Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - SNV

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$SNV Risk Factor changes from 00/02/24/23/2023 to 00/02/23/24/2024

Item 1A. Risk Factors" of this Report.For a discussion of these and other risks that may cause actual results to differ from expectations, refer to “Part I - Item 1A. Risk Factors” and other information contained in this Report and our other periodic filings, including quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K, that we file from time to time with the SEC. All written or oral forward-looking statements that are made by or are attributable to Synovus are expressly qualified by this cautionary notice. You should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements since those statements speak only as of the date on which the statements are made. Synovus undertakes no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of new information or unanticipated events, except as may otherwise be required by law.2ITEM 1. BUSINESSOverviewGeneralSynovus Financial Corp. is a financial services company and a registered bank holding company headquartered in Columbus, Georgia. We provide commercial and consumer banking in addition to a full suite of specialized products and services including private banking, treasury management, wealth management, mortgage services, premium finance, asset-based lending, structured lending, capital markets, and international banking to our clients through our wholly-owned subsidiary bank, Synovus Bank, and other offices in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and Tennessee.We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Georgia in 1972. Our principal executive offices are located at 1111 Bay Avenue, Suite 500, Columbus, Georgia 31901, and our telephone number at that address is (706) 641-6500. Our common stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol “SNV.” At December 31, 2023, we had total consolidated assets of $59.81 billion and total consolidated deposits of $50.73 billion and total consolidated deposits of $48. 74 billion.87 billion. Additional information relating to our business and our subsidiaries, including a detailed description of our financial results for 2023 and 2022 is contained in "Part II - Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in this Report.Banking OperationsSynovus conducts its banking operations through Synovus Bank. Synovus Bank is a Georgia state-chartered bank and operates primarily throughout Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Synovus Bank offers commercial and consumer services. Our commercial banking services include commercial, financial, and real estate lending, treasury management, asset management, capital markets services, and institutional trust services. Our commercial banking services include treasury management, asset management, capital markets services, institutional trust services, and commercial, financial, and real estate loans. Our consumer banking services include accepting customary types of demand and savings deposits accounts; mortgage, installment, and other consumer loans; investment and brokerage services; safe deposit services; automated banking services; automated fund transfers; internet-based banking services; and bank credit and debit card services, including Visa and MasterCard services. At December 31, 2023, Synovus Bank operated 246 branches and 354 ATMs across our footprint.Non-bank SubsidiariesIn addition to our banking operations, we also provide various other financial services to our clients through the following direct and indirect wholly-owned non-bank subsidiaries:•Synovus Securities, headquartered in Columbus, Georgia, which specializes in professional portfolio management for fixed-income securities, investment banking, the execution of securities transactions as a broker/dealer, asset management, and financial planning services, and the provision of individual investment advice on equity and other securities; and •Synovus Trust, headquartered in Columbus, Georgia, which provides trust, asset management, and financial planning services.Business DevelopmentsThroughout 2023, Synovus' core strategic focus remained on expanding and diversifying the franchise in terms of revenue, profitability, and asset size while maintaining a relationship-based approach to banking.Business DevelopmentsThroughout 2022, Synovus' strategic focus remained on expanding and diversifying the franchise in terms of revenue, profitability, and asset size while maintaining a community banking, relationship-based approach to banking. In a year fraught with industry instability, economic uncertainty, inflationary pressures, and enhanced regulatory scrutiny, we made deliberate adjustments to our businesses and business model to drive sustained franchise value while retaining our legacy focus on our people and our clients. We also continued to embrace the acceleration of technology and adoption of digital and data capabilities. We embraced the acceleration of technology and adoption of digital and data capabilities. Synovus began 2023 with a continued focus on a streamlined strategic plan centered on growth and performance through four core pillars: reposition for advantage, simplify and streamline, adopt high-tech meets high touch, and enhance talent and culture.In 2022, Synovus focused on a streamlined strategic plan centered on growth and performance through four core pillars: reposition for advantage, simplify and streamline, adopt high-tech meets high touch, and enhance talent and culture. Various strategic initiatives supported each of these pillars, with a prioritization on such matters as investing in commercial growth, fortifying consumer banking, optimizing wealth, refreshing the brand, re-imagining the client journey, automating systems and processes, using advanced analytics, enhancing modern core enabled banking products, developing diverse leaders, and establishing a growth based culture. With the bank failures beginning in March and continuing into May 2023, however, Synovus adapted its strategy to robustly manage through the crisis, focusing on safety and soundness through additional liquidity and deposit generation initiatives across all lines of business, overall credit vigilance, enhanced industry and sector monitoring, and optimized capital management. In 2024, Synovus' streamlined strategic plan will focus on three fundamentals - enhancing profitability, deepening relationships, and accelerating growth. These goals are supported by such initiatives as banking-as-a-service capabilities, deposit generation strategies, expansion in strategic growth verticals such as middle market commercial banking and corporate and 3investment banking, additional Treasury and Payments solutions, and certain investments in the bank of the future through automation, digital, and analytics. CompetitionThe financial services industry is highly competitive and could become more competitive as a result of recent and ongoing legislative, regulatory, and technological changes, and continued consolidation within the financial services industry.CompetitionThe financial services industry is highly competitive and could become more competitive as a result of recent and ongoing legislative, regulatory, and technological changes, and continued consolidation within the financial services industry. Synovus Bank and our wholly-owned non-bank subsidiaries compete actively with national and state banks, savings and loan associations, and credit unions and other nonbank financial intermediaries, including securities brokers and dealers, investment advisory firms, mortgage companies, insurance companies, trust companies, finance companies, leasing companies, and certain governmental agencies, all of which actively engage in marketing various types of loans, deposit accounts, and other financial services. In addition, competition from nontraditional banking institutions, often known as Fintech, continues to increase and accelerate, with consumers having the opportunity to select from a growing variety of traditional and nontraditional alternatives. The ability of such non-banking financial institutions to provide services previously limited to commercial banks has intensified competition. Because non-banking financial institutions are not subject to many of the same regulatory restrictions as banks and bank holding companies, they can often operate with greater flexibility and lower cost structures. These competitors have been successful in developing products that are in direct competition with or are alternatives to the banking services offered by traditional banking institutions. Moreover, Synovus competes increasingly with other companies based on financial technology and capabilities, such as mobile banking and electronic capabilities. Our ability to deliver strong financial performance will depend in part on our ability to expand the scope of, and effectively deliver, products and services, which will allow us to meet the changing needs of our clients. However, we often compete with much larger national and regional banks that have more resources than we do to deliver new products and services and introduce new technology to enhance the client experience. See "Part I - Item 1A. Risk Factors - Strategic Risk - Competition in the financial services industry may adversely affect our future earnings and growth."As of December 31, 2023, we were the largest bank holding company headquartered in Georgia based on assets. We believe that Synovus' relationship-based approach provides us with a competitive advantage and that our financial services clients are generally influenced by convenience, quality of service, personal contacts, price of services, availability of products, and the quality of technology that supports the client experience. We continue to gain traction in most of our growth markets, as well as overall markets, as shown in the most recent market share deposit data for FDIC-insured institutions as of June 30, 2023. We continue to gain traction in most of our key markets, as well as overall markets, as shown in the most recent market share deposit data for FDIC-insured institutions as of June 30, 2022. We have also made significant investments to develop the Company's digital platform and capabilities over the last several years to remain competitive in meeting our clients' evolving needs and expectations. Human Capital ResourcesSynovus' financial performance and strategy rely heavily on our value proposition of relationship banking delivered through experts committed to providing an exceptional client experience and offering value-added advice and financial solutions.Human Capital ResourcesSynovus’ financial performance and strategy rely heavily on our value proposition of relationship-banking delivered through experts committed to delivering an exceptional client experience and to providing value-added advice and financial solutions. As such, Synovus' ability to identify, attract, develop, and retain a qualified and skilled workforce across our segments in multiple banking specialties and other areas is central to our growth and delivery of long-term shareholder value. In managing our business, management focuses on a number of human capital measures and objectives including: workforce demographics; compensation and benefits; talent acquisition, development, and retention; diversity, equity, and inclusion; and employee health and safety. Synovus' Chief Human Resources Officer, reporting to the Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer, and