Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - PFLT

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

Before you invest in our securities, you should be aware of various risks, including those described below. You should carefully consider these risk factors, together with all of the other information included in this Report, before you decide whether to make an investment in our securities. The risks set out below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and/or operating results. If any of the following events occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In such case, our NAV, the trading price of our common stock, our 2023 Notes or any securities we may issue, may decline, and an investor may lose all or part of an investment.

RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS AND STRUCTURE

We are subject to various covenants under Funding I’s Credit Facility which, if not complied with, could result in reduced availability and/or mandatory prepayments under Funding I’s Credit Facility, our 2023 Notes, the 2026 Notes and our 2031 Asset-Backed Debt.

In addition to the asset coverage ratio requirements, the Credit Facility contains various covenants applicable to Funding I, which restricts our ability to borrow funds, and the deed of trust governing our 2023 Notes, the indenture governing our 2026 Notes and the indenture governing our 2031 Asset-Backed Debt contain various covenants which, if not complied with, could accelerate repayment of the 2023 Notes, the 2026 Notes and the 2031 Asset-Backed Debt, respectively. For example, the Credit Facility’s income coverage covenant, or test, requires us to maintain a ratio whereby the aggregate amount of interest received on the portfolio loans must equal at least 125% of the interest payable in respect to the Lenders and other parties. Failure to satisfy the various covenants under the Credit Facility could accelerate repayment under the Credit Facility or otherwise prevent us from receiving distributions under the payment waterfall. This could materially and adversely affect our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations. Funding I’s borrowings under the Credit Facility are collateralized by the assets in Funding I’s investment portfolio. The agreements governing the Credit Facility require Funding I to comply with certain financial and operational covenants. These covenants include:

A requirement to retain our status as a RIC;
A requirement to maintain a minimum amount of stockholders’ equity; and
A requirement that our outstanding borrowings under the Credit Facility not exceed a certain percentage of the value of our portfolio.

Our continued compliance with these covenants depends on many factors, some of which are beyond our control. A material decrease in our NAV in connection with additional borrowings could result in an inability to comply with our obligation to restrict the level of indebtedness that we are able to incur in relation to the value of our assets or to maintain a minimum level of stockholders’ equity in Funding I or to result in the ability of the trustee and our note holders to accelerate amounts due under the deed of trust governing our 2023 Notes, the indenture governing our 2026 Notes or the indenture governing our 2031 Asset-Backed Debt. This could have a material adverse effect on our operations, as it would reduce availability under the Credit Facility and could trigger mandatory prepayment obligations under the terms of the Credit Facility.

We operate in a highly competitive market for investment opportunities.

A number of entities compete with us to make the types of investments that we make in middle-market companies. We compete with public and private funds, including other BDCs, commercial and investment banks, commercial financing companies, CLO funds and, to the extent they provide an alternative form of financing, private equity funds. Additionally, alternative investment vehicles, such as hedge funds, also invest in middle-market companies. As a result, competition for investment opportunities at middle-market companies can be intense. Many of our potential competitors are substantially larger and have considerably greater financial, technical and marketing resources than we do. For example, we believe some competitors have a lower cost of funds and access to funding sources that are not available to us. In addition, some of our competitors have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments, which could allow them to consider a wider variety of investments and establish more relationships than us. Furthermore, many of our competitors are not subject to the regulatory restrictions that the 1940 Act imposes on us as a BDC. We cannot assure you that the competitive pressures we face will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, as a result of this competition, we may not be able to take advantage of attractive investment opportunities from time to time, and we can offer no assurance that we will be able to identify and make investments that are consistent with our investment objectives.

Participants in our industry compete on several factors, including price, flexibility in transaction structuring, customer service, reputation, market knowledge and speed in decision-making. We do not seek to compete primarily based on the interest rates we offer, and we believe that some of our competitors may make loans with interest rates that are lower than the rates we offer. We may lose investment opportunities if we do not match our competitors’ pricing, terms and structure. However, if we match our competitors’ pricing, terms and structure, we may experience decreased net interest income and increased risk of credit loss.

Our borrowers may default on their payments, which may have a materially negative effect on our financial performance.

Our primary business exposes us to credit risk, and the quality of our portfolio has a significant impact on our earnings. Credit risk is a component of our fair valuation of our portfolio companies. Negative credit events will lead to a decrease in the fair value of our portfolio companies.

In addition, market conditions have affected consumer confidence levels, which may harm the business of our portfolio companies and result in adverse changes in payment patterns. Increased delinquencies and default rates would negatively impact our results of operations. Deterioration in the credit quality of our portfolio could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If interest rates rise, some of our portfolio companies may not be able to pay the escalating interest on our loans and may default.

We make long-term loans and debt investments, which may involve a high degree of repayment risk. Our investments with a deferred interest feature, such as OID income and PIK interest, could represent a higher credit risk than investments that must pay interest in full in cash on a regular basis. We invest in companies that may have limited financial resources, typically are highly leveraged and may be unable to obtain financing from traditional sources. Accordingly, a general economic downturn or severe tightening in the credit markets could materially impact the ability of our borrowers to repay their loans, which could significantly damage our business. Numerous other factors may affect a borrower’s ability to repay its loan, including the failure to meet its business plan or a downturn in its industry. A portfolio company’s failure to satisfy financial or operating covenants imposed by us or other lenders could lead to defaults and, potentially, termination of its loans or foreclosure on the secured assets.

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This could trigger cross-defaults under other agreements and jeopardize our portfolio company’s ability to meet its obligations under the loans or debt securities that we hold. In addition, our portfolio companies may have, or may be permitted to incur, other debt that ranks senior to or equally with our securities. This means that payments on such senior-ranking securities may have to be made before we receive any payments on our subordinated loans or debt securities. Deterioration in a borrower’s financial condition and prospects may be accompanied by deterioration in any related collateral and may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Any unrealized losses we experience on our investment portfolio may be an indication of future realized losses, which could reduce our income available for distribution.17 Any unrealized losses we experience on our investment portfolio may be an indication of future realized losses, which could reduce our income available for distribution.

As a BDC, we are required to carry our investments at fair value, which is derived from a market value or, if no market value is ascertainable or if market value does not reflect the fair value of such investment in the bona fide determination of our board of directors, then we would carry our investments at fair value as determined in good faith by or under the direction of our board of directors. Decreases in the market values or fair values of our investments are recorded as unrealized depreciation or loss. Unrealized losses of any given portfolio company could be an indication of such company’s inability in the future to meet its repayment obligations to us.

