion in climate solutions and environmental justice. The goal of the Inflation Reduction Act is to reduce emissions by 40 percent by 2030 while restoring U.S. credibility to lead climate action on the global stage.

The Creating Helpful Incentives to Produce Semiconductors and Science Act of 2022 (the “CHIPS Act of 2022”), also was enacted in August 2022 and is intended to enable the re-shoring of critical manufacturing capability to the U.S., which is expected to be beneficial to our business. The CHIPS for America Fund, provides $52.7 billion of funding for the development of U.S. manufacturing, research and development (R&D), and workforce development programs. From this $52.7 billion, $39 billion is allocated to be spent on financial assistance to build, develop, or modernize domestic semiconductor facilities in order to bolster U.S. leadership in the semiconductor industry.

We believe we are well positioned to seize the numerous opportunities presented by the Inflation Reduction Act and the CHIPS Act of 2022.


Power grid operators worldwide face various challenges, including:

Resiliency. As our electricity mix changes with the proliferation of renewables and distributed generation, so does the need to strengthen the electric grid. New technologies such as the addition of electric vehicles on U.S. roads and urbanization create new challenges for power grid operators.

Stability. Power grid operators are confronting power quality and stability issues arising from intermittent renewable energy sources and from the capacity limitations of transmission and overhead distribution lines and underground cables.

Reliability. Traditional transmission lines and cables often reach their reliable voltage stability limit well below their thermal threshold. Driving more power through a power grid when some lines and cables are operating above their voltage stability limit during times of peak demand can cause either unacceptably low voltage in the power grid (a brownout) or risk of a sudden, uncontrollable voltage collapse (a blackout).

Capacity. The traditional way to enable increases in power grid capacity without losing voltage stability is to install more overhead power lines and underground cables. However, permitting new transmission and distribution lines can take 10 years or more due to various public policy issues, such as environmental, aesthetic, and health concerns. In urban and metropolitan areas, installing additional conventional underground copper cables is similarly challenging, since many existing underground corridors carrying power distribution cables are already filled to their physical capacity and cannot accommodate any additional conventional cables. In addition, adding new conduits requires excavation to expand existing corridors or create new corridors, which are costly and disruptive undertakings.

Efficiency. Most overhead lines and underground cables use traditional conductors such as copper and aluminum, which lose power due to electrical resistance. At transmission voltage, electrical losses average about 7% in the United States and other developed nations, but can exceed 20% in some locations due to the distance of the line, quality of the conductor, and the power grid’s architecture and characteristics, among other factors.

Security. Catastrophic equipment failures caused by aging equipment, physical and cyber events, and weather-related disasters can leave entire sections of an urban environment without power for hours or days. It can be difficult to recover from extended power outages in urban load centers, worsening situations where the personal safety of residents and the economic health of businesses are threatened.

Our solutions for the power quality and grid infrastructure market

We address these challenges in the grid market by providing services and solutions designed to increase the power grid’s capacity, resiliency, reliability, security and efficiency. Our solutions orchestrate the rhythm of power on the grid. Our solutions include:

D-VAR® Systems. Our D-VAR system consists of power electronics and other static components used for controlling power flow and voltage in the AC transmission system. Our D-VAR system aims to increase controllability and power transferability of a network, which allows more effective utilization of existing assets, and reduces the need for new transmission lines and facilities to increase electricity availability. The power that flows through AC networks comprises both real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in Volt Amp Reactive (“VARs”). In simple terms, reactive power is required to support voltage in the power network. D-VAR systems can provide the reactive power needed to stabilize voltage on the grid. These systems also can be used to connect wind farms and solar power plants to the power grid seamlessly as well as to protect certain industrial facilities against voltage swells and sags. Our D-VAR sales process begins with our group of experienced transmission planners working with power grid operators, renewable energy developers, and industrial system operators to identify power grid constraints and determine how our solutions might improve network performance. These services often lead to sales of grid interconnection solutions for wind farms and solar power plants, and power quality systems for utilities and heavy industrial operations.