President, oversees all aspects of the employee experience, including talent acquisition and management, learning and development, and compensation and benefits. Synovus’ Chief Human Resources Officer, reporting to the Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer, and President, manages all aspects of the employee experience, including talent acquisition and management, learning and development, and compensation and benefits. The Compensation and Human Capital Committee has primary oversight responsibility for Synovus' talent development and human capital management strategies, with the Board’s full engagement, oversight, and support on this critical component of the Company’s strategic success. In 2023, the Company's human capital strategy focused on the unique circumstances of our employees and continued transformation of our technology for the management of our workforce through investments in upgraded systems and processes. The Company continued to respond to an evolving labor market in 2023, including increased competition for talent, increased need for workplace flexibility, and increased labor costs. We executed a voluntary early retirement program for certain qualified employees in 2023 and continued to meaningfully invest in our workforce.Workforce DemographicsAt Synovus, our employees are at the center of our culture and success and help us continue to meet the evolving needs of our clients. As of December 31, 2023, Synovus had 4,879 employees, 216 of which were part-time employees, predominately located in our primary markets of Georgia, Florida, Alabama, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Compensation and Benefits Synovus strives to provide competitive compensation and benefits that meet the varying needs of employees, including market-competitive pay, healthcare benefits, short- and long-term incentive packages, a 401(k) plan with a dollar-for-dollar 4company match on employee contributions up to 5% of pay, an employee stock purchase plan, tuition assistance, and wellness and employee assistance programs.Compensation and Benefits Synovus strives to provide competitive compensation and benefits that meet the varying needs of employees, including market-competitive pay, healthcare benefits, short and long term incentive packages, a 401(k) plan with a dollar for dollar company match on employee contributions up to 5% of pay, an employee stock purchase plan, tuition assistance, and wellness and employee assistance programs. We provide additional resources to support our employees' mental health, family needs, and financial well-being. The Company's short- and long-term incentive programs are aligned with our strategy and key business objectives and are intended to motivate strong performance. The Company’s short and long term incentive programs are aligned with our strategy and key business objectives and are intended to motivate strong performance. Synovus engages in nationally recognized outside compensation salary surveys and utilizes the expertise of a nationally recognized outside executive compensation firm to objectively evaluate our compensation and benefits and benchmark them against industry peers and similarly situated organizations. Synovus periodically reviews compensation and benefits by grade level and position to verify similar positions are paid comparatively and to ensure that Synovus has a competitive and valuable offering to meet the well-being and needs of our employees. Synovus periodically reviews compensation and benefits by grade level and position to ensure similar positions are paid comparatively and to ensure that Synovus has a competitive and valuable offering to meet the well-being and needs of our employees. In addition to our competitive benefits packages, we offer enhanced work-life balance through hybrid and remote work opportunities in certain job roles. For the year ended December 31, 2023, total salaries and other personnel expense, which includes all compensation and benefits to our employees, totaled $728.4 million.7 million. See "Part II - Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Non-interest Expense" of this Report for further discussion of salaries and other personnel expense.Talent Acquisition, Development, and RetentionThe Company remains committed to creating a compelling work environment with abundant growth and career development opportunity. We continue our efforts to attract and retain the brightest and best talent. Of the approximately 1,154 open positions filled in 2023, 31% were filled by internal hires. Approximately 13% of our workforce received a promotion in 2023, consisting of 67% women and 36% people of color. Approximately 18% of our workforce received a promotion in 2022, consisting of 70% women and 38% people of color. Our commitment to our employees has resulted in a long-term workforce with an average tenure of eight years of service. We attribute our ability to attract and retain talent to several factors, including impactful work that affects the communities in which our employees live, strong leadership, availability of career advancement opportunities, and competitive and equitable total rewards.Synovus is committed to providing access to learning, development, and training opportunities that enable all employees to reach their full potential and to achieve the strategic goals of the Company. Synovus enables employees by providing access to in-person, virtual instructor-led, on demand, and curated learning opportunities to support skill development. This includes, but is not limited to, new hire orientation, role-based training programs, technical training, and professional and leadership development. Synovus also encourages all employees to devote at least one hour a week for professional development. Moreover, Synovus believes in the importance of equipping leaders and has invested in developing leaders at every level. Our leadership development programs – Ignite, Connect, and Catalyst – focus on frontline leadership, senior leadership, and executive-level readiness through a tailored approach to development and succession planning. Synovus also supports and encourages its employees in external development opportunities. Synovus offers a tuition assistance program for employees seeking qualified undergraduate and graduate degrees and other continuing education programs. We also provide 100% tuition coverage for employees selected for specialty banking schools. Synovus continued to focus on employee engagement and culture in 2023. We received extremely high scores from our employees on the recently conducted employee engagement survey and continue to explore and focus on additional improvements through our “Voice of the Team Member” action teams. In 2023, we achieved a Great Place to Work designation by the Great Place to Work Institute and were recognized again among Atlanta's Top Workplaces by the Atlanta Journal Constitution and as a Forbes 2023 Best Bank in America. Moreover, Synovus won three Brandon Hall Excellence awards in 2023 in recognition of our Ignite and Catalyst leadership development programs and our customer care leadership and development program. A member of our executive leadership team again received national recognition for The Most Powerful Women to Watch while another senior leader received national recognition for The Most Powerful Women in Banking: Next 2023 from American Banker. Diversity, Equity, and InclusionAt Synovus, we value a diversity of backgrounds, experiences, thought, and perspective and strive to have a diverse workforce representative of the clients and communities we serve. As of December 31, 2023, 65% of our employees were women and 31% of our employees were people of color. In addition to our commitment to an overall diverse and balanced workforce and talent pipeline, we continue to focus on diversity in senior leadership. As a result of our endeavors, we continue to achieve steady progress with representation of women and people of color in senior leadership roles improving over the last six years to 39% and 18%, respectively, at the end of 2023. Moreover, women represent 50% and people of color represent 13% of our executive leadership team at the end of 2023. To continue to build and attract a diverse workforce, in 2023, Synovus continued to work with key organizations and partnerships to strengthen our recruiting efforts.To build and attract a diverse workforce, in 2022, Synovus continued to identify key organizations and partnerships to strengthen our recruiting efforts. We continued our campus recruiting efforts, executing a comprehensive campus recruitment strategy with a focus on diversity, deepening our relationships with historically black colleges and universities in our markets, hosting a diversity symposium, and increasing our focus on military recruitment. We also continued to work with such professional organizations as the Latin American Association Unidos in Finance and leveraged our numerous and varied 5employee resource groups for internal referrals. Moreover, we continued to focus on awareness and improvements in the diversity of our early talent internship and accelerated banker programs. As to the existing workforce, in 2023, Synovus continued its work toward increasing all dimensions of DEI across our employee population and all levels within the organization, engaging employee resource groups to assist with talent acquisition, development, and community outreach, and increasing our internal dialogue through forums, fireside chats, and listen and learn events. In 2023, we provided enhanced awareness and education to our employees around neurodiversity. In addition, all of our leadership programs include unconscious bias and/or DEI modules. In 2023, we also received recognition by GallantFew as a Gallant Corporation, working to provide specialized assistance and support to our veterans and those transitioning to the Company from military service.As part of our commitment to fair and equitable compensation for all employees, in 2023, Synovus conducted gender and ethnicity pay equity analysis to augment the ongoing pay equity work being conducted by the Company. Results of the analysis and the resulting nominal pay adjustments were shared with the Compensation and Human Capital Committee.Employee Health and SafetySynovus is committed to operating in a safe, secure, and responsible manner for the benefit of our employees, clients, and communities. Employee Health and SafetySynovus is committed to operating in a safe, secure, and responsible manner for the benefit of our employees, clients, and communities. Synovus provides a range of programs to improve the physical, financial, and emotional well-being of our employees, including a range of physical and mental health and wellness benefits, and strives to create a safe and healthy workplace for all employees. Synovus provides a range of programs to improve the physical, financial, and emotional well-being of our employees, including a range of health and wellness benefits, and strives to create a safe and healthy workplace for all employees. Supervision, Regulation, and Other Factors We are extensively regulated under federal and state law. The following is a brief summary that does not purport to be a complete description of all regulations that affect us or all aspects of those regulations. This discussion is qualified in its entirety by reference to the particular statutory and regulatory provisions described below and is not intended to be an exhaustive description of the statutes or regulations applicable to the Company’s and Synovus Bank’s