If the fair value of our portfolio companies reflects unrealized losses that are subsequently realized, we could experience reductions of our income available for distribution in future periods that could materially harm our results of operations and cause a material decline in the value of our publicly traded common stock.

We are dependent upon our Investment Adviser’s key personnel for our future success, and if our Investment Adviser is unable to hire and retain qualified personnel or if our Investment Adviser loses any member of its management team, our ability to achieve our investment objectives could be significantly harmed.

We depend on the diligence, skill and network of business contacts of the senior investment professionals of our Investment Adviser for our future success. We also depend, to a significant extent, on PennantPark Investment Advisers’ access to the investment information and deal flow generated by these senior investment professionals and any others that may be hired by PennantPark Investment Advisers. Subject to the overall supervision of our board of directors, the managers of our Investment Adviser evaluate, negotiate, structure, close and monitor our investments. Our future success depends on the continued service of management personnel of our Investment Adviser. The departure of managers of PennantPark Investment Advisers could have a material adverse effect on our ability to achieve our investment objectives. In addition, we can offer no assurance that PennantPark Investment Advisers will remain our Investment Adviser. The Investment Adviser has the right, under the Investment Management Agreement, to resign at any time upon 60 days’ written notice, whether we have found a replacement or not.

If our Investment Management Agreement is terminated, our costs under new agreements that we enter into may increase. In addition, we will likely incur significant time and expense in locating alternative parties to provide the services we expect to receive under our Investment Management Agreement. Any new investment management agreement would also be subject to approval by our stockholders.

We are exposed to risks associated with changes in interest rates that may affect our cost of capital and net investment income.

Since we borrow money to make investments, our net investment income depends, in part, upon the difference between the rate at which we borrow funds and the rate at which we invest those funds. As a result, we can offer no assurance that a significant change in market interest rates will not have a material adverse effect on our net investment income. In periods of rising interest rates, our cost of funds will increase and the interest rate on investments with an interest rate floor will not increase until interest rates exceed the applicable floor, which will reduce our net investment income. We may use interest rate risk management techniques, such as total return swaps and interest rate swaps, in an effort to limit our exposure to interest rate fluctuations. These techniques may include various interest rate hedging activities to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act and applicable commodities laws. These activities may limit our ability to participate in the benefits of lower interest rates with respect to the hedged portfolio. Adverse developments resulting from changes in interest rates or hedging transactions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, we have limited experience in entering into hedging transactions and we will initially have to purchase or develop such expertise, which may diminish the actual benefits of any hedging strategy we employ. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” for more information.

A rise in the general level of interest rates can be expected to lead to higher interest rates applicable to our debt investments once the interest rate exceeds the applicable floor. Accordingly, an increase in interest rates would make it easier for us to meet or exceed the incentive fee hurdle and may result in a substantial increase of the amount of incentive fees payable to our Investment Adviser with respect to Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income.

General interest rate fluctuations may have a substantial negative impact on our investments, the value of our common stock and our rate of return on invested capital. A reduction in interest rates may result in both lower interest rates on new investments and higher repayments on current investments with higher interest rates, which may have an adverse impact on our net investment income. An increase in interest rates could decrease the value of any investments we hold which earn fixed interest rates or are subject to interest rate floors and also could increase our interest expense on the Credit Facility, thereby decreasing our net investment income. Also, an increase in interest rates available to investors could make an investment in our common stock less attractive if we are not able to increase our dividend rate, which could reduce the value of our common stock.

If general interest rates continue to rise, there is a risk that the portfolio companies in which we hold floating rate securities will be unable to pay escalating interest amounts, which could result in a default under their loan documents with us. Rising interest rates could also cause portfolio companies to shift cash from other productive uses to the payment of interest, which may have a material adverse effect on their business and operations and could, over time, lead to increased defaults. In addition, continued rising interest rates may increase pressure on us to provide fixed rate loans to our portfolio companies, which could adversely affect our net investment income, as any increases in our cost of borrowed funds would not be accompanied by increased interest income from such fixed-rate investments.

The discontinuation and replacement of LIBOR may adversely affect the value of floating-rate debt securities in our portfolio or issued by us.The pending discontinuation and replacement of LIBOR may adversely affect the value of the LIBOR-indexed, floating-rate debt securities in our portfolio or issued by us.

As of June 30, 2023, no settings of LIBOR continue to be published on a representative basis and publication of many non-U.S. dollar LIBOR settings have been entirely discontinued. On July 29, 2021, the U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of large U.S. financial institutions, recommended replacing U.S. dollar LIBOR with alternative reference rates based on the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”). SOFR significantly differs from LIBOR, both in the actual rate and how it is calculated. Further, on March 15, 2022, the Consolidation Appropriations Act of 2022, which includes the Adjustable Interest Rate (LIBOR) Act (“LIBOR Act”), was signed into law in the United States. This legislation established a uniform benchmark replacement process for certain financial contracts that mature after June 30, 2023 that do not contain clearly defined or practicable LIBOR fallback provisions. The legislation also created a safe harbor that shields lenders from litigation if they choose to utilize a replacement rate recommended by the Board of Governors of the U.S. Federal Reserve. In addition, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates the publisher of LIBOR (ICR Benchmark Administration) has announced that it will require the continued publication of one, three and six month tenors of U.S. dollar LIBOR on a non-representative synthetic basis until the end of September 2024, which may result in certain non-U.S. law-governed contracts and U.S. law-governed contracts not being covered by the federal legislation remaining on synthetic U.S. dollar LIBOR until the end of this period. The transition from LIBOR as a result of certain statutory regimes (e.g., N.Y. Gen. Oblig. Law § 18-401 or the Adjustable Interest Rate (LIBOR) Act) or the use of synthetic LIBOR in floating-rate debt securities in our portfolio or issued by us and could have a material and adverse impact on the value or liquidity of those instruments. Law § 18-401 or the Adjustable Interest Rate (LIBOR) Act to certain floating-rate debt securities in our portfolio or issued by us and could have a material and adverse impact on the value or liquidity of those instruments.