actiVAR® Systems. Our actiVAR system is a fast-switching medium-voltage reactive compensation solution that utilizes passive, fast-switching, and transient-free switching devices. The actiVAR mitigates voltage sags and reduces large inrush currents associated with starting large medium-voltage motors across-the-line. Large motors require significant amounts of reactive power to start. The flow of VARs across the power system network results in voltage sags which cause power quality issues to nearby utility customers, as well as a reduction in the motors ability to start. Traditional solutions to solve these problems utilize complex and costly adjustable speed drives and synchronous transfer switchgear solutions. The actiVAR replaces these items at a fraction of the cost. The solution is prevalent in the pump and compressors stations utilized in industrial trades. Our actiVAR sales process begins with the engineering and procurement companies during feasibility studies. We identify viable projects for this solution and assist with performance and rating calculations, which eventually lead to the adaption and purchase of the actiVAR solution.

armorVAR™ Systems. Our armorVAR system consists of conventionally switched medium-voltage metal-enclosed capacitor banks and harmonic filters banks. These systems are installed for reactive compensation, power factor correction, loss reduction, utility bill savings, and mitigation of common power quality concerns related to power converter-based generation and load devices. They are utilized in all industries including renewables, industrial, utility, commercial, mining, and petro-chemical industries. Our armorVAR systems also support the base VAR requirements of renewable power plants and can include fully integrated D-VAR and D-VAR VVO® solutions to form more advanced hybrid solutions that are more economical and easier to install.

Transformers and DC Rectifiers. Our custom transformers and rectifiers combine to form power electronic systems which consists of heavy-duty industrial rectifier transformers and direct current (DC) rectifiers. These systems are installed to produce DC power for electrolytic, furnace, and special processes. They are utilized in all industries including renewables, industrial, chemical, mining, and petro-chemical industries. Our power electronic systems also support renewable wind/solar power plants and can include fully integrated D-VAR and D-VAR VVO actiVAR®, armorVAR™ solutions that are more economical and easier to install to form a complete power solution engineered to the client's specification.

D-VAR VVO®. Our D-VAR VVO serves the distribution power grid market. VVO is designed to be a direct-connect 15 kilovolt class power quality system for a utility's distribution network to optimally control voltage as distribution networks are increasingly impacted by distributed generation, such as roof top and community solar. We believe VVO has the potential to save utilities time and money by avoiding costly options to increase the reliability and resiliency of the distribution grid and to allow utilities to build a “plug 'n play” network to serve the demands of modern energy consumers. Our VVO target markets are electric distribution grids incorporating distributed generation, including where utility grid modernization attributes such as the following are applicable: mandated efficiency upgrades, mass adoption of rooftop solar, community solar, utility-owned micro-grids, variable load conditions on the distribution grid and voltage regulations alternatives.

REG Systems. Our REG system has two primary applications that increase the reliability and the capacity of the urban infrastructure. For applications focused on reliability improvement, the REG system is used in a “ring” or “loop” configuration to interconnect nearby urban substations. This enables urban utilities to share transmission connections and excess station capacity, while controlling the high fault currents that naturally result from such interconnections, providing protection against the adverse effects that follow the loss of critical substation facilities in urban areas. We believe a utility installing our REG system could double or quadruple its reliability (e.g. N-1 to N-2, or greater) by networking substations, which is a solution that utilities would generally not consider when using conventional technology in urban settings due to its disruptive nature and economic disadvantages. For applications focused on capacity improvement, the REG system can be used in a “branch” configuration. In this application, the REG system connects an existing large urban substation with a new, much smaller, and more simplified substation within the city at a lower cost. The smaller urban substation does not need large power transformers and takes up much less space, thereby significantly reducing real estate, construction, and other related costs in the urban area. The key component to the REG system is a breakthrough cable system that combines very high-power handling capacity with fault current limiting characteristics - features that are attributable to our proprietary Amperium HTS wire.


Marine market overview

Defense spending has increased over the past six years as the U.S. military moves to rebuild and retool for competition against other great powers. In April 2022, the U.S. Navy’s 2022 shipbuilding plan covering government fiscal years 2023 to 2052, calls for a larger modernized, sustainable and lethal Navy. For a description of risks related to our government contracts, see Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors – Our contracts with the U.S. government are subject to audit, modification or termination by the U.S. government and include certain other provisions in favor of the government. The continued funding of such contracts remains subject to annual congressional appropriation, which, if not approved, could reduce our revenue and lower or eliminate our profit.