business. In addition, proposals to change the laws and regulations governing the banking industry are frequently raised at both the state and federal levels. The likelihood and timing of any changes in these laws and regulations, and the impact such changes may have on us and Synovus Bank, are difficult to predict. Regulatory agencies may issue enforcement actions, policy statements, interpretive letters, and similar written guidance applicable to us or to Synovus Bank. Changes in applicable laws, regulations, or regulatory guidance, or their interpretation by regulatory agencies or courts may have a material adverse effect on our and Synovus Bank’s business, operations, and earnings. Synovus Bank, Synovus Trust, and in some cases, we and our nonbank affiliates, must undergo regular examinations by the appropriate regulatory agency, which will examine for adherence to a range of legal and regulatory compliance responsibilities. A bank regulator conducting an examination has complete access to the books and records of the examined institution. The results of the examination are confidential. Supervision and regulation of banks, their holding companies, and affiliates is intended primarily for the protection of depositors and clients, the DIF of the FDIC, and the U.S. banking and financial system rather than holders of our securities. Regulation of the CompanyWe are registered as a bank holding company with the Federal Reserve under the BHC Act and have elected to be treated as a financial holding company. As such, we are subject to comprehensive supervision and regulation by the Federal Reserve and are subject to its regulatory reporting requirements. Federal law subjects bank holding companies, such as the Company, to restrictions on the types of activities in which they may engage, and to a range of supervisory requirements. In addition, the GA DBF regulates bank holding companies that own Georgia-chartered banks, such as us, under the bank holding company laws of the State of Georgia. Various federal and state bodies regulate and supervise our non-bank activities including our brokerage, investment advisory, and insurance agency activities. These include, but are not limited to, the SEC, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, federal and state banking regulators, and various state regulators of insurance and brokerage activities.Violations of laws and regulations, or other unsafe and unsound practices, may result in regulatory agencies imposing fines or penalties, cease and desist orders, or taking other enforcement actions. Under certain circumstances, these agencies may enforce these remedies directly against officers, directors, employees, and other parties participating in the affairs of a bank or bank holding company. Like all bank holding companies, we are regulated extensively under federal and state law. Under federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to the safety and soundness of insured depository institutions, state banking regulators, the Federal Reserve, and separately the FDIC as the insurer of bank deposits have the authority to compel or restrict certain actions on our part if they determine that we have insufficient capital or other resources, or are otherwise operating in a manner that may be deemed to be inconsistent with safe and sound banking practices. Under this authority, our regulators can require us or our subsidiaries to enter into informal or formal supervisory agreements, including board resolutions, memoranda of 6understanding, written agreements, and consent or cease and desist orders pursuant to which we would be required to take identified corrective actions to address cited concerns and to refrain from taking certain actions.If we become subject to and are unable to comply with the terms of any regulatory actions or directives, supervisory agreements or orders, then we could become subject to additional, heightened supervisory actions and orders, possibly including prompt corrective action restrictions and/or other regulatory actions, including prohibitions on the payment of dividends on our common stock and preferred stock. If our regulators were to take such supervisory actions, then we could, among other things, become subject to significant restrictions on our ability to develop any new business, as well as restrictions on our existing business, and we could be required to raise additional capital, dispose of certain assets and liabilities within a prescribed period of time, or both. The terms of any such action could have a material negative effect on our business, reputation, operating flexibility, financial condition, and the value of our common stock and preferred stock. See “Part I - Item 1A. Risk Factors - Compliance and Regulatory Risk - We may become subject to supervisory actions and enhanced regulation that could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, operating flexibility, financial condition, and the value of our common stock and preferred stock” of this Report.Activity LimitationsAs a financial holding company, we are permitted to engage directly or indirectly in a broader range of activities than those permitted for a bank holding company that has not elected to be a financial holding company. Bank holding companies are generally restricted to engaging in the business of banking, managing, or controlling banks and certain other activities determined by the Federal Reserve to be closely related to banking. Financial holding companies may also engage in activities that are considered to be financial in nature, as well as those incidental or, if determined by the Federal Reserve, complementary to financial activities. If Synovus Bank ceases to be “well capitalized” or “well managed” under applicable regulatory standards, or if Synovus Bank receives a rating of less than satisfactory under the CRA, the Federal Reserve may, among other things, place limitations on our ability to conduct these broader financial activities or, if the deficiencies persist, require us to divest the banking subsidiary or the businesses engaged in activities permissible only for financial holding companies.In addition, the Federal Reserve has the power to order a bank holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any nonbanking activity or terminate its ownership or control of any nonbank subsidiary when it has reasonable cause to believe that continuation of such activity or such ownership or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness, or stability of any bank subsidiary of that bank holding company. As further described below, each of the Company and Synovus Bank is well-capitalized under applicable regulatory standards as of December 31, 2023, and Synovus Bank has an overall rating of “Satisfactory” in its most recent CRA evaluation.Source of Strength ObligationsA bank holding company, such as us, is required to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to its subsidiary bank. The term “source of financial strength” means the ability of a company, such as us, that directly or indirectly owns or controls an insured depository institution, such as Synovus Bank, to provide financial assistance to such insured depository institution in the event of financial distress. The appropriate federal banking agency for the depository institution (in the case of Synovus Bank, this agency is the Federal Reserve) may require reports from us to assess our ability to serve as a source of strength and to enforce compliance with the source of strength requirements by requiring us to provide financial assistance to Synovus Bank in the event of financial distress. If we were to enter bankruptcy or become subject to the orderly liquidation process established by the Dodd-Frank Act, any commitment by us to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of Synovus Bank would be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee or the FDIC, as appropriate, and entitled to a priority of payment. In addition, the FDIC provides that any insured depository institution generally will be liable for any loss incurred by the FDIC in connection with the default of, or any assistance provided by the FDIC to, a commonly controlled insured depository institution. Synovus Bank is an FDIC-insured depository institution and thus subject to these requirements.AcquisitionsThe BHC Act permits acquisitions of banks by bank holding companies, such that we and any other bank holding company, whether located in Georgia or elsewhere, may acquire a bank located in any other state, subject to certain deposit-percentage, age of bank charter requirements, and other restrictions. The BHC Act requires that a bank holding company obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before (i) acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any additional bank or bank holding company, (ii) taking any action that causes an additional bank or bank holding company to become a subsidiary of the bank holding company, or (iii) merging or consolidating with any other bank holding company. The Federal Reserve may not approve any such transaction that would result in a monopoly or would be in furtherance of any combination or conspiracy to monopolize or attempt to monopolize the business of banking in any section of the United States, or the effect of which may be substantially to lessen competition or to tend to create a monopoly in any section of the country, or that in any other manner would be in restraint of trade unless the anticompetitive effects of the proposed transaction are clearly outweighed in the public interest by the probable effect of the transaction in meeting the convenience and needs of the 7community to be served. The Federal Reserve is also required to consider: (i) the financial and managerial resources of the companies involved, including pro forma capital ratios; (ii) the risk to the stability of the United States banking or financial system; (iii) the convenience and needs of the communities to be served, including performance under the CRA; and (iv) the effectiveness of the company in combatting money laundering.Change in ControlFederal law restricts the amount of voting stock of a bank holding company or a bank that a person may acquire without the prior approval of banking regulators. Under the Change in Bank Control Act and the regulations thereunder, a person or group must give advance notice to the Federal Reserve before acquiring control of any bank holding company, such as the Company, or before acquiring control of any FDIC-insured bank, such as Synovus Bank. Upon receipt of such notice, the Federal Reserve may approve or disapprove the acquisition. The Change in Bank Control Act creates a rebuttable presumption of control if a person or group acquires the power to vote 10% or more of our outstanding common stock. The overall effect of such laws is to make it more difficult to acquire a bank holding company and a bank by tender offer or similar means than it might be to acquire control of another type of corporation. Consequently, shareholders of the Company may be less likely to benefit from the rapid increases in stock prices that may result from tender offers or similar efforts to acquire control of other companies. Investors should be aware of these requirements when acquiring shares of our stock.Governance and Financial Reporting ObligationsWe are required to comply with various corporate governance and financial reporting requirements under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules and regulations adopted by the SEC, the PCAOB, and the NYSE.