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Given the inherent differences between LIBOR and SOFR, or any other alternative benchmark rate established, there are many uncertainties regarding a transition from LIBOR, including, but not limited to, the need to amend contracts which continue to reference LIBOR and how the transition from LIBOR will impact the cost of variable rate debt and certain derivative financial instruments. In addition, SOFR or other replacement rates may fail to gain market acceptance. Any failure of SOFR or alternative reference rates to gain market acceptance could adversely affect the return on, value of and market for securities linked to such rates. The elimination of LIBOR, the replacement of LIBOR with any alternative reference rate, such as SOFR (or an alternative reference rate based on SOFR) or any other changes or reforms to floating rate benchmarks could have an adverse impact on the market value of and/or transferability of any floating-rate debt securities in our portfolio or issued by us. The elimination of LIBOR, the replacement of LIBOR with any alternative reference rate, such as SOFR (or an alternative reference rate based on SOFR) or any other changes or reforms to LIBOR could have an adverse impact on the market value of and/or transferability of any floating-rate debt securities in our portfolio or issued by us.

The IRS has issued regulations regarding the tax consequences of the transition from LIBOR or another interbank offered rate (“IBOR”) to a new reference rate in debt instruments and non-debt contracts. Under the regulations, alteration or modification of the terms of a debt instrument to replace an operative rate that uses a discontinued IBOR with a qualified rate (as defined in the regulations) including true up payments equalizing the fair market value of contracts before and after such IBOR transition, to add a qualified rate as a fallback rate to a contract whose operative rate uses a discontinued IBOR or to replace a fallback rate that uses a discontinued IBOR with a qualified rate would not be taxable. The IRS may provide additional guidance, with potential retroactive effect.

Our financial condition and results of operation depend on our ability to manage future growth effectively.

Our ability to achieve our investment objectives depends on our ability to grow, which depends, in turn, on our Investment Adviser’s ability to identify, invest in and monitor companies that meet our investment selection criteria. Accomplishing this result on a cost-effective basis is largely a function of our Investment Adviser’s structuring of the investment process, its ability to provide competent, attentive and efficient services to us and our access to financing on acceptable terms. The management team of PennantPark Investment Advisers has substantial responsibilities under our Investment Management Agreement. In order for us to grow, our Investment Adviser will need to hire, train, supervise and manage new employees. However, we can offer no assurance that any current or future employees will contribute effectively to the work of, or remain associated with, the Investment Adviser. We caution you that the principals of our Investment Adviser or Administrator may also be called upon to provide and currently do provide significant managerial assistance to portfolio companies and other investment vehicles, including other BDCs, which are managed by the Investment Adviser. Such demands on their time may distract them or slow our rate of investment. Any failure to manage our future growth effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are highly dependent on information systems and systems failures could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business depends on the communications and information systems, including financial and accounting systems, of the Investment Adviser, the Administrator and our external service providers. Any failure or interruption of such systems could cause delays or other problems in our activities. This, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud. As a result, stockholders could lose confidence in our financial and other public reporting, which would harm our business and the trading price of our common stock.

Effective internal controls over financial reporting are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and, together with adequate disclosure controls and procedures, are designed to prevent fraud. Any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. In addition, any testing by us conducted in connection with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the subsequent testing by our independent registered public accounting firm (when undertaken, as noted below), may reveal deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting that are deemed to be significant deficiencies, material weaknesses or that may require prospective or retroactive changes to our consolidated financial statements or identify other areas for further attention or improvement. Inferior internal controls could also cause investors and lenders to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our common stock.

We have identified material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting. If we fail to remediate these material weaknesses, our ability to report our financial condition and results of operations accurately and on a timely basis could be adversely affected.

We have identified material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting, and management has determined that, as of September 30, 2023, we do not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting. These material weaknesses and our remediation efforts are described in Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting, which appears on page 58 of this Form 10-K. We cannot assure you that we will adequately remediate the material weaknesses or that additional material weaknesses in our internal controls will not be identified in the future. We cannot assure you that we will achieve investment results that will allow us to make a specified level of cash distributions or year-to-year increases in cash distributions. Any failure to maintain or implement required new or improved controls, or any difficulties we encounter in their implementation, could result in additional material weaknesses, or could result in material misstatements in our financial statements. These misstatements could result in restatements of our financial statements, cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations or cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information.

We are in the process of remediating the identified material weaknesses in our internal controls, but we are unable at this time to estimate when the remediation effort will be completed. If we fail to remediate these material weaknesses, there will continue to be an increased risk that our future financial statements could contain errors that will be undetected. Further and continued determinations that there are material weaknesses in the effectiveness of our internal controls could impact the operations of our business including our ability to obtain financing, the cost of any financing we obtain or require additional expenditures of resources to comply with applicable requirements. Accordingly, we can offer no assurance that we will replicate the historical performance of other investment companies and funds with which our senior and other investment professionals have been affiliated, and we caution that our investment returns could be substantially lower than the returns achieved by such other companies.

We may not replicate the historical performance of other investment companies and funds with which our senior and other investment professionals have been or are affiliated.

The 1940 Act imposes numerous constraints on the investment activities of BDCs. For example, BDCs are required to invest at least 70% of their total assets primarily in securities of U.S. private companies or thinly traded public companies (i.e., public companies with a market capitalization of less than $250 million), cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities and high-quality debt investments that mature in one year or less. These constraints may hinder the Investment Adviser’s ability to take advantage of attractive investment opportunities and to achieve our investment objectives. In addition, the investment philosophy and techniques used by the Investment Adviser may differ from those used by other investment companies and funds advised by the Investment Adviser. Accordingly, we can offer no assurance that we will replicate the historical performance of other investment companies and funds with which our senior and other investment professionals have been affiliated, and we caution that our investment returns could be substantially lower than the returns achieved by such other companies.

Any failure on our part to maintain our status as a BDC would reduce our operating flexibility.

If we do not remain a BDC, we might be regulated as a closed-end investment company under the 1940 Act, which would subject us to substantially more regulatory restrictions under the 1940 Act and correspondingly decrease our operating flexibility, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Loss of RIC tax status would substantially reduce our net assets and income available for debt service and distributions.

We have operated and continue to operate so as to maintain our election to be treated as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. If we meet the 90% Income Test, the Diversification Tests, and the Annual Distribution Requirement, we generally will not be subject to corporate-level income taxation on income we timely distribute, or are deemed to distribute, as dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to our stockholders. We would cease to qualify for such tax treatment if we were unable to comply with these requirements. In addition, we may have difficulty meeting our Annual Distribution Requirement to our stockholders because, in certain cases, we may recognize income before or without receiving cash representing such income. If we fail to qualify as a RIC, we will have to pay corporate-level taxes on all of our income whether or not we distribute it, which would substantially reduce the amount of income available for debt service as well as reduce and/or affect the character and amount of our distributions to our stockholders. Even if we qualify as a RIC, we generally will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax if we do not distribute to our stockholders in respect of each calendar year an amount at least equal to the Excise Tax Avoidance Requirement.

