Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - SQ

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$SQ Risk Factor changes from 00/02/24/22/2022 to 00/02/22/24/2024

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORSInvesting in our securities involves a high degree of risk.

You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the section titled Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before making any investment decision with respect to our securities. The risks and uncertainties described below may not be the only ones we face. If any of the risks actually occur, our business could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the market price of our Class A common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.Risk Factors SummaryOur business operations are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those outside of our control, that could cause our actual results to be harmed, including risks regarding the following:Risks related to our business and our industry:•our ability to retain existing sellers and customers, attract new sellers and customers, and increase sales to both new and existing sellers and customers;•our investments in our business and ability to maintain profitability;•our ability to maintain, protect, and enhance our brands;•our efforts to expand our product portfolio and market reach;•our ability to develop products and services to address the rapidly evolving market for payments and financial services;•competition in our markets and industry;•risks related to disruptions in or negative perceptions of the cryptocurrency market;•any acquisitions, strategic investments, new businesses, joint ventures, divestitures, and other transactions that we may undertake; •the ongoing integration of Afterpay with our business;•risks related to our majority interest in TIDAL; •operating or expanding our business globally;•risks related to our BNPL platform;•risks related to the banking ecosystem, including through Square Financial Services, our bank partnerships, and FDIC and other regulatory obligations; and•additional risks of Square Loans related to the availability of capital, seller payments, interest rate, deposit insurance premiums, and general macroeconomic conditions.Risk Factors SummaryOur business operations are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those outside of our control, that could cause our actual results to be harmed, including risks regarding the following:Risks related to our business and our industry:•our ability to maintain, protect, and enhance our brands;•our participation in government relief programs set up in response to the COVID-19 pandemic;•our ability to retain existing sellers and customers, attract new sellers and customers, and increase sales to both new and existing sellers and customers;•our investments in our business and ability to maintain profitability;•our efforts to expand our product portfolio and market reach;•our ability to develop products and services to address the rapidly evolving market for payments and financial services;•competition in our industry;•any acquisitions, strategic investments, entries into new businesses, joint ventures, divestitures and other transactions that we may undertake; •liabilities that may exist at Afterpay;•the successful integration of our business with Afterpay;•additional risks of our majority interest in TIDAL; •expanding our business globally;•additional risks of BNPL lending; •additional risks of Square Banking relating to the structure of bank partnerships, and FDIC and other regulatory obligations; and•additional risks of Square Loans related to the availability of capital, seller payments, interest rate, deposit insurance premiums, and general macroeconomic conditions. Operational risks:•real or perceived improper or unauthorized use of, disclosure of, or access to sensitive data;•real or perceived security breaches or incidents or human error in administering our software, hardware, and systems;•systems failures, interruptions, delays in service, catastrophic events, and resulting interruptions in the availability of our products or services or those of our sellers;•any failure to safeguard the bitcoin we hold on behalf of ourselves and other parties;•our risk management efforts;•our dependence on payment card networks and acquiring processors;•our reliance on third parties and their systems for a variety of services, including the processing of transaction data and settlement of funds;•our dependence on key management and any failure to attract, motivate, and retain our employees;•our operational, financial, and other internal controls and systems;•any shortage, price increases, tariffs, changes, delay or discontinuation of our key components;•the integration of our services and our products with a variety of operating systems; and•difficulties estimating the amount payable under TIDAL's license agreements.Operational risks:•real or perceived improper or unauthorized use of, disclosure of, or access to sensitive data;•real or perceived security breaches or incidents or human error in administering our software, hardware, and systems;•systems failures, interruptions, delays in service, catastrophic events, and resulting interruptions in the availability of our products or services or those of our sellers;•any inability to access our private keys required to access our bitcoins or any hack or other data loss relating to the bitcoins we hold;•our risk management efforts;•our dependence on payment card networks and acquiring processors;•our reliance on third parties and their systems for a variety of services, including the processing of transaction data and settlement of funds;•our dependence on key management and any failure to attract, motivate, and retain our employees;•our operational, financial, and other internal controls and systems;•any shortage, price increases, tariffs, changes, delay or discontinuation of our key components;•our ability to accurately forecast demand for our products and adequately manage our product inventory; •the integration of our services with a variety of operating systems and the interoperation of our hardware that enables merchants to accept payment cards with third-party mobile devices utilizing such operating systems; and•difficulties estimating the amount payable under TIDAL's license agreements. 22Economic, financial, and tax risks:•a deterioration of general macroeconomic conditions;•any inability to secure financing on favorable terms, or at all, or comply with covenants in our existing credit agreement, the indentures, or future agreements;•our ability to service our debt, including our convertible notes and our Senior Notes (as defined below); •counterparty risk with respect to our convertible note hedge transactions; •our bitcoin investments being subject to volatile market prices, impairment, and other risks of loss;•foreign exchange rates risks; and•any greater-than-anticipated tax liabilities or significant valuation allowances on our deferred tax assets.Economic, financial, and tax risks:•the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and measures intended to prevent its spread;•a deterioration of general macroeconomic conditions;•any inability to secure financing on favorable terms, or at all, or covenants in our existing credit agreement, the indentures, or future agreements;17•our ability to service our convertible notes and our senior notes; •counterparty risk with respect to our convertible note hedge transactions; •our bitcoin investments being subject to volatile market prices, impairment, and other risks of loss;•foreign exchange rates risks; and •any greater-than-anticipated tax liabilities or significant valuation allowances on our deferred tax assets. Legal, regulatory, and compliance risks:•extensive regulation and oversight in a variety of areas of our business;•complex and evolving regulations and oversight related to privacy, data protection, and information security;•litigation, including intellectual property claims, government investigations or inquiries, and regulatory matters or disputes; •obligations and restrictions as a licensed money transmitter;•regulatory scrutiny or changes in the BNPL space;•regulation and scrutiny of our subsidiary Cash App Investing, which is a broker-dealer registered with the SEC and a member of FINRA, including net capital and other regulatory capital requirements;•changes to our business practices imposed by FINRA based on our ownership of Cash App Investing;•regulation and scrutiny of our subsidiary Square Financial Services, which is a Utah state-chartered industrial loan company, including the requirement that we serve as a source of financial strength to it; •supervision and regulation of Square Financial Services, including the Dodd-Frank Act and its related regulations;•any inability to protect our intellectual property rights; •assertions by third parties of infringement of intellectual property rights by us; and•increased scrutiny from investors, regulators, and other stakeholders relating to environmental, social, and governance issues.Legal, regulatory, and compliance risks:•extensive regulation and oversight in a variety of areas of our business;•complex and evolving regulations and oversight related to privacy and data protection;•litigation, including intellectual property claims, government investigations or inquiries, and regulatory matters or disputes; •obligations and restrictions as a licensed money transmitter;•regulatory scrutiny or changes in the BNPL space;•regulation and scrutiny of our subsidiary Cash App Investing, which is a broker-dealer registered with the SEC and a member of FINRA, including net capital and other regulatory capital requirements;•changes to our business practices imposed by FINRA based on our ownership of Cash App Investing;•regulation and scrutiny of our subsidiary Square Financial Services, which is a Utah state-chartered industrial bank, including the requirement that we serve as a source of financial strength to it; •supervision and regulation of Square Financial Services, including the Dodd-Frank Act and its related regulations'•any inability to protect our intellectual property rights; and•assertions by third parties of infringement of intellectual property rights by TIDAL. Risks related to ownership of our common stock:•the dual class structure of our common stock;•volatility of the market price of our Class A common stock;•the dual-listing of our Class A common stock on the NYSE and our CHESS Depositary Interests ("CDIs") on the Australian Securities Exchange ("ASX"); •our convertible note hedge and warrant transactions;•anti-takeover provisions contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated bylaws, and provisions of Delaware law; and•exclusive forum provisions in our bylaws.Risks related to ownership of our common stock:•the dual class structure of our common stock;•volatility of the market price of our Class A common stock;•the dual-listing of our Class A common stock on the NYSE and our CDIs on the Australian Securities Exchange; •our convertible note hedge and warrant transactions;•anti-takeover provisions contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our second amended and restated bylaws, and provisions of Delaware law; and•exclusive forum provisions in our bylaws. 23Risks Related to Our Business and Our IndustryOur growth rate has slowed at times and may slow or decline in the future, and our growth rates in each of our reporting segments may vary. As our revenue has increased, our growth rate has slowed at times in the past and may slow or decline in the future, and our growth rates in each of our reporting segments may vary. Future revenue and gross profit growth depends on our ability to retain existing sellers and customers, attract new sellers and customers, and increase sales to both new and existing sellers and customers. Future revenue growth depends on our ability to retain existing sellers and customers, attract new sellers and customers, and increase sales to both new and existing sellers and customers.