In particular, we are required to include management and independent registered public accounting firm reports on internal controls as part of our Annual Report on Form 10-K in order to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We have evaluated our controls, including compliance with the SEC rules on internal controls, and have and expect to continue to spend significant amounts of time and money on compliance with these rules. Our failure to comply with these internal control rules may materially adversely affect our reputation, ability to obtain the necessary certifications to financial statements, and the values of our securities. The assessments of our financial reporting controls as of December 31, 2023 are included in this Report under “Item 9A. Controls and Procedures.”The Federal Reserve also requires bank holding companies meeting certain asset size thresholds, such as us, to establish and maintain a risk committee of its board of directors and appoint a chief risk officer, each meeting certain requirements.Volcker RuleSection 13 of the BHC Act, commonly referred to as the “Volcker Rule,” generally prohibits us and our subsidiaries from (i) engaging in certain proprietary trading and (ii) acquiring or retaining an ownership interest in or sponsoring a “covered fund,” all subject to certain exceptions. The Volcker Rule also specifies certain limited activities in which we and our subsidiaries may continue to engage and requires us to maintain a compliance program. Incentive CompensationThe Dodd-Frank Act required the federal banking agencies and the SEC to establish joint rules or guidelines for financial institutions with more than $1 billion in assets, such as us and Synovus Bank, which prohibit incentive compensation arrangements that the agencies determine to encourage inappropriate risks by the institution.Incentive CompensationThe Dodd-Frank Act required the federal banking agencies and the SEC to establish joint rules or guidelines for financial institutions with more than $1 billion in assets, such as us and Synovus Bank, which prohibit incentive compensation arrangements that the agencies determine to encourage inappropriate risks by the institution. The federal banking agencies issued proposed rules in 2011 and previously issued guidance on sound incentive compensation policies. In 2016, the federal banking agencies and the SEC proposed rules that would, depending upon the assets of the institution, directly regulate incentive compensation arrangements and would require enhanced oversight and recordkeeping. As of December 31, 2023, these rules have not been implemented, although the SEC did adopt final rules implementing the clawback provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act in 2022, and the NYSE did adopt corresponding listing standards for clawback policies in 2023. As of December 31, 2022, these rules have not been implemented, although the SEC did adopt final rules implementing the clawback provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act in 2022. We and Synovus Bank have undertaken efforts to ensure that our incentive compensation plans do not encourage inappropriate risks, consistent with three key principles - that incentive compensation arrangements should appropriately balance risk and financial rewards, be compatible with effective controls and risk management, and be supported by strong corporate governance.Other Regulatory MattersWe and our subsidiaries are subject to oversight by the SEC, the FINRA, the PCAOB, the NYSE, and various state securities and insurance regulators. We and our subsidiaries have from time to time received requests for information from regulatory authorities in various states, including state attorneys general, securities regulators, and other regulatory authorities concerning our business practices. Such requests are considered incidental to the normal conduct of business.Capital RequirementsWe and Synovus Bank are required under federal law to maintain certain minimum capital levels based on ratios of capital to total assets and capital to risk-weighted assets. The required capital ratios are minimums, and the Federal Reserve may 8determine that a banking organization based on its size, complexity, or risk profile must maintain a higher level of capital in order to operate in a safe and sound manner. Risks such as concentration of credit risks and the risk arising from nontraditional activities, as well as the institution’s exposure to a decline in the economic value of its capital due to changes in interest rates, and an institution’s ability to manage those risks, are important factors that are to be taken into account in assessing an institution’s overall capital adequacy. The following is a brief description of the relevant provisions of these capital rules and their potential impact on our capital levels.We and Synovus Bank are subject to the following risk-based capital ratios: a CET1 risk-based capital ratio, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio, which includes CET1 and additional Tier 1 capital, and a total risk-based capital ratio, which includes Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital. CET1 is primarily comprised of the sum of common stock instruments and related surplus net of treasury stock plus retained earnings less certain adjustments and deductions, including with respect to goodwill, intangible assets, mortgage servicing assets, and deferred tax assets subject to temporary timing differences. Additional Tier 1 capital is primarily comprised of noncumulative perpetual preferred stock. Tier 2 capital consists of instruments disqualified from Tier 1 capital, including qualifying subordinated debt and a limited amount of loan loss reserves up to a maximum of 1.25% of risk-weighted assets, subject to certain eligibility criteria. The capital rules also define the risk-weights assigned to assets and off-balance sheet items to determine the risk-weighted asset components of the risk-based capital rules, including, for example, certain “high volatility” commercial real estate, past due assets, structured securities, and equity holdings.The leverage capital ratio, which serves as a minimum capital standard, is the ratio of Tier 1 capital to quarterly average total consolidated assets net of goodwill, certain other intangible assets, and certain required deduction items. The required minimum leverage ratio for all banks and bank holding companies is 4%.In addition, effective January 1, 2019, the capital rules required a capital conservation buffer of 2.5% above each of the minimum risk-based capital ratio requirements (CET1, Tier 1, and total capital), which is designed to absorb losses during periods of economic stress. These buffer requirements must be met for a bank or bank holding company to be able to pay dividends, engage in share buybacks, or make discretionary bonus payments to executive management without restriction.The FDICIA, among other things, requires the federal bank regulatory agencies to take “prompt corrective action” regarding depository institutions that do not meet minimum capital requirements. FDICIA establishes five regulatory capital tiers: “well capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized,” and “critically undercapitalized.” A depository institution’s capital tier will depend upon how its capital levels compare to various relevant capital measures and certain other factors, as established by regulation. FDICIA generally prohibits a depository institution from making any capital distribution (including payment of a dividend) or paying any management fee to its holding company if the depository institution would thereafter be undercapitalized. The FDICIA imposes progressively more restrictive restraints on operations, management, and capital distributions depending on the category in which an institution is classified. Undercapitalized depository institutions are subject to restrictions on borrowing from the Federal Reserve System. In addition, undercapitalized depository institutions may not accept brokered deposits absent a waiver from the FDIC, are subject to growth limitations, and are required to submit capital restoration plans for regulatory approval. A depository institution's holding company must guarantee any required capital restoration plan up to an amount equal to the lesser of 5% of the depository institution's assets at the time it becomes undercapitalized or the amount of the capital deficiency when the institution fails to comply with the plan. Federal banking agencies may not accept a capital plan without determining, among other things, that the plan is based on realistic assumptions and is likely to succeed in restoring the depository institution's capital. If a depository institution fails to submit an acceptable plan, it is treated as if it is significantly undercapitalized. To be well-capitalized, Synovus Bank must maintain at least the following capital ratios:•6.5% CET1 to risk-weighted assets;•8.0% Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets;•10.0% Total capital to risk-weighted assets; and•5.0% leverage ratio.The Federal Reserve has not yet revised the well-capitalized standard for bank holding companies to reflect the higher capital requirements imposed under the current capital rules applicable to banks. For purposes of the Federal Reserve’s Regulation Y, including determining whether a bank holding company meets the requirements to be a financial holding company, bank holding companies, such as the Company, must maintain a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.0% or greater and a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0% or greater to be well-capitalized. Also, the Federal Reserve may require bank holding companies, including the Company, to maintain capital ratios substantially in excess of mandated minimum levels depending upon general economic conditions and a bank holding company’s particular condition, risk profile, and growth plans.Failure to be well-capitalized or to meet minimum capital requirements could result in certain mandatory and possible additional discretionary actions by regulators that, if undertaken, could have an adverse material effect on our operations or financial condition. Failure to meet minimum capital requirements could also result in restrictions on the Company’s or Synovus 9Bank’s ability to pay dividends or otherwise distribute capital or to receive regulatory approval of applications or other restrictions on its growth.In 2023, the Company’s and Synovus Bank’s regulatory capital ratios were above the applicable well-capitalized standards and met the capital conservation buffer. Based on current estimates, we believe that the Company and Synovus Bank will continue to exceed all applicable well-capitalized regulatory capital requirements and the capital conservation buffer in 2024. As of December 31, 2023, the consolidated capital ratios of Synovus and Synovus Bank were as follows:See "Part II - Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Capital Resources" and "Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 10 - Regulatory Capital" of this Report for further information.On August 26, 2020, the federal banking regulators issued a final rule that allowed electing banking organizations that adopted CECL during 2020 to mitigate the estimated effects of CECL on regulatory capital for two years, followed by a three-year phase-in transition period. Synovus adopted CECL on January 1, 2020, and Synovus' December 31, 2023 regulatory capital ratios reflect Synovus' election of the five-year transition provision. Payment of DividendsWe are a legal entity separate and distinct from Synovus Bank and our other subsidiaries.Payment of DividendsWe are a legal entity separate and distinct from Synovus Bank and our other subsidiaries. Under the laws of the State of Georgia, we, as a business corporation, may declare and pay dividends in cash or property unless the payment or declaration would be contrary to restrictions contained in our Articles of Incorporation, or unless, after payment of the dividend, we would not be able to pay our debts when they become due in the usual course of our business or our total assets would be less than the sum of our total liabilities. In addition, we are also subject to federal regulatory capital requirements that effectively limit the amount of cash dividends that we may pay.The primary sources of funds for our payment of dividends to our shareholders are cash on hand and dividends from Synovus Bank and our non-bank subsidiaries. Various federal and