We may have difficulty paying our Annual Distribution Requirement if we recognize income before or without receiving cash representing such income.19 We may have difficulty paying our Annual Distribution Requirement if we recognize income before or without receiving cash representing such income.

For federal income tax purposes, we include in income certain amounts that we have not yet received in cash, such as OID and PIK interest, which represents interest added to the loan balance and due at the end of the loan term. OID, which could be significant relative to our overall investment assets, and increases in loan balances as a result of PIK interest will be included in income before we receive any corresponding cash payments. We also may be required to include in income certain other amounts that we will not receive in cash, such as amounts attributable to foreign currency transactions. Our investments with a deferred interest feature, such as PIK interest, may represent a higher credit risk than loans for which interest must be paid in full in cash on a regular basis. For example, even if the accounting conditions for income accrual are met, the borrower could still default when our actual collection is scheduled to occur upon maturity of the obligation.

The part of the incentive fee payable by us that relates to our net investment income is computed and paid on income that may include interest that has been accrued but not yet received in cash. If a portfolio company defaults on a loan that is structured to provide PIK or OID interest, it is possible that accrued interest previously used in the calculation of the incentive fee will become uncollectible.

If we are unable to satisfy the Annual Distribution Requirement, we may have to sell some of our investments at times or prices we would not consider advantageous, or raise additional debt or equity capital or reduce new investment originations to meet these distribution requirements, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we are not able to obtain cash from other sources, we may lose our ability to be subject to tax as a RIC and thus be subject to corporate-level income tax.

Legislation enacted in 2018 allows us to incur additional leverage.

A BDC has historically been able to issue “senior securities,” including borrowing money from banks or other financial institutions, only in amounts such that its asset coverage, as defined in Section 61(a)(2) of the 1940 Act, equals at least 200% after such incurrence or issuance. In March 2018, the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2018 (which includes the SBCAA) was enacted which amended the 1940 Act to decrease this percentage from 200% (i.e., $1 of debt outstanding for each $1 of equity) to 150% (i.e., $2 of debt outstanding for each $1 of equity) for a BDC that has received either stockholder approval or approval of a “required majority” (as defined in Section 57(o) of the 1940 Act) of its board of directors of the application of such lower asset coverage ratio to the BDC. On April 5, 2018, our board of directors approved such reduction. As such, we are able to incur additional indebtedness so long as we comply with the applicable disclosure requirement, which may increase the risk of investing in us. Under the 200% minimum asset coverage ratio, we were permitted to borrow up to one dollar for investment purposes for every one dollar of investor equity and, under the 150% minimum asset coverage ratio, we are permitted to borrow up to two dollars for investment purposes for every one dollar of investor equity. In other words, Section 61(a)(2) of the 1940 Act permits BDCs to potentially increase their debt-to-equity ratio from a maximum of 1-to-1 to a maximum of 2-to-1. In addition, since our base management fee is determined and payable based upon our average adjusted gross assets, which includes any borrowings for investment purposes, our base management fee expense may increase if we incur additional leverage.

Because we intend to distribute substantially all of our income to our stockholders to maintain our ability to be subject to tax as a RIC, we may need to raise additional capital to finance our growth. If funds are not available to us, we may need to curtail new investments, and our common stock value could decline.

In connection with satisfying the requirements to be subject to tax as a RIC for federal income tax purposes, we intend to distribute to our stockholders substantially all of our investment company taxable income and net capital gains each taxable year. However, we may retain all or a portion of our net capital gains and incur applicable income taxes with respect thereto and elect to treat such retained net capital gains as deemed dividend distributions to our stockholders.

As noted above, on April 5, 2018, our board of directors, including a “required majority” (as such term is defined in Section 57(o) of the 1940 Act), approved a reduction of our asset coverage ratio from 200% to 150%. The asset coverage requirement applicable to us for senior securities was reduced from 200% (i.e., $1 of debt outstanding for each $1 of equity) to 150% (i.e., $2 of debt outstanding for each $1 of equity). If we incur additional indebtedness under this provision, the risk of investing in us will increase. If the value of our assets declines, we may be unable to satisfy this asset coverage test. If that happens, we may be required to sell a portion of our investments or sell additional common stock and, depending on the nature of our leverage, to repay a portion of our indebtedness at a time when such sales and repayments may be disadvantageous. In addition, the issuance of additional securities could dilute the percentage ownership of our current stockholders in us.

We are partially dependent on our subsidiary Funding I for cash distributions to enable us to meet the distribution requirements in order to permit us to be subject to tax as a RIC. In this regard, Funding I is limited by its covenants from making certain distributions to us that may be necessary to fulfill our requirements to be subject to tax as a RIC. In such case, we would need to request a waiver of these covenants’ restrictions for Funding I to make certain distributions to enable us to be subject to tax as a RIC. We cannot assure you that Funding I will be granted such a waiver, and if Funding I is unable to obtain a waiver, compliance with the covenants may cause us to incur a corporate-level income tax.

Regulations governing our operation as a BDC will affect our ability to, and the way in which we, raise additional capital.

Our business requires a substantial amount of capital. We may acquire additional capital from the issuance of additional senior securities or other indebtedness, the issuance of additional shares of our common stock, the issuance of warrants or subscription rights to purchase certain of our securities, or from securitization transactions. However, we may not be able to raise additional capital in the future on favorable terms or at all. We may issue debt securities or preferred securities, which we refer to collectively as “senior securities,” and we may borrow money from banks, or other financial institutions, up to the maximum amount permitted by the 1940 Act. Under the 1940 Act, the asset coverage ratio requirements permit us to issue senior securities or incur indebtedness subject to certain limitations. Our ability to pay distributions or issue additional senior securities would be restricted if our asset coverage ratio was not met. If the value of our assets declines, we may be unable to satisfy the asset coverage ratio. If that happens, we may be required to liquidate a portion of our investments and repay a portion of our indebtedness at a time when such sales may be disadvantageous, which could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Senior Securities. As a result of issuing senior securities, including our 2023 Notes and our 2026 Notes, we are exposed to typical risks associated with leverage, including an increased risk of loss. If we issue preferred securities, they would rank “senior” to common stock in our capital structure. Preferred stockholders would have separate voting rights and may have rights, preferences or privileges more favorable than those of holders of our common stock.