Our rate of revenue and gross profit growth has slowed at times and may decline in the future, and it may slow or decline more quickly than we expect for a variety of reasons, including the risks described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.Our rate of revenue growth has slowed at times in the past and may decline in the future, and it may slow or decline more quickly than we expect for a variety of reasons, including the risks described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Additionally, our rate of revenue and gross profit growth may vary between our reporting segments. Additionally, our rate of revenue growth may vary between our reporting segments. For example, in recent periods our Cash App segment revenue has grown at a high rate, which has varied and may continue to vary from the growth rate of our Square segment. Our sellers and customers have no obligation to continue to use our services, and we cannot assure you that they will. We generally do not have long-term contracts with our sellers and customers, and the difficulty and costs associated with switching to a competitor may not be significant for many of the services we offer. Our sellers’ activity with us may decrease for a variety of reasons, including sellers’ level of satisfaction with our products and services, our pricing and the pricing and quality of competing products or services, the effects of economic conditions, or reductions in the aggregate spending of our sellers’ customers. Growth in transacting actives on Cash App and customers’ level of engagement with our products and services on Cash App are essential to our success and long-term financial performance. Growth in monthly transacting actives on Cash App and customers’ level of 19engagement with our products and services on Cash App are essential to our success and long-term financial performance. However, the growth rate of transacting actives has fluctuated over time, and it may slow or decline in the future. However, the growth rate of monthly transacting actives has fluctuated over time, and it may slow or decline in the future. A number of factors have affected and could negatively affect Cash App customer growth, inflows, and engagement levels, including our ability to introduce new products and services that are compelling to our customers and that they adopt, changes to our systems, processes or other technical or operational requirements that impact how customers use or access our products and services, the impact on our network of other customers choosing whether to use Cash App, our decision to expand into or exit certain markets, technical or other problems that affect customer experience, failure to provide sufficient customer support, fraud and scams targeting Cash App customers, and harm to our reputation and brand. Further, certain events or programs, such as government stimulus programs may correlate with periods of significant growth, but such growth may not be sustainable. Additionally, the growth rate of Cash App revenue may be distorted by the prices of bitcoin, as bitcoin revenue may increase or decrease due to changes in the price of, and demand for, bitcoin and may not correlate to customer or engagement growth rates. Additionally, the growth rate of Cash App revenue may be distorted by the prices of bitcoin, as bitcoin revenue may increase or decrease due to the price of bitcoin and may not correlate to customer or engagement growth rates. The growth of our business depends in part on our existing sellers and customers expanding their use of our products and services. If we are unable to encourage broader use of our products and services within each of our ecosystems by our existing sellers and customers, our growth may slow or stop, and our business may be materially and adversely affected. If we are unable to encourage broader use of our services within each ecosystem by our existing sellers and customers, our growth may slow or stop, and our business may be materially and adversely affected. The growth of our business also depends on our ability to attract new sellers and customers, to encourage sellers and customers to use our products and services, and to introduce successful new products and services. We have invested and will continue to invest in our business in order to offer better or new features, products, and services and to adjust our product offerings to changing economic conditions, but if those features, products, services, and changes fail to be successful on the expected timeline or at all, our growth may slow or decline.We have generated significant net losses in the past, and we intend to continue to invest in our business.We have generated significant net losses in the past, and we intend to continue to invest substantially in our business. Thus, we may not be able to maintain profitability.During the year ended December 31, 2023, we generated a net income of $9.8 million.0 million. As of December 31, 2023, we had an accumulated deficit of $528.4 million.0 million. We intend to continue to make investments in our business, including with respect to our employee base, sales and marketing, development of new products, services, and features; acquisitions; infrastructure; expansion of international operations, and general administration, including legal, finance, and other compliance expenses related to our business. We intend to continue to make significant investments in our business, including with respect to our employee base; sales and marketing; development of new products, services, and features; acquisitions; infrastructure; expansion of international operations; and general administration, including legal, finance, and other compliance expenses related to our business. If the costs associated with acquiring and supporting new or larger sellers, attracting and supporting new Cash App customers, or with developing and supporting our products and services materially increase in the future, including the fees we pay to third parties to advertise our products and services, our expenses may rise significantly. In addition, increases in our seller base could cause us to incur increased losses because costs associated with new sellers are generally incurred up front, while revenue is recognized in future periods as our products and services are used by our sellers. Moreover, businesses we acquire may have different profitability than our existing business, which may affect our overall profitability, particularly until we are able to realize expected synergies. Moreover, businesses we acquire may have different profitability than us, which may affect our overall profitability, particularly until we are able to realize expected synergies. For example, prior to its acquisition, Afterpay historically generated net losses. If we are unable to generate adequate revenue growth and manage our expenses, we may incur significant losses and may not maintain profitability on a consistent basis.24From time to time, we have made and may make decisions that will have a negative effect on our short-term operating results if we believe those decisions will improve our operating results over the long term. For example, from time to time, we have implemented expense cuts and reduced the size of our workforce to, among other things, align our cost structure with our business and longer term strategies, which may increase expenses in the short term and impact our ability to grow or quickly develop and introduce products. These decisions may not be consistent with the expectations of investors and may not produce the long-term benefits that we expect, in which case our business may be materially and adversely affected.Our business depends on our ability to maintain, protect, and enhance our brands.Having a strong and trusted brand has contributed significantly to the success of our business. We believe that maintaining, promoting, and enhancing the Square, Cash App, TIDAL, Afterpay, and our other brands, in a cost-effective manner is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our products and services and expanding our base of customers. We believe that maintaining, promoting, and enhancing the Square brand, the Cash App brand, the TIDAL brand, and our other brands, in a cost-effective manner is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our products and services and expanding our base of customers. Maintaining and promoting our brands will depend largely on our ability to continue to provide useful, reliable, secure, and innovative products and services, as well as our ability to maintain trust and be a technology leader. We may introduce, or make changes to, features, products, services, privacy practices, or terms of service that customers do not like, which may materially and adversely affect our brands. Our brand promotion activities may not generate customer awareness or increase revenue, and even if they do, any increase in revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building our brands. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brands or if we incur excessive expenses in this effort, our business could be materially and adversely affected.The introduction and promotion of new products and services, as well as the promotion of existing products and services, may be partly dependent on our visibility on third-party advertising platforms, such as Google, Facebook, or X. Changes in the way these platforms operate or changes in their advertising prices, data use practices or other terms could make the maintenance and promotion of our products and services and our brands more expensive or more difficult. If we are unable to market and promote our brands on third-party platforms effectively, our ability to acquire new customers would be materially harmed. We also use retail partners to sell hardware and acquire sellers for Square. Our ability to acquire new sellers could be materially harmed if we are unable to enter into or maintain these partnerships on terms that are commercially reasonable to us, or at all.Harm to our brands can arise from many sources, including failure by us or our partners and service providers to satisfy expectations of service and quality; inadequate protection or misuse of sensitive information; fraud committed by third parties using our products or applications; compliance failures and claims; litigation, regulatory and other claims; errors caused by us or our partners; and misconduct by our partners, service providers, or other counterparties.Harm to our brands can arise from many sources, including failure by us or our partners and service providers to satisfy expectations of service and quality; inadequate protection or misuse of sensitive information; fraud committed by third 18parties using our products or applications; compliance failures and claims; litigation and other claims; and misconduct by our partners, service providers, or other counterparties. We have also been from time to time in the past, and may in the future be, the target of incomplete, inaccurate, and misleading or false statements about our company and our business that could damage our reputation and brands and deter customers from adopting our services or our products. We have also been from time to time in the past, and may in the future be, the target of incomplete, inaccurate, and misleading or false statements about our company and our business that could damage our brands and deter customers from adopting our services or our products. In addition, negative statements about us can cause and have caused a decline in the market price of our Class A common stock, divert our management’s attention and resources, and could cause other adverse impacts to our business. Partners and influencers or other third parties with whom we maintain relationships could engage in behavior or use their platforms to communicate directly with our sellers and customers in a manner that reflects poorly on our brands and such behavior or communications may adversely affect us. Further, negative publicity or commentary regarding the partners and influencers or other third parties who are, or are perceived to be, affiliated with us may also damage our reputation, even if the negative publicity or commentary is not directly related to us. Any negative publicity about the industries we operate in or our company, the quality and reliability of our products and services, our risk management processes, changes to our products and services, our ability to effectively manage and resolve customer