On November 1, 2022, the Navy’s fleet numbered 292 battle force ships—aircraft carriers, submarines, surface combatants, amphibious ships, combat logistics ships, and some support ships. As of April 17, 2023, the Navy included 296 battle force ships.

Since WWII, the Navy fleet has protected its warfare vessels with copper-based degaussing systems. Our HTS-based degaussing system provides world class mine protection while reducing the weight of the degaussing system by an estimated 50-80%, and reducing energy consumption.

We believe that our HTS systems are an enabling technology for the Navy in its mission to create an all-electric ship (Super Ship). Our HTS-based SPS degaussing system has been designed into the San Antonio-class amphibious warfare ship platform, with the first system delivered in January 2022 to be deployed on the USS Fort Lauderdale. AMSC and the U.S. Navy continue to collaborate on AMSC’s advanced HTS-based ship protection systems. The core components of the ship protection system are common and transferable to other applications being targeted for ship implementation.

Navy fleets worldwide face various challenges, including:

Power Capacity. Today’s Navy continues to see increased demand for more power applied from both on and off the ship (shore power). This need is driven by many factors, including the continued development of high-power density advanced weapons systems and sensors. Many power dense applications that naval engineers are working on today are already relying on the independent development of improved power distribution systems for their implementation. Free Electron Lasers, High Power Radar, Laser Self Defense Systems, Electro Magnetic Rail Guns and Active Denial (Directed Energy) systems are just a few of the Navy applications that we believe will demand higher capacity and more efficient energy transfer before deployment to a platform in the fleet can be realized.

Space and Weight Limitations. Advances in sensors and weapons for modern ship applications are expected to drive the need for new power solutions to be light and compact, for weapons’ power draw to be more efficiently cooled and for easing installation on new ships and enabling upgrades on existing ones.

Efficiency. Increased power demands for routine (peace time) operations are straining the conventional copper-based power cable systems that are currently used. The copper cables are very heavy, cumbersome, and hard to handle. The weight of the cables requires a coordinated effort between a crew on the pier and a crew on the ship. In many instances, handling these cables requires the use of a crane or a boom truck to extend them from the pier-side power substations up to the ship’s connection point. More efficient, compact, lighter weight power transfer and distribution systems are expected to be required for tomorrow’s Navy to satisfy its future mission requirements.

Our solutions for the marine market

Each Navy ship can be thought of as having its own power grid. We provide advanced ship protection systems, power management, and power generation systems that are designed to help fleets increase system efficiencies, enhance warfare capabilities, and boost reliability, performance and security. Our systems support the Navy’s mission to “electrify the fleet”. Our systems allow for the ship to generate a large amount of electrical power and distribute the power through an in-board power system to a propulsion motor by way of a much smaller, lighter, and higher performing HTS cable system, enabling a more advanced, reliable, and secure solution with a smaller footprint. Our solutions include:

Ship Protection Systems. The primary focus of our SPS has been degaussing systems. These systems reduce a naval ship’s magnetic signature, making it much more difficult for a mine to detect and damage a ship. Traditionally made of heavy copper wire, degaussing is required on all U.S. Navy combat ships. Our HTS advanced degaussing system is lightweight, compact, and often outperforms its conventional counterpart. This HTS system is estimated to enable 50-80% reduction in total degaussing system weight, offering significant potential for fuel savings or options to add different payloads. The core components of a degaussing system are transferable to other applications being targeted for ship implementation. Our SPS has been designed into the San Antonio class of amphibious assault vessels, which was first delivered in January 2022 to be deployed on the USS Fort Lauderdale. We are also seeking opportunities to propagate SPS throughout the surface fleet, creating the potential for a relatively long-term revenue stream. Additionally, we are developing a deployable mine countermeasure solution to enhance U.S. Navy capability to manage the threat of minefields.

In Board Power Delivery Systems. We are working on expanding HTS technology into the fleet through a variety of applications, including in board power flow and management. Our HTS power cables enable high density energy transfer at unsurpassed efficiency levels in a compact, lightweight package.