state statutory provisions and regulations limit the amount of dividends that Synovus Bank may pay. Synovus Bank is a Georgia bank. Under the regulations of the GA DBF, a Georgia bank must have approval of the GA DBF to pay cash dividends if, at the time of such payment:•the ratio of Tier 1 capital to average total assets is less than 6%;•the aggregate amount of dividends to be declared or anticipated to be declared during the current calendar year exceeds 50% of its net income for the previous calendar year; or•its total adversely classified assets in its most recent regulatory examination exceeded 80% of its Tier 1 capital plus its allowance for loan losses.The Georgia Financial Institutions Code also contains restrictions on the ability of a Georgia bank to pay dividends other than from retained earnings without the approval of the GA DBF. As a result of the foregoing restrictions, Synovus Bank may be required to seek approval from the GA DBF to pay dividends.In addition, we and Synovus Bank are subject to various general regulatory policies and requirements relating to the payment of dividends, including requirements to maintain adequate capital above regulatory minimums. The Federal Reserve has indicated that paying dividends that deplete a bank’s capital base to an inadequate level would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice. The Federal Reserve has indicated that depository institutions and their holding companies should generally pay dividends only out of current operating earnings.Under a Federal Reserve policy adopted in 2009, the board of directors of a bank holding company must consider different factors to ensure that its dividend level is prudent relative to maintaining a strong financial position and is not based on overly optimistic earnings scenarios, such as potential events that could affect its ability to pay, while still maintaining a strong financial position. As a general matter, the Federal Reserve has indicated that the board of directors of a bank holding company should consult with the Federal Reserve and eliminate, defer, or significantly reduce the bank holding company’s dividends if:10•its net income available to shareholders for the past four quarters, net of dividends previously paid during that period, is not sufficient to fully fund the dividends;•its prospective rate of earnings retention is not consistent with its capital needs and overall current and prospective financial condition; or•it will not meet, or is in danger of not meeting, its minimum regulatory capital adequacy ratios.Regulation of the BankSynovus Bank, which is a member of the Federal Reserve System, is subject to comprehensive supervision and regulation by the Federal Reserve, and is subject to its regulatory reporting requirements, as well as supervision and regulation by the GA DBF. As a member bank of the Federal Reserve System, Synovus Bank is required to hold stock in its district Federal Reserve Bank in an amount equal to 6% of its capital stock and surplus (half paid to acquire stock with the remainder held as a cash reserve). Member banks do not have any control over the Federal Reserve System as a result of owning the stock and the stock cannot be sold or traded. The annual dividend rate for member banks that are the size of Synovus Bank is based on a floating dividend rate tied to 10-year U. The annual dividend rate for member banks with total assets in excess of $10 billion, including Synovus Bank, is based on a floating dividend rate tied to10-year U. S. Treasuries with the maximum dividend rate capped at 6%.The deposits of Synovus Bank are insured by the FDIC up to applicable limits, and, accordingly, Synovus Bank is also subject to certain FDIC regulations, and the FDIC has backup examination authority and some enforcement powers over Synovus Bank. Synovus Trust, a subsidiary of Synovus Bank that provides trust services, is organized as a national trust bank and thus is subject to supervision and regulation by the OCC.In addition, as discussed in more detail below, Synovus Bank and any other of our subsidiaries that offer consumer financial products and services are subject to regulation and supervision by the CFPB. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act permits states to adopt consumer protection laws and regulations that are stricter than those regulations promulgated by the CFPB, and state attorneys general are permitted to enforce certain federal consumer financial protection law.Broadly, regulations applicable to Synovus Bank include limitations on loans to a single borrower and to its directors, officers, and employees; restrictions on the opening and closing of branch offices; the maintenance of required capital ratios; the granting of credit under equal and fair conditions; the disclosure of the costs and terms of such credit; requirements to maintain reserves against deposits and loans; limitations on the types of investment that may be made by Synovus Bank; and requirements governing risk management practices. Subject to Federal Reserve approval and certain state filing requirements, Synovus Bank is permitted under federal law to branch on a de novo basis across state lines wherever the laws of that state would permit a bank chartered by that state to establish a branch.Transactions with Affiliates and InsidersSynovus Bank is subject to restrictions on extensions of credit and certain other transactions between Synovus Bank and the Company or any nonbank affiliate. Generally, these covered transactions with either the Company or any affiliate are limited to 10% of Synovus Bank’s capital and surplus, and all such transactions between Synovus Bank and the Company and all of its nonbank affiliates combined are limited to 20% of Synovus Bank’s capital and surplus. Loans and other extensions of credit from Synovus Bank to the Company or any affiliate generally are required to be secured by eligible collateral in specified amounts. In addition, any transaction between Synovus Bank and the Company or any affiliate are required to be on an arm’s length basis. Federal banking laws also place similar restrictions on certain extensions of credit by insured banks, such as Synovus Bank, to their directors, executive officers, and principal shareholders.FDIC Insurance Assessments and Depositor PreferenceSynovus Bank’s deposits are insured by the FDIC’s DIF up to the limits under applicable law, which currently are set at $250,000 per depositor, per insured bank, for each account ownership category. Synovus Bank is subject to FDIC assessments for its deposit insurance. The FDIC calculates quarterly deposit insurance assessments based on an institution’s average total consolidated assets less its average tangible equity, and applies one of four risk categories determined by reference to its capital levels, supervisory ratings, and certain other factors. The assessment rate schedule can change from time to time, at the discretion of the FDIC, subject to certain limits. As of June 30, 2020, the DIF reserve ratio fell to 1.30%, below the statutory minimum of 1.35%. The FDIC, as required under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, established a plan on September 15, 2020 to restore the DIF reserve ratio to meet or exceed the statutory minimum of 1.35% within eight years. On October 18, 2022, the FDIC adopted an amended restoration plan to increase the likelihood that the reserve ratio would be restored to at least 1.35% by September 30, 2028. The FDIC's amended restoration plan increased the initial base deposit insurance assessment rate schedules uniformly by 2 bps, beginning with the first quarterly assessment period of 2023. The FDIC could further increase the deposit insurance assessments for certain insured depository institutions, including Synovus Bank, if the DIF reserve ratio is not restored as projected. 11In November 2023, the FDIC approved a final rule to implement a special assessment to recover the loss to the DIF associated with several bank failures that occurred during the first half of 2023. The assessment base for the special assessment is equal to a bank's uninsured deposits reported as of December 31, 2022, adjusted to exclude the first $5 billion, to be collected at an annual rate of approximately 13.4 bps for an anticipated total of eight quarterly assessment periods, beginning with the first quarterly assessment period of 2024. Insurance of deposits may be terminated by the FDIC upon a finding that the institution has engaged in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order, or condition imposed by a bank’s federal regulatory agency. In addition, the Federal Deposit Insurance Act provides that, in the event of the liquidation or other resolution of an insured depository institution, the claims of depositors of the institution, including the claims of the FDIC as subrogee of insured depositors, and certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as a receiver, will have priority over other general unsecured claims against the institution, including those of the parent bank holding company. Standards for Safety and SoundnessThe Federal Deposit Insurance Act requires the federal bank regulatory agencies to prescribe, by regulation or guideline, operational and managerial standards for all insured depository institutions relating to: (i) internal controls; (ii) information systems and audit systems; (iii) loan documentation; (iv) credit underwriting; (v) interest rate risk exposure; and (vi) asset quality.Standards for Safety and SoundnessThe Federal Deposit Insurance Act requires the federal bank regulatory agencies to prescribe, by regulation or guideline, operational and managerial standards for all insured depository institutions relating to: (i) internal controls; (ii) information systems and audit systems; (iii) loan documentation; (iv) credit underwriting; (v) interest rate risk exposure; and (vi) asset quality. The federal banking agencies have adopted regulations and Interagency Guidelines Establishing Standards for Safety and Soundness to implement these required standards. These guidelines set forth the safety and soundness standards used to identify and address problems at insured depository institutions before capital becomes impaired. Under the regulations, if a regulator determines that a bank fails to meet any standards prescribed by the guidelines, the regulator may require the bank to submit an acceptable plan to achieve compliance, consistent with deadlines for the submission and review of such safety and soundness compliance plans.Anti-Money LaunderingA continued focus of governmental policy relating to financial institutions in recent years has been combating money laundering and terrorist financing. The USA PATRIOT Act broadened the application of anti-money laundering regulations to apply to additional types of financial institutions such as broker-dealers, investment advisors, and insurance companies, and strengthened the ability of the U.S. government to help prevent, detect, and prosecute international money laundering and the financing of terrorism. The principal provisions of Title III of the USA PATRIOT Act require that regulated financial institutions, including state member banks: (i) establish an anti-money laundering program that includes training and audit components; (ii) comply with regulations regarding the verification of the identity of any person seeking to open an account; (iii) take additional required precautions with non-U.S. owned accounts; and (iv) perform certain verification and certification of money laundering risk for their foreign correspondent banking relationships. Failure of a financial institution to comply with the USA PATRIOT Act’s requirements could have serious legal and reputational consequences for the institution. Synovus Bank has augmented its systems and procedures to meet the requirements of these regulations and will continue to revise and update its policies, procedures, and controls to reflect changes required by law. FinCEN has adopted rules that require financial institutions to obtain beneficial ownership information with respect to legal entities with which such institutions conduct business, subject to certain exclusions and exemptions. Bank regulators are focusing their examinations on anti-money laundering compliance, and we continue to monitor and augment, where necessary, our anti-money laundering compliance programs. Banking regulators will consider compliance with the USA PATRIOT Act’s money laundering provisions in acting upon merger and acquisition proposals. Bank regulators routinely