complaints, our privacy, data protection, and information security practices, litigation, regulatory activity, policy positions, and the experience of our sellers and customers with us, our products or services could adversely affect our reputation and the confidence in and use of our products and services. If we do not successfully maintain, protect or enhance our brands, our business could be materially and adversely affected.25Our efforts to expand our product portfolio and market reach, including through acquisitions, may not succeed and may reduce our revenue growth and profitability.We intend to continue to broaden the scope of products and services we offer. However, we may not be successful in maintaining or growing our revenue, or deriving any significant new revenue streams from these products and services. Failure to successfully broaden the scope of products and services that are attractive may inhibit our growth and harm our business. Furthermore, we expect to continue to expand our markets in the future, and we may have limited or no experience in such newer markets. We cannot assure you that any of our products or services will be widely accepted in any market or that they will grow in revenue or contribute to our profitability. We cannot assure you that any of our products or services will be widely accepted in any market or that they will continue to grow in revenue. Our offerings may present new and difficult technological, operational, and regulatory risks, and other challenges, and if we experience service disruptions, failures, or other issues, our business may be materially and adversely affected. Our offerings may present new and difficult technological, operational, regulatory, risks, and other challenges, and if we experience service disruptions, failures, or other issues, our business may be materially and adversely affected. Our expansion into newer markets may not lead to growth and may require significant investment of financial resources and of management time and attention, and we may not be able to recoup our investments in a timely manner or at all. Our expansion into newer markets may not lead to growth and may require significant management time and attention, and we may not be able to recoup our investments in a timely manner or at all. If any of this were to occur, it could damage our reputation, limit our growth, and materially and adversely affect our business.Our long-term success depends on our ability to develop products and services to address the rapidly evolving market for payments and financial services, and, if we are not able to implement successful enhancements and new features for our products and services, our business could be materially and adversely affected.Rapid and significant technological changes continue to confront the industries in which we operate, including developments in omnichannel commerce, proximity payment devices (including contactless payments via NFC technology), digital banking, mobile financial apps, cryptocurrencies, tokenization (e.Rapid and significant technological changes continue to confront the industries in which we operate, including developments in omnichannel commerce, proximity payment devices (including contactless payments via NFC technology), digital banking, mobile financial apps, as well as developments in cryptocurrencies and in tokenization, which replaces sensitive data (e. g., replacing sensitive data such as payment card information with symbols (tokens) to keep the data safe), blockchain, and artificial intelligence ("AI"), including machine learning.These new and evolving services and technologies may be superior to, impair, or render obsolete the products and services we currently offer or the technologies we currently use to provide them. Our ability to develop new products and services may be inhibited by industry-wide standards, payment card networks, existing and future laws and regulations, resistance to change from our customers, which includes our sellers and their customers, or third parties’ intellectual property rights. Incorporating new technologies into our products and services may require substantial expenditures and take considerable time, and we may not be successful in realizing a return on our efforts in a timely manner or at all. Our success will depend on our ability to develop new technologies, to adapt to technology changes and evolving industry standards, to incorporate new technologies into our products and services, and to provide products and services that are tailored to specific needs and requirements of our customers. Our ability to provide our streaming service is dependent upon our ability to license intellectual property rights to audio content, including sound recordings and videos, any musical compositions embodied therein, and any other media assets that artists and/or labels can add or provide with their tracks. For example, generative AI has become more publicly available and enterprise adoption of generative AI has grown. We have incorporated and expect to continue to incorporate AI features into our products and technologies and our success will depend in part on our ability to do so in a way that is compelling to our customers. If we are unable to provide enhancements and new features for our products and services or to develop new products and services that achieve market acceptance or that keep pace with rapid technological developments and evolving industry standards, our business would be materially and adversely affected.We often rely, not only on our own initiatives and innovations, but also on third parties, including some of our competitors, for the development of and access to new technologies and development of a robust market for these new products and technologies. Failure to accurately predict or to respond effectively to developments in our industry may significantly impair our business. In addition, because our products and services are designed to operate with a variety of systems, infrastructures, and devices, we need to continuously modify and enhance our products and services to keep pace with changes in technologies.In addition, because our products and services are designed to operate with a variety of systems, infrastructures, and devices, we need to continuously modify and enhance our products and services to keep pace with changes in technologies. Any failure of our products and services to continue to operate effectively with third-party infrastructures and technologies could reduce the demand for our products and services, result in dissatisfaction of our customers, and materially and adversely affect our business.26Substantial and increasingly intense competition in our markets and industry may harm our business.Substantial and increasingly intense competition in our industry may harm our business. We compete in markets characterized by vigorous competition, changing technology, evolving industry standards, changing customer needs, and frequent introductions of new products and services. We expect competition to intensify in the future as existing and new competitors introduce new services or enhance existing services. For example, companies not traditionally associated with the payments industry have introduced products or services that are or may become competitive with our business. We compete against many companies to attract customers across our products and services, and some of these companies have greater financial resources and substantially larger bases of customers than we do, which may provide them with significant competitive advantages. These companies may devote greater resources to the development, promotion, and sale of products and services, may achieve economies of scale due to the size of their customer bases, and may more effectively introduce their own innovative products and services that adversely impact our growth. For example, a number of competitors offer BNPL products. For example, a number of competitors offer BNPL services similar to Afterpay’s. Competitors in the BNPL space have engaged in, and may continue to engage in, aggressive consumer acquisition campaigns, may develop superior technology offerings, or consolidate with other entities and achieve benefits of scale. Existing competitors and new entrants in the BNPL space may engage in aggressive consumer acquisition campaigns, develop superior technology offerings, or consolidate with other entities and achieve benefits of scale. Such competitive pressures may materially erode our existing market share in the BNPL space and may hinder our expansion into new markets. Such competitive pressures may materially erode Afterpay’s existing market share and may hinder expansion into new markets. In addition, mergers and acquisitions by, and collaborations between, the companies we compete against may lead to even larger competitors with more resources.Certain sellers have long-standing exclusive, or nearly exclusive, relationships with our competitors to accept payment cards and other services that compete with what we offer. These relationships can make it difficult or cost-prohibitive for us to conduct material amounts of business with them. These relationships may make it difficult or cost-prohibitive for us to conduct material amounts of business with them. Competing services tied to established brands may engender greater confidence in the safety and efficacy of their services. If we are unable to differentiate ourselves from and successfully compete with our competitors, our business will be materially and adversely affected.We may also face pricing pressures from competitors. Some competitors may offer lower prices by cross-subsidizing certain services that we also provide through other products they offer. Such competition may result in the need for us to alter our pricing and could reduce our gross profit. Also, sellers may demand more customized and favorable pricing from us, and competitive pressures may require us to agree to such pricing, reducing our gross profit. We currently negotiate pricing discounts and other incentive arrangements with certain large sellers to increase acceptance and usage of our products and services. If we continue this practice and if an increasing proportion of our sellers are large sellers, we may have to increase the discounts or incentives we provide, which could also reduce our gross profit.Developments in the cryptocurrency market subject us to additional risks.Our investments in bitcoin, our bitcoin ecosystem, and our Cash App feature that permits customers to transact in bitcoin, subject us to additional risks related to any further developments in the cryptocurrency markets and the resulting impact on customer and investor behavior. We may experience adverse impacts to our business as a result of the downstream effects of the bankruptcies filed by certain cryptocurrency market participants, its severity, and the actions taken by regulators to address its impact. Enforcement actions by U.S. regulators against major crypto asset platforms and negative publicity associated with crypto asset activities may, among other things, result in a decline in confidence or interest in crypto assets. Significant impairments of our intellectual property rights, and limitations on our ability to assert our intellectual property rights against others, could have a material and adverse effect on our business. If the cryptocurrency environment deteriorates, our customers may wish to sell their bitcoin at a price or volume that exceeds the market demand for bitcoin, which could cause disruptions in our operations and have a material and adverse effect on our business and financial condition. Identity thieves and those committing fraud using stolen or fabricated credit card, debit card, or bank account numbers, or other deceptive or malicious practices, potentially can steal significant amounts of money from businesses like ours or from our customers or third parties. If our customers experience losses due to market fluctuations in the prices of bitcoin, they may reduce or cease their use of Cash App and our results of operations may be adversely impacted. Further, our customers could attempt to seek compensation from us for their financial investment losses, and those claims, even if unsuccessful, would likely be time-consuming and costly for us to address.Deteriorations in the cryptocurrency markets may also have an adverse effect on our reputation, and any negative perception by our customers of one or more cryptocurrencies