Power Generation Systems. We are also working on expanding HTS technology into the fleet through a variety of applications including power generation and electric propulsion. The same HTS technology used in SPS and in board power delivery systems when applied to rotating machines results in high power density motors and generators. This enables dramatically more power to be produced in the same machinery space used for conventional systems, which in turn affords the Navy additional power for high energy density weapons without significant structural changes to the ship.

Propulsion systems. Our development work in power generation systems for the Navy extends to HTS-based electric power propulsion. In board power delivery systems and power generation systems, when applied to high power density motors, enable the transition to electric propulsion. This is expected to make new ships more fuel-efficient. Our technology and systems allow the Navy to free up space for additional war-fighting capability.


Wind market overview

The global energy mix is transitioning towards an increasing amount of renewable energy, including wind power. Wind power is unlimited in supply and its generation is a zero-emission process. Wind power has become a major pillar of power supply throughout the world. Wind power is expected to play a key role in the achievement of the objectives of the Paris Climate Change agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals.

According to GlobalData, a research firm, approximately 85 GW of wind generation capacity were added worldwide in calendar 2022, as compared to 91 GW in calendar 2021. GlobalData anticipates that more than 88 GW of additional capacity will be added in 2023.

According to GlobalData, annual wind installations in India for calendar 2022 were 2.5 GW and for calendar 2023 are estimated to be 2.9 GW.

Several factors are expected to drive the future growth in the wind power market, including substantial government incentives and mandates that have been established globally, technological improvements, turbine cost reductions, the development of the offshore wind market, and increasing cost competitiveness with existing power generation technologies. Technological advances, declining turbine production cost and fluctuating prices for some fossil fuels continue to increase the competitiveness of wind versus traditional power generation technologies.

Our solutions for the wind market

We address the challenges of the wind power market by designing and engineering wind turbines, providing extensive support services to wind turbine manufacturers, and manufacturing and selling critical components for wind turbines.

Electrical Control Systems. We provide full electrical control systems (“ECS”) to manufacturers of wind turbines designed by us. Our ECS regulate voltage, control power flows and maximize wind turbine efficiency, among other functions. To date, we have shipped core electrical components and complete ECS sufficient to power over 17,000 Megawatts (“MW”) of wind power. To date, we have shipped enough core electrical components and complete ECS to power over 16,000 Megawatts (“MW”) of wind power. We believe our ECS represent approximately 5-10% of a wind turbine’s bill of materials.

Wind Turbine Designs. We design and develop entire state-of-the-art onshore and offshore wind turbines with power ratings of 2 MWs and higher for manufacturers who are in the business of producing wind turbines or who plan to enter the business of manufacturing wind turbines. These customers typically pay us licensing fees, and in some cases royalties, for wind turbine designs, and purchase from us the ECS needed to operate the wind turbines.

Customer Support Services. We provide extensive customer support services to wind turbine manufacturers. These services range from providing designs for customers’ wind turbine manufacturing plants to establishing and localizing their supply chains and training their employees on proper wind turbine installation and maintenance. We believe these services enable customers to accelerate their entry into the wind turbine manufacturing market and lower the cost of their wind turbine platforms.

Our approach to the wind energy markets allows our customers to use our world-class turbine engineering capabilities while minimizing their research and development costs. These services and our advanced ECS provide our customers with the ability to produce standardized or next-generation wind turbines at scale for their local market or the global market quickly and cost-effectively. Our team of highly experienced engineers works with clients to customize turbine designs specifically tailored to local markets while providing ongoing access to field services support and future technological advances.


We serve customers globally through a localized sales and field service presence in our core target markets. We have served over 100 customers in the grid market since our inception, including Commonwealth Edison, YMC Incorporated, the U.S. Navy, SSE plc in the United Kingdom, Consolidated Power Projects (Pty) Ltd in South Africa, Fuji Bridex in Singapore, Vestas Wind Systems A/S in Denmark, and Ergon Energy in Australia. Additionally, our sales personnel in the United States are supported by manufacturers' sales representatives. We have designed wind turbines for and licensed wind turbine designs to wind turbine manufacturing customers including Inox Wind Limited ("Inox") in India and Doosan Heavy Industries (“Doosan”) in South Korea.