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Furthermore, the issuance of preferred securities could have the adverse effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change of control that might involve a premium price for our common stockholders or otherwise be in your best interest. Our senior securities may include conversion features that cause them to bear risks more closely associated with an investment in our common stock.
Additional Common Stock. Our board of directors may decide to issue common stock to finance our operations rather than issuing debt or other senior securities. As a BDC, we are generally not able to issue our common stock at a price below NAV per share without first obtaining certain approvals from our stockholders and our board of directors. Also, subject to the requirements of the 1940 Act, we may issue rights to acquire our common stock at a price below the current NAV per share of the common stock if our board of directors determines that such sale is in our best interests and the best interests of our common stockholders. In any such case, the price at which our securities are to be issued and sold may not be less than a price that, in the determination of our board of directors, closely approximates the market value of such securities. However, when required to be undertaken, the procedures used by the board of directors to determine the NAV per share of our common stock within 48 hours of each offering of our common stock may differ materially from and will necessarily be more abbreviated than the procedures used by the board of directors to determine the NAV per share of our common stock at the end of each quarter because there is an extensive process each quarter to determine the NAV per share of our common stock which cannot be completed in 48 hours. The quarterly process includes preliminary valuation conclusions, engagement of independent valuation firms and review by those firms of preliminary valuation conclusions. The quarterly process 20 includes preliminary valuation conclusions, engagement of independent valuation firms and review by those firms of preliminary valuation conclusions. By contrast, the procedures in connection with an offering may yield a NAV that is less precise than the NAV determined at the end of each quarter. We will not offer transferable subscription rights to our stockholders at a price equivalent to less than the then current NAV per share of common stock, excluding underwriting commissions, unless we first file a post-effective amendment that is declared effective by the SEC with respect to such issuance and the common stock to be purchased in connection with such rights represents no more than one-third of our outstanding common stock at the time such rights are issued. In addition, for us to file a post-effective amendment to a registration statement on Form N-2, we must then be qualified to register our securities under the requirements of Form S-3. We may actually issue shares above or below a future NAV. If we raise additional funds by issuing more common stock or warrants or senior securities convertible into, or exchangeable for, our common stock, the percentage ownership of our common stockholders at that time would decrease, and our common stockholders would experience voting dilution.
Securitization. As a result of the completion of the Debt Securitization, we are exposed to typical risks associated with the securitization of loans to generate cash for funding new investments. As applicable accounting pronouncements and SEC staff guidance requires us to consolidate the Securitization Issuers’ financial statements with our financial statements, any debt issued by the Securitization Issuers would be generally treated as if it were issued by us for purposes of the asset coverage ratio applicable to us. We retain all of the equity in the Securitization Issuers and our retained equity would be exposed to any losses on the portfolio of loans before any of the debt securities would be exposed to such losses. Accordingly, if the pool of loans experienced a low level of losses due to defaults, we would earn an incremental amount of income on our retained equity but we would be exposed, up to the amount of equity we retained, to that proportion of any losses we would have experienced if we had continued to hold the loans in our portfolio.

We currently use borrowed funds to make investments and are exposed to the typical risks associated with leverage.

Because we borrow funds to make investments, we are exposed to increased risk of loss due to our use of debt to make investments. A decrease in the value of our investments will have a greater negative impact on the NAV attributable to our common stock than it would if we did not use debt. Our ability to pay distributions may be restricted when our asset coverage ratio is not met and any cash that we use to service our indebtedness is not available for distribution to our common stockholders.

Our current debt is governed by the terms of the Credit Facility, the deed of trust governing the 2023 Notes, the indenture governing our 2026 Notes and the indenture governing the 2031 Asset-Backed Debt, and future debt may be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting our operating flexibility. We, and indirectly our stockholders, bear the cost of issuing and servicing debt. Any convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of our common stock and may also carry leverage related risks. Leverage magnifies the potential risks for loss and the risks of investing in us, both as detailed below.

If we incur additional debt, it could increase the risk of investing in our shares.

We have indebtedness outstanding pursuant to the Credit Facility, 2023 Notes, 2026 Notes and the 2031 Asset-Backed Debt and expect in the future to borrow additional amounts under the Credit Facility or otherwise, subject to market availability, and, may increase the size of the Credit Facility. We cannot assure you that our leverage will remain at current levels. The amount of leverage that we employ will depend upon our assessment of the market and other factors at the time of any proposed borrowing. Lenders have fixed dollar claims on our assets that are superior to the claims of our common stockholders or preferred stockholders, if any, and we have granted a security interest in Funding I’s assets in connection with the Credit Facility borrowings. In the case of a liquidation event, those lenders would receive proceeds before our stockholders. Any future debt issuance will increase our leverage and may be subordinate to the Credit Facility. In addition, borrowings or debt issuances, also known as leverage, magnify the potential for loss or gain on amounts invested and, therefore, increase the risks associated with investing in our securities. Leverage is generally considered a speculative investment technique. If the value of our assets decreases, then the use of leverage would cause the NAV attributable to our common stock to decline more than it otherwise would have had we not utilized leverage. Similarly, any decrease in our revenue would cause our net income to decline more than it would have had we not borrowed funds and could negatively affect our ability to make distributions on our common or preferred stock. Our ability to service any debt that we incur depends largely on our financial performance and is subject to prevailing economic conditions and competitive pressures.

As noted above, on April 5, 2018, our board of directors, including a “required majority” (as such term is defined in Section 57(o) of the 1940 Act), and our stockholders, respectively, approved a reduction of our asset coverage ratio. As a result, the asset coverage requirement applicable to us for senior securities was reduced from 200% to 150%, so long as we comply with the applicable disclosure requirements, which may increase the risk of investing in us.

As of September 30, 2023 and 2022, our asset coverage ratio, as computed in accordance with the 1940 Act, was 230% and 178%, respectively. Since our leverage was 76% and 128% of our net assets as of September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, we would have to receive an annual return of at least 2.4% and 2.2%, respectively, to cover annual interest payments.