may lead to a loss of customer demand for our products and services, any of which could have an adverse impact on our business and financial condition. We may also suffer a decline in the market price of our Class A common stock due to any negative perception by our customers, investors, or the general public, of bitcoin or the cryptocurrency markets.27Acquisitions, strategic investments, new businesses, joint ventures, divestitures, and other transactions we enter into could fail to achieve strategic objectives, disrupt our ongoing operations or result in operating difficulties, liabilities and expenses, harm our business, and negatively impact our results of operations.Any acquisitions, strategic investments, entries into new businesses, joint ventures, divestitures, and other transactions could fail to achieve strategic objectives, disrupt our ongoing operations or result in operating difficulties, liabilities and expenses, harm our business, and negatively impact our results of operations. In pursuing our business strategy, we routinely conduct discussions and evaluate opportunities for possible acquisitions, strategic investments, new businesses, joint ventures, divestitures, and other transactions.In pursuing our business strategy, we routinely conduct discussions and evaluate opportunities for possible acquisitions, strategic investments, entries into new businesses, joint ventures, divestitures, and other transactions. We have in the past acquired or invested in, and we continue to seek to acquire or invest in, businesses, technologies, or other assets that we believe could complement or expand our business, including acquisitions of new lines of business that are adjacent to or outside of our existing ecosystems or geographic territories. As we grow, the pace and scale of our acquisitions may increase and may include larger acquisitions than we have done historically. The identification, evaluation, and negotiation of potential acquisition or strategic investment transactions may divert the attention of management and entail various expenses, whether or not such transactions are ultimately completed. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in identifying, negotiating, and consummating favorable transaction opportunities. In addition to transaction and opportunity costs, these transactions involve large challenges and risks, whether or not such transactions are completed, including risks that:•the transaction may not advance our business strategy or may harm our growth, profitability, or reputation;•we may not be able to secure required regulatory approvals or otherwise satisfy closing conditions for a proposed transaction in a timely manner, or at all;•the transaction may subject us to additional regulatory burdens that affect our business in potentially unanticipated and significantly negative ways;•we may not realize a satisfactory return on our investment or increase our revenue;•we may experience difficulty, and may not be successful in, integrating technologies, IT or business enterprise systems, culture, or management or other personnel of the acquired business;•we may incur significant acquisition costs and transition costs, including in connection with the assumption of ongoing expenses of the acquired business;•we may not realize the expected benefits or synergies from the transaction in the expected time period, or at all, which may result in impairment charges, costs of winding down acquired operations or other negative impacts to our business;•we may be unable to retain key personnel;•acquired businesses or businesses that we invest in may not have adequate controls, processes, and procedures to ensure compliance with laws and regulations, including with respect to data privacy, data protection, and information security, and our due diligence process may not identify compliance issues or other liabilities. In addition to transaction and opportunity costs, these transactions involve large challenges and risks, whether or not such transactions are completed, any of which could harm our business and negatively impact our results of operations, including risks that:•the transaction may not advance our business strategy or may harm our growth or profitability;•we may not be able to secure required regulatory approvals or otherwise satisfy closing conditions for a proposed transaction in a timely manner, or at all;•the transaction may subject us to additional regulatory burdens that affect our business in potentially unanticipated and significantly negative ways;•we may not realize a satisfactory return or increase our revenue;•we may experience difficulty, and may not be successful in, integrating technologies, IT or business enterprise systems, culture, or management or other personnel of the acquired business;•we may incur significant acquisition costs and transition costs, including in connection with the assumption of ongoing expenses of the acquired business;•we may not realize the expected benefits or synergies from the transaction in the expected time period, or at all;•we may be unable to retain key personnel;•acquired businesses or businesses that we invest in may not have adequate controls, processes, and procedures to ensure compliance with laws and regulations, including with respect to data privacy, data protection, and data security, and our due diligence process may not identify compliance issues or other liabilities. Moreover, acquired businesses’ technology stacks may add complexity, resource constraints, and legacy technological challenges that make it difficult and time consuming to achieve such adequate controls, processes, and procedures.•we may fail to identify or assess the magnitude of certain liabilities, shortcomings, or other circumstances prior to acquiring or investing in a business, which could result in additional financial, legal, regulatory, or tax exposure and may subject us to additional controls, policies, procedures, liabilities, litigation, costs of compliance or remediation, or other adverse effects on our business, operating results, or financial condition;•we may have difficulty entering into new market segments or new geographic territories;•we may be unable to retain the customers, vendors, and partners of acquired businesses;•there may be lawsuits or regulatory actions resulting from the transaction;28•there may be risks associated with undetected security weaknesses, cyberattacks, or security breaches or incidents at companies that we acquire or with which we may combine or partner;•there may be local and foreign regulations applicable to the international activities of our business and the businesses we acquire; and•acquisitions could result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt.We have experienced certain of these risks in connection with our past acquisitions, and any of the foregoing could harm our business and negatively impact our results of operations.We have in the past, and may in the future, also choose to divest certain businesses or product lines. If we decide to sell assets or a business, we may have difficulty obtaining terms acceptable to us in a timely manner, or at all. Additionally, we may experience difficulty separating out portions of, or entire, businesses, incur loss of revenue or experience negative impact on margins, or we may not achieve the desired strategic and financial benefits. Additionally, we may experience difficulty separating out portions of, or entire, businesses, incur potential loss of revenue or experience negative impact on margins, or we may not achieve the desired strategic and financial benefits. Such potential transactions may also delay achievement of our strategic objectives, cause us to incur additional expenses, disrupt customer or employee relationships, and expose us to unanticipated or ongoing obligations and liabilities, including as a result of our indemnification obligations. Such potential transactions may also delay achievement of our strategic objectives, cause us to incur additional expenses, potentially disrupt customer or employee relationships, and expose us to unanticipated or ongoing obligations and liabilities, including as a result of our indemnification obligations. Further, during the pendency of a divestiture, we may be subject to risks such as a decline in the business to be divested, loss of employees, customers, or suppliers and the risk that the transaction may not close, any of which would have a material adverse effect on the business to be divested and our retained business. Further, during the pendency of a divestiture, we may be subject to risks related to a decline in the business, loss of employees, customers, or suppliers and the risk that the transaction may not close, any of which would have a material adverse effect on the business to be divested and our retained business. If a divestiture is not completed for any reason, we may not be able to find another buyer on the same terms, and we may have incurred significant costs without any corresponding benefit.Joint ventures and minority investments inherently involve a lesser degree of control over business operations, thereby potentially increasing the financial, legal, operational, regulatory, and/or compliance risks associated with the joint venture or minority investment. In addition, we may be dependent on joint venture partners, controlling shareholders, management, or other persons or entities who control them and who may have business interests, strategies, or goals that are inconsistent with ours. Business decisions or other actions or omissions of the joint venture partners, controlling shareholders, management, or other persons or entities who control them may adversely affect the value of our investment, result in litigation or regulatory action against us, and may otherwise damage our reputation and brand.The ongoing integration of Afterpay could disrupt our business and adversely affect our future results of operations.Our ability to benefit from our acquisition of Afterpay depends on our ability to complete the integration of Afterpay with our business in a timely and effective manner. Difficulties that we have encountered and may continue to encounter in the integration process include the following: •challenges and difficulties associated with managing the larger, more complex, combined company;•conforming standards and controls and consolidating corporate infrastructures between the companies;•integrating personnel from the two companies while maintaining focus on developing, producing and delivering consistent, high quality products and services;•loss of key employees;•coordinating geographically dispersed organizations;•potential unknown liabilities and unforeseen expenses; and•the diversion of management’s attention caused by integrating the companies’ operations.29TIDAL subjects us to risks and uncertainties related to the music industry.TIDAL’s business is dependent on the various rights holders. TIDAL’s business is dependent on the various rights holders. We cannot provide assurances that we or TIDAL will be able to maintain or expand arrangements with partners and other third parties on acceptable terms, if at all. Further, the music industry is highly concentrated, which means we rely on a small number of entities that may take adverse actions or take advantage of their market power to pursue arduous financial or other terms that may adversely affect us or may restrict our ability to innovate and improve our streaming service. Our streaming service also competes for listeners on the basis of the presence and visibility of our app, which is distributed via app stores operated by Apple and Google. We face significant competition for listeners from these companies, which also promote their own music and content. In addition, our competitors’ streaming products may be pre-loaded or integrated into consumer electronics products or automobiles more broadly than our streaming product, which makes such competitors more visible to consumers. If we are unable to compete successfully for listeners against other media providers, then our TIDAL business may suffer. We expect that the operation of our TIDAL business will require continued investment and management time and attention, none of which will ensure that we will be successful. We expect that operation of the TIDAL business will require continued investment in operating expenses, headcount, and executive time and attention, none of which will ensure that we will be successful. If we fail to successfully