In fiscal 2022, Fuji Bridex Pte Ltd accounted for 15% of our total revenues. In fiscal 2021, Fuji Bridex Pte Ltd accounted for 14% of our total revenues. In fiscal 2021, Fuji Bridex Pte Ltd accounted for 14% of our total revenues. No other customer accounted for more than 10% of our total revenues in each of fiscal 2022 and 2021.

Facilities and Manufacturing

Our primary facilities and their primary functions are as follows:

Ayer, Massachusetts — Corporate headquarters; Grid segment manufacturing, and research and development

Westminster, Massachusetts — Grid segment manufacturing

Pewaukee, Wisconsin — Grid segment research and development

Richland, Washington — Grid segment research and development

Klagenfurt, Austria —Wind segment engineering, research and development, and customer support

Queensbury, New York — Grid segment manufacturing

New Milford, Connecticut — Grid segment manufacturing

Our global footprint also includes sales and/or field service offices in Australia, India, South Korea, the United Kingdom and McLean, VA.

The principal raw materials used in the manufacture of the Company’s products are nickel, silver, yttruim, copper, brass, and stainless steel. Major components are insulated gate bi-polar transistors, heatsinks, inductors, enclosures, transformers, and printed circuit boards. Most of these raw materials are available from multiple sources in the United States and world markets. Generally, the Company believes that adequate alternative sources are available for the majority of its key raw material and purchased component needs, however, the Company is dependent on a single or limited number of suppliers for certain materials and components.


Sales and Marketing

Our strategy is to serve customers locally in our core target markets through a direct sales force operating out of sales offices worldwide. In addition, we utilize manufacturers’ sales representatives in the United States and Canada to market our products to utilities in North America. The sales force also leverages business development staff for our various offerings as well as our team of wind turbine engineers and power grid transmission planners, all of whom help to ensure that we have an in-depth understanding of customer needs and provide cost-effective solutions for those needs.


We segment our operations into two market-facing business units: Grid and Wind. We believe this market-centric structure enables us to more effectively anticipate and meet the needs of power generation project developers, the Navy's ship protection systems, electric utilities and wind turbine manufacturers.


We face competition in various aspects of our technology and product development. We believe that competitive performance in the marketplace depends upon several factors, including technical innovation, range of products and services, product quality and reliability, customer service and technical support.

We face competition from other companies offering FACTS systems similar to our D-VAR products. These include adaptive VAR compensators, Dynamic voltage restorers (“DVRs”), and STATCOMs produced by ABB, Siemens, Mitsubishi, and Ingeteam, and battery-based uninterruptable power supply (“UPS”) systems offered by various companies around the world.

We face competition from other companies offering medium-voltage metal-enclosed power capacitor banks and harmonic filter banks for use on electric power systems similar to our NEPSITM products. These include Controllix PowerSide, Elgin Power Solutions, Scott Engineering and QVARx. These include Controllix PowerSide, Elgin Power Solutions (formally Gilbert), Scott Engineering and QVARx.

We face competition from other companies offering DC power supply systems similar to our NeeltranTM products. These include SCR Controlled Rectifiers, IGBT-controlled choppers produced by ABB, Siemens, Friem Dynapower, and Nidec offering systems around the world. These include Scr Controlled Rectifiers, IGBT controlled choppers produced by ABB, Siemens, Friem Dynapower, and Nidec offering systems around the world.

With our HTS-based REG product, we are offering a new approach that provides alternatives to utilities for power system design. Therefore, we believe that we compete with traditional approaches such as new full-sized substations, overhead and underground transmission, and urban power transformers.

We believe we are currently the only company that can offer HTS-based SPS products that have been fully qualified for use aboard U.S. Navy surface combatants. Therefore, the primary competition for our SPS products is currently coming from defense contractors that provide the copper-based systems that our lighter, more efficient HTS versions have been developed to replace. Companies such as Ultra EMS, L3 Harris, and Raytheon have the bulk of the copper-based business today.

Our power module conversion equipment and our electrical control systems are designed and integrated into our wind turbine designs in a way to achieve maximum performance of the turbine. Typically, we are the exclusive provider of the power module conversion equipment and electrical control systems for our wind turbine designs. As a result, our power conversion equipment and electrical control systems see limited competition. Other companies that serve the wind turbine components industry include ABB and Emerson. We also face indirect competition in the wind energy market from global manufacturers of wind turbines, such as Siemens Gamesa, General Electric, Vestas and Suzlon. We face competition for the supply of wind turbine engineering design services from design engineering firms such as Aerovide and W2E.