examine institutions for compliance with these obligations and have been active in imposing cease and desist and other regulatory orders and civil money penalties against institutions found to be violating these obligations. Sanctions for violations of the USA PATRIOT Act can be imposed in an amount equal to twice the sum involved in the violating transaction up to $1 million. On January 1, 2021, Congress passed federal legislation that made sweeping changes to federal anti-money laundering laws, including changes that will be implemented in subsequent years.Economic SanctionsOFAC is responsible for helping to ensure that U.Economic SanctionsThe OFAC is responsible for helping to ensure that U. S. entities do not engage in transactions with certain prohibited parties, as defined by various executive orders and acts of Congress. OFAC publishes, and routinely updates, lists of names of persons and organizations suspected of aiding, harboring, or engaging in terrorist acts, including the Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons List. If we find a name on any transaction, account, or wire transfer that is on an OFAC list, we must undertake certain specified activities, which could include blocking or freezing the account or transaction requested, and we must notify the appropriate authorities.12Concentrations in LendingDuring 2006, the federal bank regulatory agencies released guidance on “Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending” and advised financial institutions of the risks posed by CRE lending concentrations.12Concentrations in LendingDuring 2006, the federal bank regulatory agencies released guidance on “Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending” (the “Guidance”) and advised financial institutions of the risks posed by CRE lending concentrations. The guidance requires that appropriate processes be in place to identify, monitor, and control risks associated with real estate lending concentrations. Higher allowances for loan losses and capital levels may also be required. The guidance is triggered when CRE loan concentrations exceed either:•total reported loans for construction, land development, and other land of 100% or more of a bank’s total risk-based capital; or•total reported loans secured by multifamily and nonfarm nonresidential properties and loans for construction, land development, and other land of 300% or more of a bank’s total risk-based capital.This guidance also applies when a bank has a sharp increase in CRE loans or has significant concentrations of CRE secured by a particular property type.The Guidance also applies when a bank has a sharp increase in CRE loans or has significant concentrations of CRE secured by a particular property type. We have always had exposures to loans secured by CRE due to the nature of our markets and the borrowing needs of both consumer and commercial clients. We believe our long-term experience in CRE lending, underwriting policies, internal controls, and other policies currently in place, as well as our loan and credit monitoring and administration procedures, are generally appropriate in managing our concentrations as required under the guidance.Debit Interchange FeesInterchange fees, or "swipe" fees, are fees that merchants pay to credit card companies and card-issuing banks such as Synovus Bank for processing electronic payment transactions on their behalf. The maximum permissible interchange fee that a non-exempt issuer such as Synovus Bank may receive for an electronic debit transaction is the sum of 21 cents per transaction and 5 bps multiplied by the value of the transaction, subject to an upward adjustment of 1 cent if an issuer certifies that it has implemented policies and procedures reasonably designed to achieve the fraud-prevention standards set forth by the Federal Reserve. In addition, card issuers and networks are prohibited from entering into arrangements requiring that debit card transactions be processed on a single network or only two affiliated networks, and allows merchants to determine transaction routing.On October 25, 2023, the Federal Reserve proposed to lower the maximum interchange fee that a large debit card issuer can receive for a debit card transaction. The proposal would also establish a regular process for updating the maximum amount every other year going forward. We continue to monitor the development of these proposed rule revisions. Community Reinvestment ActSynovus Bank is subject to the provisions of the CRA, which imposes a continuing and affirmative obligation, consistent with safe and sound operation, to help meet the credit needs of entire communities where the bank accepts deposits, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods.Community Reinvestment ActSynovus Bank is subject to the provisions of the CRA, which imposes a continuing and affirmative obligation, consistent with safe and sound operation, to help meet the credit needs of entire communities where the bank accepts deposits, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. The Federal Reserve’s assessment of Synovus Bank’s CRA record is made available to the public. CRA agreements with private parties must be disclosed and annual CRA reports must be made to the Federal Reserve. A bank holding company will not be permitted to become or remain a financial holding company and no new activities authorized under GLB may be commenced by a holding company or by a bank financial subsidiary if any of its bank subsidiaries received less than a “satisfactory” CRA rating in its latest CRA examination. Federal CRA regulations require, among other things, that evidence of discrimination against applicants on a prohibited basis and illegal or abusive lending practices be considered in the CRA evaluation. Synovus Bank has a rating of “Satisfactory” in its most recent CRA evaluation. On October 24, 2023, the OCC, Federal Reserve, and FDIC issued a final rule to modernize their respective CRA regulations. The revised rules substantially alter the methodology for assessing compliance with the CRA, with material aspects taking effect January 1, 2026 and revised data reporting requirements taking effect January 1, 2027. Among other things, the revised rules evaluate lending outside traditional assessment areas generated by the growth of non-branch delivery systems, such as online and mobile banking, apply a metrics-based benchmarking approach to assessment, and clarify eligible CRA activities. The final rules are likely to make it more challenging and/or costly for the Bank to receive a rating of at least "Satisfactory" on its CRA exam. Privacy, Credit Reporting, and Data SecurityThe GLB generally prohibits disclosure of non-public consumer information to non-affiliated third parties unless the consumer has been given the opportunity to object and has not objected to such disclosure.Privacy, Credit Reporting, and Data SecurityThe GLB generally prohibits disclosure of non-public consumer information to non-affiliated third parties unless the consumer has been given the opportunity to object and has not objected to such disclosure. Financial institutions are further required to disclose their privacy policies to clients annually. Financial institutions, however, will be required to comply with state law if it is more protective of consumer privacy than the GLB. The GLB also directed federal regulators to prescribe standards for the security of consumer information. Synovus Bank is subject to such standards, as well as standards for notifying clients in the event of a security breach. Synovus Bank utilizes credit bureau data in underwriting activities. Use of such data is regulated under the Fair Credit Reporting Act and Regulation V on a uniform, nationwide basis, including credit reporting, 13prescreening, and sharing of information between affiliates and the use of credit data. The Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act, which amended the Fair Credit Reporting Act, permits states to enact identity theft laws that are not inconsistent with the conduct required by the provisions of that Act. Clients must be notified when unauthorized disclosure involves sensitive client information that may be misused. On November 18, 2021, the federal banking agencies issued a new rule effective in 2022 that requires banks to notify their primary federal regulator within 36 hours of a “computer-security incident” that rises to the level of a “notification incident.” In addition, effective in December 2023, the SEC issued a new rule that requires registrants to disclose material cybersecurity incidents within four business days. The federal banking regulators regularly issue guidance regarding cybersecurity intended to enhance cyber risk management standards among financial institutions. As a result, financial institutions, like Synovus and Synovus Bank, are expected to establish multiple lines of defense and to ensure their risk management processes address the risk posed by potential threats to the institution. A financial institution’s management is expected to maintain sufficient processes to effectively respond and recover the institution’s operations after a cyber-attack. A financial institution is also expected to develop appropriate processes to enable recovery of data and business operations if a critical service provider of the institution falls victim to this type of cyber-attack. In addition, effective in December 2023, the SEC enhanced and standardized the disclosure obligations related to a registrant's cybersecurity risk management, strategy, and governance. Our information security protocols are designed in part to adhere to the requirements of bank regulatory guidance and these enhanced SEC disclosure requirements. Our information security protocols are designed in part to adhere to the requirements of this guidance. See "Part I - Item 1C. Cybersecurity" of this Report for additional information on cybersecurity.State regulators have also been increasingly active in implementing privacy and cybersecurity standards and regulations. Recently, several states have adopted regulations requiring certain financial institutions to implement cybersecurity programs and providing detailed requirements with respect to these programs, including data encryption requirements. Many states have also recently implemented or modified their data breach notification and data privacy requirements. We expect this trend of state-level activity in those areas to continue and are continually monitoring developments in the states in which our clients are located.Anti-Tying RestrictionsIn general, a bank may not extend credit, lease, sell property, or furnish any services or fix or vary the consideration for them on the condition that (i) the client obtain or provide some additional credit, property, or services from or to the bank or bank holding company or their subsidiaries or (ii) the client not obtain some other credit, property, or services from a competitor, except to the extent reasonable conditions are imposed to assure the soundness of the credit extended. A bank may, however, offer combined-balance products and may otherwise offer more favorable terms if a client obtains two or more traditional bank products. The law also expressly permits banks to engage in other forms of tying and authorizes the Federal Reserve Board to grant additional exceptions by regulation or order. Also, certain foreign transactions are exempt from the general rule.Consumer RegulationActivities of Synovus Bank are subject to a variety of statutes and regulations designed to protect consumers. These laws and regulations include, among numerous other things, provisions that:•limit the interest and other charges collected or contracted for by Synovus Bank, including rules respecting the terms of credit cards and of debit card overdrafts;•govern Synovus Bank’s disclosures of credit terms to consumer borrowers;•require Synovus Bank to provide information to enable the public and public officials to determine whether it is fulfilling its obligation to help meet the housing needs of the communities it serves;•prohibit Synovus Bank from discriminating on the basis of race, creed, or other prohibited factors when it makes decisions to extend credit;•govern the manner in which Synovus Bank may collect consumer debts; and•prohibit unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices in the provision of consumer financial products and services.Mortgage RegulationThe CFPB adopted a rule that implements the ability-to-repay and qualified mortgage provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act (the “ATR/QM rule”), which requires lenders to consider, among other things, income, employment status, assets, payment amounts, and credit history before approving a mortgage, and provides a compliance “safe harbor” for lenders that issue certain “qualified mortgages.” The ATR/QM rule defines a “qualified mortgage” to have certain specified characteristics and generally prohibits loans with negative amortization, interest-only payments, balloon payments, or terms exceeding 30 years from being qualified mortgages. The rule also establishes general underwriting criteria for qualified mortgages, including that monthly payments be calculated based on the highest payment that will apply in the first five years of the loan and that the borrower have a total debt-to-income ratio that is less than or equal to 43%. While “qualified mortgages” will generally be afforded safe harbor status, a rebuttable presumption of compliance with the ability-to-repay requirements will attach to “qualified mortgages” that are “higher 14priced mortgages” (which are generally subprime loans). In addition, the securitizer of asset-backed securities must retain not less than 5% of the credit risk of the assets collateralizing the asset-backed securities, unless subject to an exemption for asset-backed securities that are collateralized exclusively by residential mortgages that qualify as “qualified residential mortgages.”The CFPB has also issued rules to implement requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act pertaining to mortgage loan origination (including with respect to loan originator compensation and loan originator qualifications) as well as integrated mortgage disclosure rules. In addition, the CFPB has issued rules that require servicers to comply with certain standards and practices with regard to error correction; information disclosure; force-placement of insurance; information management policies and procedures; requiring information about mortgage loss mitigation options be provided to delinquent borrowers; providing delinquent borrowers access to servicer personnel with continuity of contact about the borrower’s mortgage loan account; and evaluating borrowers’ applications for available loss mitigation options. These rules also address initial rate adjustment notices for adjustable-rate mortgages, periodic statements for residential mortgage loans, and prompt crediting of mortgage payments and response to requests for payoff amounts. Non-Discrimination PoliciesSynovus Bank is also subject to, among other things, the provisions of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act ("ECOA") and the Fair Housing Act ("FHA"), both of which prohibit discrimination based on race or color, religion, national origin, sex, and familial status in any aspect of a consumer or commercial credit or residential real estate transaction. Non-Discrimination PoliciesSynovus Bank is also subject to, among other things, the provisions of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act, both of which prohibit discrimination based on race or color, religion, national origin, sex, and familial status in any aspect of a consumer or commercial credit or residential real estate transaction. The Department of Justice ("DOJ") and the federal bank regulatory agencies have issued an Interagency Policy Statement on Discrimination in Lending that provides guidance to financial institutions in determining whether discrimination exists, how the agencies will respond to lending discrimination, and what steps lenders might take to prevent discriminatory lending practices. The Department of Justice and the federal bank regulatory agencies have issued an Interagency Policy Statement on Discrimination in Lending that provides guidance to financial institutions in determining whether discrimination exists, how the agencies will respond to lending discrimination, and what steps lenders might take to prevent discriminatory lending practices. The DOJ has increased its efforts to prosecute what it regards as violations of the ECOA and FHA.LIBOROn March 15, 2022, Congress enacted the Adjustable Interest Rate (LIBOR) Act (the "LIBOR Act") to address references to LIBOR in contracts that: (i) are governed by U.S. law; (ii) will not mature before June 30, 2023; and (iii) lack fallback provisions providing for a clearly defined and practicable replacement for LIBOR. On December 16, 2022, the FRB adopted a final rule to implement the LIBOR Act by identifying benchmark rates based on SOFR that will replace LIBOR in certain financial contracts after June 30, 2023. As of the June 30, 2023 deadline, Synovus had made a concerted effort to eliminate LIBOR-based exposures by discontinuing the use of LIBOR in new business and by amending LIBOR-based contracts for legacy exposures to transition to other acceptable indexes. As of December 31, 2023, there was approximately $3 million of loan exposures which were still accruing on LIBOR but which will transition to SOFR upon their next index reset period. Additionally, there are various other exposures, most notably derivatives, which will transition to SOFR upon the next reset period in a manner that is consistent with industry practice. In addition, one of the alternative successor benchmark rates to LIBOR, BSBY, will be permanently discontinued effective November 15, 2024. As of December 31, 2023, there was approximately $160 million of customer derivative exposure on BSBY and approximately $800 million of loan exposures accruing on BSBY. Actions are underway to modify these loans to alternative index rates or to convert these loans under existing fallback language. Synovus does not believe that significant further actions will be required as part of the effort to adhere to the industry LIBOR or BSBY transition. Available InformationOur website address is www.synovus.com.

We file with or furnish to the SEC Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and annual reports to shareholders, and, from time to time, amendments to these documents and other documents called for by the SEC. The reports and other documents filed with or furnished to the SEC are available to investors on or through our website at investor.synovus.com under the heading “Financial Information” and then under “SEC Filings.” These reports are available on our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with the SEC.In addition, the SEC maintains an internet website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers, such as Synovus, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov.We have adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for our directors, officers, and employees and have also adopted Corporate Governance Guidelines. Our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, Corporate Governance Guidelines, and the charters of our Board committees, as well as information on how to contact our Board of Directors, are available in the Corporate Governance Section of our website at investor.synovus.com/governance. We will post any waivers of our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics granted to our directors or executive officers on our website at investor.synovus.com.We include our website addresses throughout this filing only as textual references. The information contained on our website is not incorporated in this document by reference. 15ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORSThis section highlights the material risks that we currently face. Please be aware that these risks may change over time and other risks may prove to be important in the future. New risks may emerge at any time, and we cannot predict such risks or estimate the extent to which they may affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations or the trading price of our securities.Strategic RiskCompetition in the financial services industry may adversely affect our future earnings and growth.We operate in a highly competitive environment and our profitability and future growth depends on our ability to compete successfully based on such factors as pricing, convenience, product offerings, technology, accessibility, quality of service, and client relationships.We operate in a highly competitive environment and our profitability and our future growth depends on our ability to compete successfully based on such factors as pricing, convenience, product offerings, technology, accessibility, quality of service, and client relationships. We face pricing competition for loans and deposits and, in order for us to compete for borrowers and depositors, we may be required to offer loans and deposits on terms less favorable to us, including lower rates on our loans and higher rates on our deposits. Certain of our competitors are larger and have more resources than we do, enabling them to be more aggressive than us in competing across the financial services landscape and investing in new products, technology and services. In addition, the ability of non-bank competitors to provide services previously limited to commercial banks has intensified the competition we face. These non-bank competitors are not subject to the same extensive regulations that govern us and, therefore, may be able to operate with greater flexibility and lower cost structures. Non-bank competitors can also operate in areas or offer certain products that may be considered speculative or risky. This significant competition in making loans and attracting and retaining deposits as well as in providing other financial services may impact our future earnings and growth.Furthermore, the financial services industry could become even more competitive as a result of legislative, regulatory and technological changes, and continued consolidation. •While we cannot predict the actions of state or federal legislatures or regulators, there is increasing likelihood that the bank regulatory landscape could shift due to legislation or regulatory action. Any material change to federal or state banking laws, regulations, or enforcement position could result in increased competition or make it more difficult for banks of our size to compete, either broadly or in specific segments of our business. •Technology has lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for non-banks and smaller banks to offer products and services traditionally provided by larger banks. Competitors adopting new technologies or changes to consumer behaviors or expectations could require us to make significant expenditures to modify or make additions to our current products and services. •There has also been increasing consolidation among regional banks similar in size or larger than us resulting in even larger banks. The resulting larger banks, as well as many other banks that are larger than us, may be able to achieve economies of scale due to their size and, as a result, may be able to operate more efficiently than us and also offer a broader range of products and services than we do, as well as better pricing for those products and services.We may not realize the expected benefits from our strategic initiatives and other operational and execution goals, either in whole or in part, which could negatively impact our future profitability.In the current competitive banking environment, overall revenue growth must outpace operating costs, which requires the successful execution of both growth and efficiency initiatives. In addition, we must continue to implement strategies to grow our product and service offerings and keep pace with changing technologies and client expectations in order to realize continued earnings growth and to remain competitive with the other banks and non-bank financial services providers in the markets we serve. We are continuously implementing strategic initiatives to achieve growth, reduce expense, and unlock efficiencies. Our current initiatives include, but are not limited to, expanding our banking-as-a-service capabilities, growing our corporate and investment banking and middle market commercial banking divisions, developing certain digital asset capabilities and products, and investing in the bank of the future through automation, artificial intelligence, digital, and analytics. While we have realized growth and efficiency gains as a result of current and past initiatives, there is no guarantee that these initiatives will be successful in supporting growth or achieving the expected level of future savings and revenue enhancements that we anticipate. While we have realized growth and efficiency gains as a result of current and past initiatives, including the recently completed