operate and grow our TIDAL business, we will not realize the benefits anticipated when we acquired a majority interest in the business, and any such failure could result in adverse effects on our business and financial results, including substantial impairment charges.Operating or expanding our business globally subjects us to new challenges and risks.Expanding our business globally subjects us to new challenges and risks. We offer our services and products in multiple countries and we may continue expanding our business further globally.We currently offer our services and products in multiple countries and plan to continue expanding our business further globally. Expansion, whether in our existing or new global markets, will require additional resources and new or expanded controls, and offering our services and products in new geographic regions often requires substantial expenditures and takes considerable time. Expansion, whether in our existing or new global markets, will require additional resources and controls, and offering our services and products in new geographic regions often requires substantial expenditures and takes considerable time. We may not be successful enough in these new geographies to recoup our investments in a timely manner or at all. Such expansion, and the ongoing operation of our global business, subject our business to substantial risks, including:•difficulty in attracting sellers and customers, or a lack of acceptance of our products and services in foreign markets;•failure to anticipate competitive conditions and competition with service providers or other market-players that have greater experience in the foreign markets than we do;•failure to conform with applicable business customs, including translation into foreign languages, cultural context, and associated expenses;•increased costs and difficulty in protecting intellectual property and sensitive data;•changes to the way we do business as compared with our current operations;•inability to support and integrate with local third-party service providers;•difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations in an environment of diverse cultures, laws, and customs, challenges caused by distance, language, and cultural differences, and the increased travel, infrastructure, and legal and compliance costs associated with global operations;•difficulties in recruiting and retaining qualified employees and maintaining our company culture;•difficulty in gaining acceptance and maintaining compliance with industry self-regulatory bodies;•compliance with multiple complex, potentially conflicting and changing governmental laws and regulations, including with respect to payments, privacy, data protection, information security, and tax;•compliance with U. Such expansion could also subject our business to substantial risks, including:•difficulty in attracting a sufficient number of sellers and customers;•failure to anticipate competitive conditions and competition with service providers or other market-players that have greater experience in the local markets than we do;24•failure to conform with applicable business customs, including translation into foreign languages, cultural context, and associated expenses;•increased costs and difficulty in protecting intellectual property and sensitive data;•changes to the way we do business as compared with our current operations or a lack of acceptance of our products and services;•the ability to support and integrate with local third-party service providers;•difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations in an environment of diverse cultures, laws, and customs, challenges caused by distance, language, and cultural differences, and the increased travel, infrastructure, and legal and compliance costs associated with global operations;•difficulties in recruiting and retaining qualified employees and maintaining our company culture;•difficulty in gaining acceptance from industry self-regulatory bodies;•compliance with multiple, potentially conflicting and changing governmental laws and regulations, including with respect to payments, data privacy, data protection, and information security;•compliance with U. S. and foreign anti-corruption, anti-bribery, and anti-money laundering laws;•enactment of tariffs, sanctions, fines, or other trade restrictions;•exchange rate risk;30•increased exposure to public health issues such as pandemics, and related industry and governmental actions to address these issues; and•regional economic and political instability and other geopolitical risks. and foreign anti-corruption, anti-bribery, and anti-money laundering laws;•potential tariffs, sanctions, fines, or other trade restrictions;•exchange rate risk;•compliance with complex and potentially conflicting and changing laws of jurisdictions where we conduct business, including tax laws; •increased exposure to public health issues such as pandemics, and related industry and governmental actions to address these issues; and•regional economic and political instability and other geopolitical risks. As a result of these risks, our efforts to expand our global operations may not be successful, which could limit our ability to grow our business.Our BNPL platform increases our exposure to consumer defaults and merchant insolvency.Revenue generated from BNPL products depends on our ability to recoup the purchase value of the goods or services that consumers have purchased using our BNPL platform.Revenue generated from BNPL services depends on our ability to recoup the purchase value of the goods that consumers have purchased using our BNPL services. Although we rely on technology to assess consumers’ repayment capability for our BNPL products, there can be no guarantee that such processes will always accurately predict repayments. Although Afterpay relies on technology to assess consumers’ repayment capability for each BNPL transaction, there can be no guarantee that such processes will always accurately predict repayments. Miscalculation of consumers’ repayment ability or a material increase in repayment failures, whether due to inflation, macroeconomic uncertainty and downturn, market volatility, or otherwise, may adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Miscalculation of consumers’ repayment ability or a material increase in repayment failures may adversely impact our results of operations, profitability and prospects. In addition, if consumers who have purchased products or services using our BNPL platform do not receive the products or services, they may cease payment on their outstanding balances or request a refund on previous payments, and our business may be negatively impacted. The performance of our BNPL platform depends also on the sales of products and services by retail merchants. Merchants’ sales may decrease as a result of factors outside of their control, including deteriorating macroeconomic conditions and supply chain disruptions. If a merchant ceases its operations, closes some or all of its locations, or fails to deliver goods or services to our consumers, the merchant may not be able to reimburse us for chargebacks or refunds or may not be able to repay the funds we have advanced to them, all of which could result in higher charge-off rates than anticipated. Moreover, if the financial condition of a merchant deteriorates significantly such that the merchant becomes subject to a bankruptcy proceeding, we may not be able to recover any amounts due to us from the merchant, and our financial results would be adversely affected. Our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by events beyond our control, and breaches of these covenants could result in a default under our existing credit facility or our senior notes and any future financing agreements into which we may enter. We are subject to risks related to the banking ecosystem, including through Square Financial Services, our bank partnerships, and FDIC and other regulatory obligations.We are subject to risks related to litigation, including intellectual property claims, government investigations or inquiries, and regulatory matters or disputes. Volatility in the banking and financial services sectors may impact our bank partnerships and could negatively impact our business. For example, we offer certain FDIC-insured products through our partnerships with banks that are members of the FDIC. We believe our banking programs, including records maintained by us and our bank partners, comply with all applicable requirements for each eligible participant's deposits to be covered by FDIC insurance, up to the applicable maximum deposit insurance amount. We believe our business checking account program, including applicable records maintained by us and Sutton Bank, complies with all applicable requirements for each participating seller’s deposits to be covered by FDIC insurance, up to the applicable maximum deposit insurance amount. However, if the FDIC were to disagree, the FDIC may not recognize the participants’ claims as covered by deposit insurance in the event a bank partner fails and enters receivership proceedings under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (“FDIA”). However, if the FDIC were to disagree, the FDIC may not recognize sellers’ claims as covered by deposit insurance in the event Sutton Bank fails and enters receivership proceedings under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (“FDIA”). If the FDIC were to determine that funds held at a bank partner are not covered by deposit insurance, or if one or more of our bank partners were to fail and enter receivership proceedings under the FDIA, our sellers and customers may seek to withdraw their funds, or may not be able to withdraw all their funds in a timely manner, which could adversely affect our brand, business and results of operations, and may lead to claims or litigation, which may be costly to address. Additionally, in instances where we are a service-provider to or are otherwise in a third-party relationship with our bank partners in connection with these programs, we are subject to certain risk-management standards for third-party relationships in accordance with federal bank regulatory guidance and examinations by the federal banking regulators.Further, as a FDIC-insured institution, our subsidiary Square Financial Services is subject to regulatory obligations, including the assessment of a quarterly deposit insurance premium, calculated based on its average consolidated total assets. We are generally unable to control the amount of premiums that we are required to pay for FDIC insurance. If there are additional bank or financial institution failures, we may be required to pay higher deposit insurance assessments or higher fees associated with FDIC-insured products offered through our bank partnerships, or we may be subject to higher capital requirements imposed by the FDIC, our bank partners, or federal banking regulators with authority over our bank partners, which could reduce our profitability, and negatively impact our business and operations.31We intend to continue to explore other products, models, and structures for our product offerings, including with bank partners. Certain of our current product offerings subject us to reporting requirements, bonding requirements, and inspection by applicable federal or state regulatory agencies, and our future product offerings may potentially require, or be deemed to require, additional data, procedures, partnerships, licenses, regulatory approvals, or capabilities that we have not yet obtained or developed. Should we fail to successfully expand and evolve our product offerings, or should our new products, models or structures, or new laws or regulations or interpretations of existing laws or regulations, impose requirements on us that are cumbersome or that we cannot satisfy, our business may be materially and adversely affected. Should we fail to expand and evolve Square Banking in a successful manner, or should these new products, models or structures, or new regulations or interpretations of existing regulations, impose requirements on us that are cumbersome or that we cannot satisfy, our business may be materially and adversely affected. Square Loans are subject to additional risks related to availability of capital, seller payments, interest rate, deposit insurance premiums, and general macroeconomic conditions.Square Loans is our commercial lending program. Square Financial Services, as the originator of the loans provided by Square Loans in the U.S.