As of September 30, 2023, we had outstanding borrowings of $9.4 million under the Credit Facility, $76.2 million outstanding under our 2023 Notes, $185.0 million under our 2026 Notes, and $228.0 million outstanding under the 2031 Asset-Backed Debt. Our consolidated debt outstanding was $498.6 million and had a weighted average annual interest rate at the time of 5.6%, exclusive of the fees on the undrawn commitment on the Credit Facility. Our consolidated debt outstanding was $678.8 million and had a weighted average annual interest rate at the time of 4.5%, exclusive of the fees on the undrawn commitment on the Credit Facility. This example is for illustrative purposes only, and actual interest rates on the Credit Facility or any future borrowings are likely to fluctuate. The costs associated with our borrowings, including any increase in the management fee or incentive fee payable to our Investment Adviser, are and will be borne by our stockholders.

The following table is designed to illustrate the effect on the return to a holder of our common stock of the leverage created by our use of borrowing as of September 30, 2023 of 76% of total assets (including such borrowed funds), at the current interest rate at the time of 5.6%, and assumes hypothetical annual returns on our portfolio of minus 10 to plus 10 percent. The table also assumes that we will maintain a constant level of leverage and weighted average interest rate. The amount of leverage and cost of borrowing that we use will vary from time to time. As can be seen, leverage generally increases the return to stockholders when the portfolio return is positive and decreases return when the portfolio return is negative. Actual returns may be greater or less than those appearing in the table.

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(1)
The assumed portfolio return is required by regulation of the SEC and is not a prediction of, and does not represent, our projected or actual performance.
(2)
In order to compute the “corresponding return to common stockholders,” the “assumed return on portfolio” is multiplied by the total value of our assets at the beginning of the period to obtain an assumed return to us. From this amount, all interest expense expected to be accrued during the period is subtracted to determine the return available to stockholders. The return available to stockholders is then divided by the total value of our net assets as of the beginning of the period to determine the “corresponding return to common stockholders.”

We may in the future determine to fund a portion of our investments with preferred stock, which is another form of leverage and would magnify the potential for loss and the risks of investing in us.

Preferred stock, which is another form of leverage, has the same risks to our common stockholders as borrowings because the distributions on any preferred stock we issue must be cumulative. If we issue preferred securities they would rank “senior” to common stock in our capital structure. Payment of distributions on, and repayment of the liquidation preference of, such preferred stock would typically take preference over any distributions or other payments to our common stockholders. Also, preferred stockholders are not typically subject to any of our expenses or losses and are not entitled to participate in any income or appreciation in excess of their stated preference. Furthermore, preferred stockholders would have separate voting rights and may have rights, preferences or privileges more favorable than those of our common stockholders. Also, the issuance of preferred securities could have the adverse effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change of control that might involve a premium price for our common stockholders or otherwise be in the best interest of stockholders.

We may in the future determine to fund a portion of our investments with debt securities, which would magnify the potential for loss and the risks of investing in us.”We may in the future determine to fund a portion of our investments with preferred stock, which is another form of leverage and would magnify the potential for loss and the risks of investing in us.

As a result of any issuance of debt securities and borrowings under the Credit Facility, the 2023 Notes, the 2026 Notes and the 2031 Asset-Backed Debt, we would be exposed to typical risks associated with leverage, including an increased risk of loss and an increase in expenses, which are ultimately borne by our common stockholders. Payment of interest on such debt securities must take preference over any other distributions or other payments to our common stockholders. If we issue additional debt securities in the future, it is likely that such securities will be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting our operating flexibility. In addition, such securities may be rated by rating agencies, and in obtaining a rating for such securities, we may be required to abide by operating and investment guidelines that could further restrict our operating flexibility. Furthermore, any cash that we use to service our indebtedness would not be available for the payment of distributions to our common stockholders.

Our credit ratings may not reflect all risks of an investment in our debt securities.

Our credit ratings, if any, are an assessment of our ability to pay our obligations. Consequently, real or anticipated changes in our credit ratings will generally affect the market value of any publicly issued debt securities. Our credit ratings may not reflect the potential impact of risks related to market conditions or other factors discussed above on the market value of, or trading market for, any publicly issued debt securities. Rating agencies have reviewed, and may continue to review, our credit ratings and those of other business development companies in light of the SBCAA as well as any corresponding changes to asset coverage ratios and, in certain cases, downgrade such ratings. Such a downgrade in our credit ratings may adversely affect our securities.

Market conditions may make it difficult to extend the maturity of or refinance our existing indebtedness and any failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our Credit Facility expires in August 2026. We utilize proceeds from the Credit Facility to make investments in our portfolio companies. The duration of many of our investments exceeds the duration of our indebtedness under the Credit Facility. This means that we will have to extend the maturity of the Credit Facility or refinance our indebtedness under the Credit Facility in order to avoid selling investments at maturity of the Credit Facility, at which time such sales may be at prices that are disadvantageous to us, which could materially damage our business. In addition, future market conditions may affect our ability to renew or refinance the Credit Facility on terms as favorable as those in our existing Credit Facility. If we fail to extend or refinance the indebtedness outstanding under the Credit Facility by the time it becomes due and payable, the administrative agent of the Credit Facility may elect to exercise various remedies, including the sale of all or a portion of the collateral securing the Credit Facility, subject to certain restrictions, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The illiquidity of our investments may make it difficult for us to sell such investments. If we are required to sell our investments on short-term notice, we may not receive the value that we have recorded for such investments, and this could materially affect our results of operations.

We may not receive cash on our equity interests from Funding I.

Except for management fees that PennantPark Investment Advisers has irrevocably directed to be paid to us, we receive cash from Funding I only to the extent that we receive distributions on our equity interests in Funding I. Funding I may make equity distributions on such interests only to the extent permitted by the payment priority provisions of the Credit Facility. The Credit Facility generally provides that payments on such interests may not be made on any payment date unless all amounts owing to the Lenders and other secured parties are paid in full. In the event that we fail to receive cash from Funding I, we could be unable to make distributions to our stockholders in amounts sufficient to maintain our ability to be subject to tax as a RIC. We also could be forced to sell investments in portfolio companies at less than their fair value in order to continue making such distributions.

There are significant potential conflicts of interest which could impact our investment returns.