Synovus Forward initiative, there is no guarantee that these initiatives will be successful in supporting growth or achieving the expected level of future savings and revenue enhancements that we anticipate. Additionally, any new service and product offerings, particularly digital offerings, will compete directly with other Synovus Bank product and service offerings. Additionally, any new service and product offerings, particularly digital offerings, will compete directly with other Synovus Bank product and service offerings, so any realized revenue from such growth initiatives may correspond to decreased revenue experienced by other Synovus Bank product and service offerings. Consequently, any realized revenue from such growth initiatives may correspond to decreased revenue from other Synovus Bank product and service offerings.Furthermore, our strategic initiatives may result in an increase in expense, divert management attention, take away from other opportunities that may have proved more successful, negatively impact operational effectiveness or impact employee morale. In addition, management expects to continue to make strategic investments in technology and talent that are expected to improve our client experience and support future growth which will require an increase in our expenditures. There can be no assurance that we will ultimately realize the anticipated benefits of these strategic initiatives, or that these strategic initiatives 16will positively impact our organization. These initiatives may fail to meet our own or our client’s expectations and may fail to keep pace with bank and non-bank competition and we may realize significant losses as a result. Finally, changes to the bank regulatory landscape generally, but particularly with respect to digital product offerings and third-party service providers, could negatively impact and undermine the rationale behind several of our initiatives.The implementation of new lines of business, new products and services, and new technologies may subject us to additional risk.We have launched or enhanced a number of lines of business, products and services, and technologies, including, among others, those related to our banking-as-a-service capabilities, corporate and investment banking initiatives, treasury and payments solutions business, and asset-based and structured lending capabilities.We have launched or enhanced a number of lines of business, products and services, and technologies, including, among others, those related to our recent Maast and corporate and investment banking initiatives and our treasury and payments solutions business and asset-based and structured lending capabilities. An important part of our business strategy is to continue these efforts to implement new products, services, and technologies designed to better serve our clients and respond to digitization trends in banking. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts. Initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business, new products or services, and/or new technologies may not be achieved and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. Additionally, such new products, services, and technologies often increase our reliance on third-party service providers. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives, and shifting market preferences, may also impact the successful implementation of a new line of business, a new product or service, and/or new technologies. Furthermore, any new line of business, new product or service, and/or new technology could require the establishment of new key controls and other controls and have a significant impact on our existing system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business, products, or services could have a material adverse effect on our business and, in turn, our financial condition and results of operations. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation could have a material adverse effect on our business and, in turn, our financial condition and results of operations. We may pursue bank and non-bank acquisition opportunities as they arise. However, even if we identify attractive acquisition opportunities, we may not be able to complete such acquisitions on favorable terms or realize the anticipated benefits from such acquisitions.While we continue to focus on organic growth opportunities, we may pursue attractive bank or non-bank acquisition and consolidation opportunities that arise in our core markets and beyond. The number of financial institutions headquartered within our footprint and across the country continues to decline through merger and other consolidation activity. The number of financial institutions headquartered in Georgia, Florida, the Southeastern United States, and across the country continues to decline through merger and other consolidation activity. In the event that attractive acquisition opportunities arise, we would likely face competition for such acquisitions from other banking and financial companies, many of which have significantly greater resources and may have more attractive valuations. This competition could either prevent us from being able to complete attractive acquisition opportunities or increase prices for potential acquisitions which could reduce our potential returns and reduce the attractiveness of these opportunities. Furthermore, even if we are able to identify and complete acquisitions, the terms of such acquisitions may not be favorable to us or we may fail to realize the anticipated benefits from such acquisitions. In addition, all acquisitions are subject to various regulatory approvals, and if we were unable (or there was a perception that we would be unable) to obtain such approvals for any reason, including due to any actual or perceived capital, liquidity, profitability, or regulatory compliance issues, it would impair our ability to consummate acquisitions. Also, all acquisitions are subject to various regulatory approvals, and if we were unable (or there was a perception that we would be unable) to obtain such approvals for any reason, including due to any actual or perceived capital, liquidity, profitability, or regulatory compliance issues, it would impair our ability to consummate acquisitions. Any acquisition could also be dilutive to our earnings and shareholders’ equity per share of our common stock. In addition, any acquisition could be dilutive to our earnings and shareholders’ equity per share of our common stock. Operational RiskFailure to attract and retain employees may adversely impact our ability to successfully execute our growth and efficiency strategies.Operational RiskFailure to attract and retain employees and the impact of senior leadership transitions may adversely impact our ability to successfully execute our growth and efficiency strategies. Our financial success depends upon our ability to attract and retain diverse, highly motivated, and well-qualified personnel that we rely on to execute all aspects of our business. We face increasingly significant competition in the recruitment of qualified employees at all levels from financial institutions and others. Moreover, the banking industry continues to transform due to technological innovation, increased demand for workplace flexibility, and competition for talent from non-bank financial services providers, and our ability to recruit and retain qualified individuals that bring a diversity of perspective and innovative thinking to our teams is both more difficult and more necessary. These trends, combined with labor shortages, have resulted in generally increased labor costs. Such trends may continue in the near term, which may result in further challenges in hiring and retaining employees throughout the organization. We must continually assess and manage how our talent needs change over time and failure to meet such needs may have a negative impact on our ability to compete. In addition, our future growth and the continued diversification of our loan portfolio depends, in part, on our ability to attract and retain the right mix of well-qualified employees. If we are unable to attract and retain qualified employees, our ability to execute our business strategies may suffer and we may be required to substantially increase our overall compensation or benefits to attract and retain such employees. Furthermore, we generally do not have employment agreements with our frontline employees, management team, or other key employees and cannot guarantee that our employees will remain with us. Furthermore, we generally do not have employment agreements in place with our frontline employees, management team, or other key employees and cannot guarantee that our employees will remain with us. The unexpected loss of services of one or more of our key personnel, especially members of our senior management team, 17could have a material adverse impact on the business because we would lose their skills, knowledge of the market, and years of industry experience and may have difficulty promptly finding qualified replacement personnel. The unexpected loss of services of one or more of our key personnel, especially members of our senior management team, could have a material adverse impact on the business because we would lose their skills, knowledge of the market, and years of 17industry experience and may have difficulty promptly finding qualified replacement personnel. In addition, the unexpected loss or inability to hire or retain branch-level employees could have a material adverse impact on our ability to increase deposits, generate frontline revenue, and properly service our clients. Furthermore, we have had a number of employee changes resulting from our voluntary early retirement program in 2023 and certain leadership changes over the last several years. Such changes can be inherently difficult to manage, and an inadequate transition may cause disruption to our business, including our relationships with our clients, suppliers, vendors, and employees. Such leadership changes can be inherently difficult to manage, and an inadequate transition may cause disruption to our business, including to our relationships with our clients, suppliers, vendors, and employees. It may also make it more difficult for us to hire and retain key employees. In addition, any failure to ensure the effective transfer of knowledge and a smooth leadership transition could hinder our strategic planning, execution, and future performance.The financial services market is undergoing rapid technological changes, and if we are unable to stay current with those changes, we will not be able to effectively compete.The financial services market, including banking services, is undergoing rapid changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services, primarily related to increased digitization of banking services and capabilities (including those related to or involving artificial intelligence, machine learning, blockchain, and other technologies) and increased demand for mobile banking solutions.The financial services market, including banking services, is undergoing rapid changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services, primarily related to increased digitization of banking services and capabilities. Our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to keep pace with these technological changes and to use technology to satisfy and grow client demand for our products and services and to create additional efficiencies in our operations. Our substantial investments in digital banking solutions, technology, and information systems will increase our dependency on third-party service providers and such investments may underperform expectations and could result in unexpected losses. Some of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements and have invested more heavily than us, and will continue to be able to do so, in developing and adopting new technologies, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage. Some of these competitors consist of financial technology providers who are beginning to offer more traditional banking products and may either acquire a bank charter or obtain a bank-like charter, such as the Fintech charter provided by the OCC. We may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services, be successful in marketing these products and services to our clients or keep pace with our competitors in this arena. As a result, our ability to effectively compete to retain or acquire new business may be impaired, and our business, financial condition, or results of operations may