, is subject to risks in addition to those described elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Maintaining and growing our Square Loans business is dependent on institutional third-party investors purchasing the eligible business loans originated by us. If such third parties fail to continue to purchase such business loans or reduce the amount of future loans they purchase, then we may need to reduce originations, or we would need to fund the purchase of additional business loans from our own resources. We then may have to reduce the scale of Square Financial Services, which could have a direct impact on our ability to grow. Additionally, Square Financial Services has certain customary repurchase obligations in its loan purchase and servicing agreements with such institutional third-party investors for breaches of certain eligibility representations and warranties. If third parties reduce the price they are willing to pay for these business loans or reduce the servicing fees they pay us in exchange for servicing the business loans on their behalf, then the financial performance of Square Financial Services would be harmed.The business loans provided by Square Loans are generally unsecured obligations of our sellers, and they are not guaranteed or insured in any way. Adverse changes in macroeconomic conditions or the credit quality of our sellers could cause some sellers who utilize Square Loans to cease operating or to experience a decline in their payment processing volume, thereby rendering them unable to make payment on the business loan and/or extend the repayment period beyond the contractual repayment terms on the business loan. To the extent a seller breaches a contractual obligation, such as the requirement to make minimum payments or other breach, the seller would be liable for an accelerated business loan repayment, where our recourse is to the business and not to any individual or other asset. In addition, because the servicing fees we receive from third-party investors depend on the collectability of the business loans, if there is an increase in sellers who utilize Square Loans who are unable to repay their business loans, we will be unable to collect our entire servicing fee for such loans. In addition, because the servicing fees we receive from third-party investors depend on the collectability of the business loans, if there is an increase in sellers who utilize Square Loans who are unable to make repayment of business loans, we will be unable to collect our entire servicing fee for such loans. While our exposure to loans that we sell to third parties is more limited, if the sellers who utilize Square Loans are unable to repay their loans, the risk of loss in our owned loan portfolio will increase and our business may be adversely affected.Adverse changes in macroeconomic conditions may lead to a decrease in the number of sellers eligible for Square Loans and may strain our ability to correctly identify such sellers or manage the risk of non-payment or fraud as servicer of the business loans.In addition, adverse changes in macroeconomic conditions may lead to a decrease in the number of sellers eligible for Square Loans and may strain our ability to correctly identify such sellers or manage the risk of non-payment or fraud as servicer of the business loans. If we fail to correctly predict the likelihood of timely repayment or correctly price such business loans, our business may be materially and adversely affected. Square Financial Services’ profitability depends, in part, on its net interest income. Net interest income is the difference between interest income earned on interest-bearing assets, such as loans and securities, and interest expense paid on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowed funds. Changes in interest rates and monetary policy can impact the demand for new loans, the credit profile of our borrowers, the yields earned on loans and securities, and the rates paid on deposits and borrowings. The impact of any sudden and substantial move in interest rates and/or increased competition may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, as our net interest income may be adversely affected.32Operational Risks We, our sellers, our partners, and others who use our services obtain and process a large amount of sensitive data. Any real or perceived improper or unauthorized use of, disclosure of, or access to such data could harm our reputation as a trusted brand, as well as have a material and adverse effect on our business.We, our sellers, and our partners, including third-party vendors and data centers that we use, obtain and process large amounts of sensitive data, including data related to our customers, our sellers’ customers, and their transactions. We face risks, including to our reputation as a trusted brand, in the handling and protection of this data. These risks will increase as our business continues to expand to include new products and technologies, such as AI, and as we and our third-party vendors rely on an increasingly distributed workforce. These risks will increase as our business continues to expand to include new products, subsidiaries, and technologies, and as we and our third-party vendors rely on an increasingly distributed workforce. Our operations involve the storage and transmission of sensitive data of individuals and businesses using our services, including their names, addresses, social security/tax ID numbers (or foreign equivalents), government IDs, payment card numbers and expiration dates, bank account information, loans they have applied for or obtained, and data regarding the performance of our sellers’ businesses. Our operations involve the storage and transmission of sensitive information of individuals and businesses using our services, including their names, addresses, social security/tax ID numbers (or foreign equivalents), government IDs, payment card numbers and expiration dates, bank account information, loans they have applied for or obtained, and data regarding the performance of our sellers’ businesses. Additionally, certain of our products and services are subject to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (and the rules and regulations thereunder, as amended, including with respect to the HITECH Act), and therefore we are required to take measures to safeguard protected health information of our health care entity-sellers' customers when using those products and services. Additionally, certain of our products and services are subject to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (and the rules and regulations thereunder, as amended, including with respect to the HITECH Act) (HIPAA), and therefore we are required to take measures to safeguard protected health information of our health care entity-sellers' customers when using those products. Our services also provide third-party developers the opportunity to provide applications to sellers in the Square and Weebly app marketplaces. Sellers who choose to use such applications can grant permission allowing the applications to access content created or held by sellers in their Square or Weebly account. Should our internal or third-party developers experience or cause a breach, incident, or technological bug, that could lead to a compromise of the content of data held by such sellers, including personal data, our reputation may be harmed and we may be subject to significant fines, penalties or judgments. The growing use of AI in our products and services presents additional risks. AI algorithms or automated processing of data may be flawed, and datasets may be insufficient or may use third party AI with unclear intellectual property rights or interests. Inappropriate or controversial data practices by us or others could subject us to lawsuits, regulatory investigations, legal and financial liability, or reputational harm. Additionally, our use of AI may create additional, or increase the risk of, cybersecurity breaches and incidents. Our products and services operate in conjunction with, and we are dependent upon, third-party products and components across a broad ecosystem.Our products and services operate in conjunction with, and we are dependent upon, third-party products and components across a broad ecosystem. There have been and may continue to be significant attacks on third-party providers, and we cannot guarantee that our or our third-party developers or vendors’ systems and networks have not been breached or that they do not contain exploitable defects or bugs that could result in a breach of or disruption to our systems and networks or the systems and networks of third parties that support us and our products and services. There have been and may continue to be significant attacks on certain third-party providers, and we cannot guarantee that our or our third-party developers or vendors’ systems and networks have not been breached or that they do not contain exploitable defects or bugs that could result in a breach of or disruption to our systems and networks or the systems and networks of third parties that support us and our products and services. If there is a security vulnerability, error, or other bug in one of these third-party products or components and if there is a security exploit targeting them, we could face increased costs, claims and liability, proceedings and litigation, reduced revenue, or harm to our reputation or competitive position. The natural sunsetting of third-party products and operating systems that we use requires our personnel to reallocate time and attention to migration and updates, during which period potential security vulnerabilities could be exploited.More generally, if our privacy, data protection, or information security measures or those of third-party developers or vendors are inadequate or are breached or otherwise compromised, and, as a result, there is improper disclosure of or someone obtains unauthorized access to or exfiltrates funds, bitcoin, investments, or other assets, or other sensitive data on our systems or our partners’ systems, or if we, our third-party developers or vendors suffer a ransomware or advanced persistent threat attack, or if any of the foregoing is reported or perceived to have occurred, our reputation and business could be damaged, and we could face liability and financial losses.More generally, if our privacy, data protection, or data security measures or those of third party developers or vendors are inadequate or are breached or otherwise compromised, and, as a result, there is improper disclosure of or someone obtains unauthorized access to or exfiltrates funds, bitcoin, investment or other assets, or other sensitive information on our systems or our partners’ systems, or if we, our third-party developers or vendors suffer a ransomware or advanced persistent threat attack, or if any of the foregoing is reported or perceived to have occurred, our reputation and business could be damaged. If the sensitive data or assets are lost or improperly accessed, misused, disclosed, destroyed, or altered or threatened to be improperly