The professionals of the Investment Adviser and Administrator may serve as officers, directors or principals of entities that operate in the same or a related line of business as we do or of investment funds managed by affiliates of us that currently exist or may be formed in the future. The Investment Adviser and Administrator may be engaged by such funds at any time and without the prior approval of our stockholders or our board of directors. Our board of directors monitors any potential conflict that may arise upon such a development. Accordingly, if this occurs, they may have obligations to investors in those entities, the fulfillment of which might not be in the best interests of us or our stockholders. Currently, the executive officers and directors, as well as the current senior investment professionals of the Investment Adviser, may serve as officers and directors of our affiliated funds. In addition, we note that any affiliated investment vehicles currently formed or formed in the future and managed by the Investment Adviser or its affiliates may have overlapping investment objectives with our own and, accordingly, may invest in asset classes similar to those targeted by us. As a result, the Investment Adviser may face conflicts in allocating investment opportunities between us and such other entities. Although the Investment Adviser will endeavor to allocate investment opportunities in a fair and equitable manner, it is possible that, in the future, we may not be given the opportunity to participate in investments made by investment funds managed by the Investment Adviser or an investment manager affiliated with the Investment Adviser. In any such case, when the Investment Adviser identifies an investment, it is forced to choose which investment fund should make the investment. We may co-invest on a concurrent basis with any other affiliates that the Investment Adviser currently has or forms in the future, subject to compliance with applicable regulations and regulatory guidance, our exemptive relief and our allocation procedures.

In the ordinary course of our investing activities, we pay investment advisory and incentive fees to the Investment Adviser, and reimburse the Investment Adviser for certain expenses it incurs. As a result, investors in our common stock invest on a “gross” basis and receive distributions on a “net” basis after expenses, resulting in a lower rate of return than an investor might achieve through direct investments. Accordingly, there may be times when the management team of the Investment Adviser has interests that differ from those of our stockholders, giving rise to a conflict. For example, the Investment Adviser may seek to invest in more speculative investments in order to increase its incentive fee, which practice could result in higher investment losses, particularly during economic downturns.

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We have entered into the License Agreement with PennantPark Investment Advisers, pursuant to which the Investment Adviser has agreed to grant us a royalty-free non-exclusive license to use the name “PennantPark.” The License Agreement will expire (i) upon expiration or termination of the Investment Management Agreement, (ii) if the Investment Adviser ceases to serve as our investment adviser, (iii) by either party upon 60 days’ written notice or (iv) by the Investment Adviser at any time in the event we assign or attempt to assign or sublicense the License Agreement or any of our rights or duties thereunder without the prior written consent of the Investment Adviser. Other than with respect to this limited license, we have no legal right to the “PennantPark” name.

In addition, we pay PennantPark Investment Administration, an affiliate of the Investment Adviser, our allocable portion of overhead and other expenses incurred by PennantPark Investment Administration in performing its obligations under the Administration Agreement, including rent and our allocable portion of the cost of our Chief Financial Officer and Chief Compliance Officer and their respective staffs. These arrangements may create conflicts of interest that our board of directors must monitor.

We are subject to risks associated with cybersecurity and cyber incidents.22 We are subject to risks associated with cybersecurity and cyber incidents.

Our business relies on secure information technology systems. These systems are subject to potential attacks, including through adverse events that threaten the confidentiality, integrity or availability of our information resources (i.e., cyber incidents). These attacks could involve gaining unauthorized access to our information systems for purposes of misappropriating assets, stealing confidential information, corrupting data or causing operational disruption and result in disrupted operations, misstated or unreliable financial data, liability for stolen assets or information, increased cybersecurity protection and insurance costs, litigation and damage to our business relationships, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. As our reliance on technology has increased, so have the risks posed to our information systems, both internal and those provided by the Investment Adviser and third-party service providers. We, along with our Investment Adviser, have implemented processes, procedures and internal controls to help mitigate cybersecurity risks and cyber intrusions, but these measures, as well as our increased awareness of the nature and extent of the risk of a cyber incident, may be ineffective and do not guarantee that a cyber incident will not occur or that our financial results, operations or confidential information will not be negatively impacted by such an incident. In addition, the costs related to cyber or other security threats or disruptions may not be fully insured or indemnified by other means. Furthermore, cybersecurity continues to be a key priority for regulators around the world, and some jurisdictions have enacted laws requiring companies to notify individuals of data security breaches involving certain types of personal data. If we fail to comply with the relevant laws and regulations, we could suffer financial losses, a disruption of our businesses, liability to investors, regulatory intervention or reputational damage.

We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly results.

We could experience fluctuations in our quarterly operating results due to a number of factors, including the interest rate payable on the debt securities we acquire, the default rate on such securities, the level of our expenses, variations in, and the timing of the recognition of, realized and unrealized gains or losses, the degree to which we encounter competition in our markets and general economic conditions. However, as a result of our irrevocable election to apply the fair value option to the Credit Facility, future decreases of fair value of our debt is expected to have a corresponding increase to our NAV. Similarly, future increases in the fair value of our debt may have a corresponding decrease to our NAV. Any future indebtedness that we elect the fair value option for may have similar effects on our NAV as the Credit Facility. This is expected to mitigate volatility in our earnings and NAV. As a result, results for any period should not be relied upon as being indicative of future performance.

We may in the future issue securities for which there is no public market and for which we expect no public market to develop.

In order to raise additional capital, we may issue debt or other securities for which no public market exists, and for which no public market is expected to develop. If we issue shares of our common stock as a component of a unit security, we would expect the common stock to separate from the other securities in such unit after a period of time or upon occurrence of an event and to trade publicly on The New York Stock Exchange and the TASE, which may cause volatility in our publicly traded common stock. To the extent we issue securities for which no public market exists and for which no public market develops, a purchaser of such securities may not be able to liquidate the investment without considerable delay, if at all. If a market should develop for our debt and other securities, the price may be highly volatile, and our debt and other securities may lose value.

If we issue preferred stock, debt securities or convertible debt securities the NAV and market value of our common stock may become more volatile.

We cannot assure you that the issuance of preferred stock and/or debt securities would result in a higher yield or return to the holders of our common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, debt securities and/or convertible debt would likely cause the NAV and market value of our common stock to become more volatile. If the dividend rate on the preferred stock, or the interest rate on the debt securities, were to approach the net rate of return on our investment portfolio, the benefit of leverage to the holders of our common stock would be reduced or entirely eliminated. If the dividend rate on the preferred stock, or the interest rate on the debt securities, were to exceed the net rate of return on our portfolio, the use of leverage would result in a lower rate of return to the holders of common stock than if we had not issued the preferred stock or debt securities. Any decline in the NAV of our investment would be borne entirely by the holders of our common stock. Therefore, if the market value of our portfolio were to decline, the leverage would result in a greater decrease in NAV to the holders of our common stock than if we were not leveraged through the issuance of preferred stock, debt securities or convertible debt. This decline in NAV would also tend to cause a greater decline in the market price for our common stock.