Patents, licenses and trade secrets

Patent Background

An important part of our business strategy is to develop a strong worldwide patent position in all of our technology areas. Our intellectual property (“IP”) portfolio includes both patents we own and patents we license from others. We devote substantial resources to building a strong patent position. Together with the international counterparts of our patents and patent applications, we own a robust portfolio of patents and patent applications worldwide and have rights through exclusive and non-exclusive licenses. Together with the international counterparts of our patents and patent applications, we own an extensive portfolio of patents and patent applications worldwide and have rights through exclusive and non-exclusive licenses. We believe that our current patent position, together with our ability to obtain licenses from other parties to the extent necessary, will provide us with sufficient proprietary rights to develop and sell our products. However, for the reasons described below, we cannot assure you that this will be the case.

Despite the strength of our patent position, a number of U.S. and foreign patents and patent applications of third parties relate to our current products, to products we are developing, or to technology we are now using in the development or production of our products. We may need to acquire licenses to those patents, contest the scope or validity of those patents, or design around patented processes or products as necessary. If companies holding patents or patent applications that we need to license are competitors, we believe our patent portfolio will improve our ability to enter into license or cross-license arrangements with these companies. If companies holding patents or patent applications that we need to license are competitors, we believe the strength of our patent portfolio will improve our ability to enter into license or cross-license arrangements with these companies. We have already successfully negotiated cross-licenses with several competitors.

Failure to obtain all necessary patents, licenses and other IP rights upon reasonable terms could significantly reduce the scope of our business and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. We do not now know the likelihood of successfully contesting the scope or validity of patents held by others. In any event, we could incur substantial costs in challenging the patents of other companies. Moreover, third parties could challenge some of our patents or patent applications, and we could incur substantial costs in defending the scope and validity of our own patents or patent applications whether or not a challenge is ultimately successful.

Grid Patents

We have received patents and filed numerous additional patent applications on power quality and reliability systems, including our D-VAR products. Our products are covered by patents and patents pending worldwide on both our systems and power converter products. The patents and applications focus on inventions that significantly improve product performance and reduce product costs, thereby providing a competitive advantage.


HTS Patents

Since the discovery of high temperature superconductors in 1986, rapid technical advances have characterized the HTS industry, which in turn have resulted in a large number of patents, including overlapping patents, relating to superconductivity. As a result, the patent situation in the field of HTS technology and products is unusually complex. We have obtained licenses to patents and patent applications covering some HTS materials. We currently have non-exclusive rights to a fundamental U.S. patent (U.S. 8,060,169 B1) covering 2G and similar HTS wire and applications and may elect in the future to allow our rights under this license to lapse. However, we may have to obtain additional licenses to HTS materials.

We are focusing on the production of our Amperium wire, and we intend to continue to maintain a leadership position in 2G HTS wire through a combination of patents, licenses and proprietary expertise. In addition to our owned patents and patent applications in 2G HTS wire, we have obtained licenses from (i) MIT for the MOD process we use to deposit the YBCO layer, and (ii) Alcatel-Lucent on the YBCO material.

We have extensive patents and patents pending covering applications of HTS wire, such as HTS fault current limiting technology including our fault current limiting cable, HTS rotating machines and ship protection systems. Since the superconductor rotating machine and the fault current limiting cable applications are relatively new, we believe that we have a particularly strong patent position in these areas. At present, we believe we have the world’s broadest and most fundamental patent position in superconductor rotating machines technology. We have also filed a series of patents on our concept for our proprietary fault current limiting technology. However, there can be no assurance that that these patents will be sufficient to assure our freedom of action in these fields without further licensing from others. See Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” for more information regarding the status of the commercialization of our Amperium wire products.

Wind Patents

Under our Windtec™ Solutions brand, we design a variety of wind turbine systems and license these designs, including expertise and patent rights, to third parties for an upfront fee, plus in some cases, future royalties. Our wind turbine designs are covered by patents and patents pending worldwide on wind turbine technology. We have patent coverage on the unique design features of our blade pitch control system, which ensures optimal aerodynamic flow conditions on the turbine blades and improves system efficiency and performance. The pitch system includes a patented SafetyLOCK™ feature that causes the blades to rotate to a feathered position to prevent the rotor blades from spinning during a fault.