accessed, misused, disclosed, destroyed, or altered, we could incur significant financial losses and costs and liability associated with remediation and the implementation of additional security measures and be subject to claims, litigation, regulatory scrutiny, and investigations. If the sensitive information or assets are lost or improperly accessed, misused, disclosed, destroyed, or altered or threatened to be improperly accessed, misused, disclosed, destroyed, or altered, we could incur significant financial losses 27and costs and liability associated with remediation and the implementation of additional security measures and be subject to claims, litigation, regulatory scrutiny, and investigations. For example, in April 2022 we announced that we determined that a former employee downloaded certain reports of our subsidiary Cash App Investing in December 2021 that contained some U.S. customer information without permission after the former employee’s employment ended, as disclosed in our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on April 4, 2022. We have incurred costs related to our investigation and response to this incident, and we could incur other losses, costs, and liabilities in connection with such incident.33Under payment card rules and our contracts with our card processors and other counterparties, if there is a breach of payment card information that we store or that is stored by our sellers or other third parties with which we do business, we could be liable to the payment card issuing banks for certain of their costs and expenses. Additionally, if our own confidential business information were improperly disclosed, accessed, or breached, our business could be materially and adversely affected. Additionally, if our own confidential business information were improperly disclosed, our business could be materially and adversely affected. A core aspect of our business is the reliability and security of our payments platforms. Any perceived or actual breach of security or other type of security incident or any type of fraud perpetrated by bad actors such as account takeovers or fake account scams, regardless of how it occurs or the extent or nature of the breach, incident, or fraud, could have a significant impact on our reputation as a trusted brand, cause us to lose existing sellers or other customers, prevent us from obtaining new sellers and other customers, require us to expend significant funds to remedy problems caused by breaches and incidents and to implement measures in an effort to prevent further breaches and incidents, and expose us to legal risk and potential liability including those resulting from governmental or regulatory investigations, class action litigation, and costs associated with remediation, such as fraud monitoring and forensics. Any perceived or actual breach of security or other type of security incident, regardless of how it occurs or the extent or nature of the breach or incident, could have a significant impact on our reputation as a trusted brand, cause us to lose existing sellers or other customers, prevent us from obtaining new sellers and other customers, require us to expend significant funds to remedy problems caused by breaches and incidents and to implement measures in an effort to prevent further breaches and incidents, and expose us to legal risk and potential liability including those resulting from governmental or regulatory investigations, class action litigation, and costs associated with remediation, such as fraud monitoring and forensics. Any actual or perceived security breach or incident at a company providing services to us or our customers on our behalf could have similar effects. Any actual or perceived security breach or incident at a company providing services to us or our customers could have similar effects. Further, any actual or perceived security breach or incident with respect to the bitcoin and blockchain ledger, regardless of whether such breach or incident directly affects our products and services, could have negative reputational effects and harm customer trust in us and our products and services. Further, any actual or perceived security breach or incident with respect to the bitcoin and blockchain ledger, regardless of whether such breach directly affects our products and services, could have negative reputational effects and harm customer trust in us and our products and services. While we maintain cybersecurity insurance, our insurance may be insufficient to cover all liabilities incurred by such attacks. We cannot be certain that our insurance coverage will be adequate for data handling or information security liabilities actually incurred, that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all, or that any insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. We cannot be certain that our insurance coverage will be adequate for data handling or data security liabilities actually incurred, that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all, or that any insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, premiums, or deductibles could have a material adverse effect on our business, including our financial condition, operating results, and reputation.Our products and services may not function as intended due to errors in our software, hardware, and systems, product defects, or due to security breaches or incidents or human error in administering these systems, which could materially and adversely affect our business.Our software, hardware, systems, and processes may contain undetected errors or vulnerabilities that could have a material adverse effect on our business, particularly to the extent such errors or vulnerabilities are not detected and remedied quickly. We have from time to time found defects and errors in our customer-facing software and hardware, internal systems, external facing communications, manual processes, and technical integrations with third-party systems, including as a result of ordinary course updates to our software and systems, and new errors or vulnerabilities may be introduced in the future. From time to time, such errors or defects in our software, hardware, systems, or external facing communications, including as a result of human errors, have negatively impacted our customers’ experience with us and led to negative publicity and harm to our brand and reputation. In connection with any such defects or errors, we may also face government inquiries or investigations, claims and litigation, and we may incur additional costs or expenses to remediate the issues. Additionally, we rely on a limited number of component and product suppliers located outside of the U. Additionally, Square relies on a limited number of component and product suppliers located outside of the U. S. to manufacture our products. to manufacture its products. As a result, our direct control over production and distribution is limited, and it is uncertain what effect such diminished control will have on the quality of our products. If there are defects in the manufacture of our hardware products, we may face similar negative publicity, investigations, and litigation, and we may not be fully compensated by our suppliers for any financial or other liability that we suffer as a result. If there are defects in the manufacture of Square’s hardware products, we may face similar negative publicity, investigations, and litigation, and Square may not be fully compensated by its suppliers for any financial or other liability that it suffers as a result. As our hardware and software services continue to increase in size and complexity, and as we integrate new, acquired subsidiaries with different technology stacks and practices, these risks may correspondingly increase as well.34In addition, we provide frequent incremental releases of product and service updates and functional enhancements, which increase the possibility of errors. The products and services we provide are designed to process complex transactions and deliver reports and other information related to those transactions, all at high volumes and processing speeds. Any errors, data leaks, security breaches or incidents, disruptions in services, or other performance problems with our products or services caused by external or internal actors could hurt our reputation and damage our and our customers’ businesses. Software and system errors, or human errors, could delay or inhibit settlement of payments, result in oversettlement, cause reporting errors, cause pricing irregularities or prevent us from collecting transaction-based fees, or negatively impact our ability to serve our customers, all of which have occurred in the past. Software and system errors, or human error, could delay or inhibit settlement of payments, result in oversettlement, cause reporting errors, or prevent us from collecting transaction-based fees, or negatively impact our ability to serve our customers, all of which have occurred in the past. Similarly, security breaches or incidents, which may be caused by or result from cyber-attacks by hackers or others, computer viruses, worms, ransomware, other malicious software programs, security vulnerabilities, employee or service provider theft, misuse or negligence, phishing, identity theft or compromised credentials, denial-of-service attacks, or other causes, have from time to time impacted our business and could disrupt the proper functioning of our software products or services, cause errors, allow loss or unavailability of, unauthorized access to, or disclosure of, proprietary, confidential or otherwise sensitive data of ours or our customers, and other destructive outcomes. Moreover, security breaches or incidents or errors in our hardware or software design or manufacture could cause product safety issues typical of consumer electronics devices. Any of the foregoing issues could lead to product recalls and inventory shortages, result in costly and time-consuming efforts to redesign and redistribute our products, give rise to regulatory inquiries and investigations, and result in reimbursement obligations, lawsuits and other liabilities and losses, any of which could have a material and adverse effect on our business. Any of the foregoing issues could lead to product recalls and inventory shortages, result in costly and time-consuming efforts to redesign and redistribute our products, give rise to regulatory inquiries and investigations, and result in lawsuits and other liabilities and losses, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business. Additionally, electronic payment, hardware, and software products and services, including ours, have been, and could continue to be in the future, specifically targeted and penetrated or disrupted by hackers and other malicious actors. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to data, products, and services and to disable, degrade, or sabotage them change frequently and may be difficult to detect or remediate for long periods of time, we and our customers may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures to stop them. If we or our sellers or other customers are unable to anticipate or prevent these attacks, our sellers' or other customers may be harmed, our reputation could be damaged, and we could incur significant liability. Systems failures, interruptions, delays in service, catastrophic events, and resulting interruptions in the availability of our products or services, or those of our sellers, could harm our business and our brand, and subject us to substantial liability.Our systems and those of our third-party vendors, including data center facilities, may experience service interruptions, outages, cyber-attacks and security breaches and incidents, human error, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, pandemics, fires, other natural disasters, power losses, disruptions in telecommunications services, fraud, military or political conflicts, terrorist attacks and other geopolitical unrest, computer viruses, ransomware, and other malicious software, changes in social, political, or regulatory conditions or in laws and policies, or other changes or events. Our systems and facilities are also subject to break-ins, sabotage, and acts of vandalism. Some of our systems are not fully redundant, and our disaster-recovery planning is not sufficient for all eventualities. In addition, as a provider of payments solutions and other financial services, we are subject to increased scrutiny by regulators that may require specific business continuity and disaster recovery plans and more rigorous testing of such plans. This increased scrutiny may be costly and time-consuming and may divert our resources from other business priorities.We have experienced and will likely continue to experience denial-of-service and other cyber-attacks, system failures, outages, security incidents, and other events or conditions that interrupt the availability, data integrity, or reduce the speed or functionality of our products and services. These events have resulted and likely will result in loss of revenue. In addition, we may incur significant expense to repair or replace damaged equipment and remedy resultant data loss or corruption. In addition, they could result in significant expense to repair or replace damaged equipment and remedy resultant data loss or corruption. The risk of security incidents is increasing as we experience an increase in electronic payments, e-commerce, and other online activity. Additionally, due to political uncertainty and military actions associated with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, we and our service providers are vulnerable to heightened risks of security incidents and security and privacy breaches from or affiliated with nation-state actors, including attacks that could materially disrupt our systems, operations, supply chain, products, and services. We cannot provide assurances that our preventative efforts against such incidents will be successful. A prolonged interruption in the availability or reduction in the speed or other functionality of our products or services could materially harm our reputation and business. Frequent, persistent or significant interruptions in our products and services could cause customers to believe that our products and services are unreliable, leading them to switch to our competitors or to avoid our products and services, and could permanently harm our reputation and business. Frequent or persistent interruptions in our products and services could cause customers to believe that our products and services are unreliable, leading them to switch to our competitors or to avoid our products and services, and could permanently harm our reputation and business. Moreover, to the extent that any system failure or similar event results in damages to customers or contractual counterparties, these customers and contractual counterparties could seek compensation from us for their losses, and those claims, even if unsuccessful, would likely be time-consuming and costly for us to address.35A significant natural or man-made disaster could have a material and adverse impact on our business. Certain of our offices and data center facilities are located in the San Francisco Bay Area, a region known for seismic activity. Despite any precautions we may take, the occurrence of a natural disaster or other unanticipated problems at our offices or data centers could result in lengthy interruptions in our services or could result in related liabilities. We do not maintain insurance sufficient to compensate us for the potentially significant losses that could result from disruptions to our services.Significant natural or other disasters, including pandemics, could also have a material and adverse impact on our sellers or other customers, which, in the aggregate, could in turn adversely affect our results of operations.The theft, loss, or destruction of private keys required to access the bitcoin we hold on behalf of ourselves and other parties, such as our customers and our trading partners, may be irreversible, and any failure to safeguard such bitcoin could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.We hold bitcoin on behalf of ourselves and other parties such as our customers and our trading partners. Bitcoin can be accessed by the possessor of the unique cryptographic keys relating to the digital wallet in which the bitcoin is held. While the bitcoin and blockchain ledger require a public key relating to a digital wallet to be published when used in a transaction, private keys must be safeguarded and kept private in order to prevent a third-party from accessing the bitcoin held in such digital wallet. To the extent any of our private keys are lost, destroyed, or otherwise compromised and no backup of such private key is accessible, we will be unable to access the bitcoin we hold on behalf of ourselves and other parties. To the extent any of our private keys are lost, destroyed, or otherwise compromised and no backup of such private key is accessible, we will be unable to access the bitcoins held in the related digital wallet. The vast majority of bitcoin we hold for ourselves and our customers is held in offline and air-gapped cold storage. To facilitate transactions, we hold a small portion of bitcoin in a networked hot wallet. At times, we may also utilize third-party custodians to custody our bitcoin or a portion of the bitcoin held for our customers on our behalf.Any inappropriate access or theft of bitcoin held by us or any third-party custodian, or the third-party custodian’s failure to maintain effective controls over the custody and other settlement services provided to us, could materially and adversely affect us. Any inappropriate access or theft of bitcoins held by our custodian, or the custodian’s failure to maintain effective controls over the custody and other settlement services provided to us, could materially and adversely affect us. We cannot provide assurance that the digital wallets used to store our and other parties’ bitcoin will not be hacked or compromised. We cannot provide assurance that the digital wallets used to store our and our customers’ bitcoins will not be hacked or compromised. The bitcoin and blockchain ledger, as well as other cryptocurrencies and blockchain technologies, have been, and may in the future be, subject to security breaches or incidents, hacking, or other malicious activities. Any loss of private keys relating to, or hack or other compromise of, digital wallets used to store our customers’ bitcoin could adversely affect our customers’ ability to access or sell their bitcoin and could harm customer trust in us and our products, require us to expend significant funds for remediation, and expose us to litigation, regulatory enforcement actions, and other potential liability. Any loss of private keys relating to, or hack or other compromise of, digital wallets used to store our customers’ bitcoins could adversely affect our customers’ ability to access or sell their bitcoins and could harm customer trust in us and our products, require us to expend significant funds for remediation, and expose us to litigation and other potential liability. Additionally, any loss of private keys relating to, or hack or other compromise of, digital wallets used by third parties to store bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies could have negative reputational effects on us and harm customer trust in us and our products and could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition. Additionally, any loss of private keys relating to, or hack or other compromise of, digital wallets used by third parties to store bitcoins or other cryptocurrencies could have negative reputational effects on us and harm customer trust in us and our products. 36Our risk management efforts may not be effective, which could expose us to losses and liability and otherwise harm our business.We offer payments and other products and services to a large number of customers. We have programs to vet and monitor these customers and the transactions we process for them as part of our risk management efforts, but such programs require continuous improvement and may not be effective in detecting and preventing fraud and illegitimate transactions. When our payments services are used to process illegitimate transactions, and we settle those funds to customers and are unable to recover them, we suffer losses and liability. As a greater number of larger sellers use our services, our exposure to material risk losses from a single seller, or from a small number of sellers, will increase. Illegitimate transactions can also expose us to governmental and regulatory enforcement actions and potentially prevent us from satisfying our contractual obligations to our third-party partners, which may cause us to be in breach of our obligations. The highly automated nature of, and liquidity offered by, our payments and peer-to-peer services make us and our customers a target for illegal or improper uses, including scams and fraud directed at our customers, fraudulent or illegal sales of goods or services, money laundering, and terrorist financing. Identity thieves and those committing fraud using stolen or fabricated credit card, debit card, or bank account numbers, or other deceptive or malicious practices such as account takeovers, potentially can steal significant amounts of money from businesses like ours or from our customers or third parties. Identity thieves and those committing fraud using stolen or fabricated credit card, debit card, or bank account numbers, or other deceptive or malicious practices, potentially can steal significant amounts of money from businesses like ours or from our customers or third parties. Our risk management policies, procedures, techniques, and processes may not be sufficient to identify all of the risks to which we are exposed, to enable us to prevent or mitigate the risks we have identified, or to identify additional risks to which we may become subject in the future. Our current business, the changing and uncertain economic, geopolitical and regulatory environment, and our anticipated domestic and internatio