There is also a risk that, in the event of a sharp decline in the value of our net assets, we would be in danger of failing to maintain required asset coverage ratios or other covenants which may be required by the preferred stock, debt securities and/or convertible debt or risk a downgrade in the ratings of the preferred stock, debt securities and/or convertible debt or our current investment income might not be sufficient to meet the dividend requirements on the preferred stock or the interest payments on the debt securities. In order to counteract such an event, we might need to liquidate investments in order to fund redemption of some or all of the preferred stock, debt securities or convertible debt. In addition, we would pay (and the holders of our common stock would bear) all costs and expenses relating to the issuance and ongoing maintenance of the preferred stock, debt securities, convertible debt or any combination of these securities. Holders of preferred stock, debt securities, convertible debt or any combination of these securities may have different interests than holders of common stock and may at times have disproportionate influence over our business.

The ability to sell investments held by Funding I is limited.

The Credit Facility places restrictions on the collateral manager’s ability to sell investments. As a result, there may be times or circumstances during which the collateral manager is unable to sell investments or take other actions that might be in our best interests.

The trading market or market value of any publicly issued debt or convertible debt securities may be volatile.

If we publicly issue debt or convertible debt securities, they initially will not have an established trading market. We cannot assure investors that a trading market for our publicly issued debt or convertible debt securities would develop or be maintained if developed. In addition to our creditworthiness, many factors may have a material adverse effect on the trading market for, and market value of, our publicly issued debt or convertible debt securities.

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These factors include the following:

the time remaining to the maturity of these debt securities;
the outstanding principal amount of debt securities with terms identical or similar to these debt securities;
the supply of debt securities trading in the secondary market, if any;
the redemption, repayment or convertible features, if any, of these debt securities;
the level, direction and volatility of market interest rates; and
market rates of interest higher or lower than rates borne by the debt securities.

There also may be a limited number of buyers for our debt securities.23 There also may be a limited number of buyers for our debt securities. This too may have a material adverse effect on the market value of the debt securities or the trading market for the debt securities. Our debt securities may include convertible features that cause them to more closely bear risks associated with an investment in our common stock.

Terms relating to debt redemption may have a material adverse effect on the return on any debt securities.

If we issue debt securities that are redeemable at our option, we may choose to redeem the debt securities at times when prevailing interest rates are lower than the interest rate paid on the debt securities. In addition, if the debt securities are subject to mandatory redemption, we may be required to redeem the debt securities at times when prevailing interest rates are lower than the interest rate paid on the debt securities. In this circumstance, a holder of our debt securities may not be able to reinvest the redemption proceeds in a comparable security at an effective interest rate as high as the debt securities being redeemed.

If we issue subscription rights or warrants for our common stock, your interest in us may be diluted as a result of such rights or warrants offering.

Stockholders who do not fully exercise rights or warrants issued to them in an offering of subscription rights or warrants to purchase our common stock should expect that they will, at the completion of an offering, own a smaller proportional interest in us than would otherwise be the case if they fully exercised their rights or warrants. We cannot state precisely the amount of any such dilution in share ownership because we do not know what proportion of the common stock would be purchased as a result of any such offering.

In addition, if the subscription price or warrant exercise price is less than our NAV per share of common stock at the time of an offering, then our stockholders would experience an immediate dilution of the aggregate NAV of their shares as a result of the offering. The amount of any such decrease in NAV is not predictable because it is not known at this time what the subscription price, warrant exercise price or NAV per share will be on the expiration date of such rights offering or what proportion of our common stock will be purchased as a result of any such offering.

Changes in laws or regulations governing our operations or those of our portfolio companies may adversely affect our business. Changes in laws or regulations governing our operations or those of our portfolio companies may adversely affect our business.

We and our portfolio companies are subject to laws and regulations at the U.S. federal, state and local levels and, in some cases, foreign levels. These laws and regulations, as well as their interpretation, may change from time to time, and new laws, regulations and interpretations may come into effect. These laws and regulations, as well as their interpretation, may be changed from time to time. Accordingly, any change in law and regulations, changes in administration or control of U.S. Congress, changes in interpretations, or newly enacted laws or regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business or the business of our portfolio companies. See “Business—Regulation” for more information.

Over the past several years, there also has been increasing regulatory attention to the extension of credit outside of the traditional banking sector, raising the possibility that some portion of the non-bank financial sector may be subject to new regulation. While it cannot be known at this time whether any regulation will be implemented or what form it will take, increased regulation of non-bank lending could be materially adverse to our business, financial conditions and results of operation. We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly results.We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly results.

The United States may also potentially withdraw from or renegotiate various trade agreements and take other actions that would change current trade policies of the United States. We cannot predict which, if any, of these actions will be taken or, if taken, their effect on the financial stability of the United States. Such actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our board of directors may change our investment objectives, operating policies and strategies without prior notice or stockholder approval.

Our board of directors has the authority to modify or waive certain of our operating policies and strategies without prior notice and without stockholder approval (except as required by the 1940 Act). However, absent stockholder approval, under the 1940 Act, we may not change the nature of our business so as to cease to be, or withdraw our election as, a BDC. We cannot predict the effect any changes to our current operating policies and strategies would have on our business, operating results and value of our common stock. Nevertheless, the effects may adversely affect our business and impact our ability to make distributions.

Our business and operations could be negatively affected if we become subject to stockholder activism, which could cause us to incur significant expense, hinder the execution of our investment strategy or impact our stock price.

Stockholder activism, which could take many forms, including making public demands that we consider certain strategic alternatives, engaging in public campaigns to attempt to influence our corporate governance and/or our management, and commencing proxy contests to attempt to elect the activists’ representatives or others to our board of directors, or arise in a variety of situations, has impacted the BDC space. While we are currently not subject to any stockholder activism, due to the potential volatility of our stock price and for a variety of other reasons, we may in the future become the target of stockholder activism. Stockholder activism could result in substantial costs and divert management’s and our board of directors’ attention and resources from our business. Additionally, such stockholder activism could give rise to perceived uncertainties as to our future and adversely affect our relationships with service providers and our portfolio companies. Also, we may be required to incur significant legal and other expenses related to any activist stockholder matters. Further, our stock price could be subject to significant fluctuation or otherwise be adversely affected by the events, risks and uncertainties of any stockholder activism.

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