Trade Secrets

Some of the important technology used in our operations and products is not covered by any patent or patent application owned by or licensed to us. However, we take steps to maintain the confidentiality of this technology by requiring all employees and all consultants to sign confidentiality agreements and by limiting access to confidential information. We cannot provide any assurance that these measures will prevent the unauthorized disclosure or use of that information. In addition, we cannot provide any assurance that others, including our competitors, will not independently develop the same or comparable technology that is one of our trade secrets.

Human Capital

We aim to provide a safe and positive work environment for our employees that emphasizes respect for individuals and high standards of integrity. The health and safety of our employees is of utmost importance to us. Recognizing and respecting our global presence, we strive to maintain a diverse and inclusive workforce everywhere we operate. As of March 31, 2023, we employed 328 persons. As of March 31, 2022, we employed 326 persons. None of our employees is represented by a labor union.

We believe our employees are the foundation of our success and that our future growth depends, in part, on our ability to continue to attract and retain the best and brightest talent, including key management professionals, scientists, engineers, researchers, manufacturing personnel, and marketing and sales professionals. In order for us to attract the best talent, we provide a collaborative, inclusive and innovative work environment, competitive compensation, and opportunities for our employees to grow. We are focused on continuing to build an inclusive culture that inspires leadership, encourages innovative thinking, and supports the development and advancement of all.

Our human capital management objectives include attracting, incentivizing, and integrating our existing and future employees. We strive to attract and retain talented employees by offering competitive compensation and benefits that support their health and financial well-being. We use a combination of fixed and variable pay including base salary, bonuses, performance awards and stock-based compensation. The principal purposes of our equity incentive plans are to attract, retain and motivate employees through the granting of stock-based compensation awards. We offer employees benefits that vary by country and are designed to address local laws and cultures and to be competitive in the marketplace.

Available information

Our internet address is www.amsc.com. We are not including the information contained in our website as part of, or incorporating it by reference into, this document. We make available, free of charge, through our website our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such materials with, or furnish such materials to, the SEC.

We intend to disclose on our website any amendments to, or waivers of, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that are required to be disclosed pursuant to the SEC or the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC.

Information about our Executive Officers

The table and biographical summaries set forth below contain information with respect to our executive officers as of the date of this filing:

Daniel P. McGahn joined us in December 2006 and has been chief executive officer and a member of our board of directors since June 2011 and chairman of the board since July 2018. He previously served as president and chief operating officer from December 2009 to June 2011, as senior vice president and general manager of our AMSC Superconductors business unit from April 2008 until December 2009, as vice president of our AMSC Superconductors business unit from March 2007 to April 2008 and as vice president of strategic planning and development from December 2006 to March 2007. From 2003 to 2006, Mr. McGahn served as executive vice president and chief marketing officer of Konarka Technologies. We believe Mr. McGahn’s qualifications to sit on our board of directors include his extensive experience with our company, including serving as our president since 2009, experience in the power electronics industry and strategic planning expertise gained while working in senior management as a consultant for other public and private companies.

John W. Kosiba, Jr. has served as senior vice president, chief financial officer and treasurer since April 4, 2017. Mr. Kosiba joined us as managing director, finance operations, in June 2010. He then served as vice president, finance operations, from September 2011 to May 2013. Prior to his appointment as senior vice president and chief financial officer, Mr. Kosiba served most recently as senior vice president, Gridtec solutions and finance operations, where he was responsible for (i) overseeing finance and accounting operations, budgeting, strategic planning and financial planning and analysis for the company, and (ii) managing the day-to-day business operations of our Gridtec solutions’ business segment. From January 2008 until June 2010, Mr. Kosiba served as division director and controller of Amphenol Aerospace, a division of Amphenol Corporation and a manufacturer of interconnect products for the military, commercial aerospace and industrial markets. In this role, Mr. Kosiba was responsible for overseeing finance, accounting, budgeting, audit and all aspects of financial planning and analysis for the division.


Item 1A.