Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - GBTC

-New additions in green
-Changes in blue
-Hover to see similar sentence in last filing

$GBTC Risk Factor changes from 00/03/05/21/2021 to 00/02/25/22/2022

Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Annual Report.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” with respect to the financial conditions, results of operations, plans, objectives, future performance and business of Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (BTC) (the “Trust”). Statements preceded by, followed by or that include words such as “may,” “might,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential” or “continue,” the negative of these terms and other similar expressions are intended to identify some of the forward-looking statements. All statements (other than statements of historical fact) included in this Annual Report that address activities, events or developments that will or may occur in the future, including such matters as changes in market prices and conditions, the Trust’s operations, the plans of Grayscale Investments, LLC (the “Sponsor”) and references to the Trust’s future success and other similar matters are forward-looking statements. These statements are only predictions. Actual events or results may differ materially from such statements. These statements are based upon certain assumptions and analyses the Sponsor made based on its perception of historical trends, current conditions and expected future developments, as well as other factors appropriate in the circumstances. Whether or not actual results and developments will conform to the Sponsor’s expectations and predictions, however, is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those described in “Item 1A. Risk Factors.” Forward-looking statements are made based on the Sponsor’s beliefs, estimates and opinions on the date the statements are made and neither the Trust nor the Sponsor is under a duty or undertakes an obligation to update forward-looking statements if these beliefs, estimates and opinions or other circumstances should change, other than as required by applicable laws. Investors are therefore cautioned against relying on forward-looking statements. Factors which could have a material adverse effect on the Trust’s business, financial condition or results of operations and future prospects or which could cause actual results to differ materially from the Trust’s expectations include, but are not limited to: • the extreme volatility of trading prices that many digital assets, including Bitcoin, have experienced in recent periods and may continue to experience, which could have a material adverse effect on the value of the Shares; • the recentness of the development of digital assets and the uncertain medium-to-long term value of the Shares due to a number of factors relating to the capabilities and development of blockchain technologies and to the fundamental investment characteristics of digital assets; • the value of the Shares depending on the acceptance of Bitcoin, a new and rapidly evolving industry; • the value of the Shares relating directly to the value of Bitcoin then held by the Trust, the value of which may be highly volatile and subject to fluctuations due to a number of factors; • the unregulated nature and lack of transparency surrounding the operations of Digital Asset Exchanges, which may adversely affect the value of digital assets and, consequently, the value of the Shares; • the limited history of the Index; • risks related to the COVID-19 outbreak, which could negatively impact the value of the Trust’s holdings and significantly disrupt its operations; • the lack of an ongoing redemption program due to the holding period under Rule 144, and the Trust’s ability to halt creations from time to time, resulting in the lack of an arbitrage mechanism to keep the value of the Shares closely linked to the Index Price; • the possibility that the Shares may trade at a price that is at, above or below the Trust’s Digital Asset Holdings per Share as a result of the non-current trading hours between OTCQX and the Digital Asset Exchange Market; • regulatory changes or actions by the U.S. Congress or any U.S. federal or state agencies that may affect the value of the Shares or restrict the use of one or more digital assets, mining activity or the operation of their networks or the Digital Asset Exchange Market in a manner that adversely affects the value of the Shares; i Table of Contents • changes in the policies of the U.S.

Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) that could adversely impact the value of the Shares; • regulatory changes or actions in foreign jurisdictions that may affect the value of the Shares or restrict the use of one or more digital assets, mining activity or the operation of their networks or the Digital Asset Exchange Market in a manner that adversely affects the value of the Shares; • the possibility that an Authorized Participant, the Trust or the Sponsor could be subject to regulation as a money service business or money transmitter, which could result in extraordinary expenses to the Authorized Participant, the Trust or the Sponsor and also result in decreased liquidity for the Shares; • regulatory changes or interpretations that could obligate the Trust or the Sponsor to register and comply with new regulations, resulting in potentially extraordinary, nonrecurring expenses to the Trust; • potential delays in mail reaching the Sponsor when sent to the Trust at its registered office; • possible requirements for the Trust to disclose information, including information relating to investors, to regulators; • potential conflicts of interest that may arise among the Sponsor or its affiliates and the Trust; • the potential discontinuance of the Sponsor’s continued services, which could be detrimental to the Trust; • the Custodian’s possible resignation or removal by the Sponsor, which would trigger early termination of the Trust; and; • additional risk factors discussed in Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” and Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as those described from time to time in our future reports filed with the SEC. Unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, the terms “we,” “our” and “us” in this Annual Report refer to the Sponsor acting on behalf of the Trust. Unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, the terms “we,” “our” and “us” in this Annual Report refer to the Sponsor acting on behalf of the Trust. A glossary of industry and other defined terms is included in this Annual Report, beginning on page 84. This Annual Report supplements and where applicable amends the Memorandum, as defined in the Trust’s Fifth Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust and Trust Agreement, for general purposes. ii Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS iii Table of Contents PART I Item 1. Business Overview of the Trust and the Shares Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (BTC) (formerly known as Bitcoin Investment Trust) (the “Trust”) is a Delaware Statutory Trust that was formed on September 13, 2013 by the filing of the Certificate of Trust with the Delaware Secretary of State in accordance with the provisions of the Delaware Statutory Trust Act. Business Trust Overview Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (BTC) (formerly known as Bitcoin Investment Trust) (the “Trust”) is a Delaware Statutory Trust that was formed on September 13, 2013 by the filing of the Certificate of Trust with the Delaware Secretary of State in accordance with the provisions of the Delaware Statutory Trust Act. The Trust’s purpose is to hold Bitcoins, which are digital assets that are created and transmitted through the operations of the peer-to-peer Bitcoin Network, a decentralized network of computers that operates on cryptographic protocols. The Trust’s purpose is to hold Bitcoins, which are digital assets that are created and transmitted through the operations of the peer-to-peer Bitcoin Network, a decentralized network of computers that operates on cryptographic protocols. There are several key features of the Bitcoin Network, including the maximum block size used by the network. Bitcoin uses the SHA-256 algorithm, which is preferred for parallel processing, but is also easily used to build application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to mine the network more efficiently. Bitcoin has a current block size of 1MB and, on average blocks are generated every ten minutes. Bitcoin’s halvings take place approximately every four years, occurring every 210,000 blocks. Additionally, Bitcoin has a maximum supply of 21 million. As of December 31, 2021, Bitcoin’s circulating supply was 18.9 million coins. As of December 31, 2021, the 24-hour trading volume of Bitcoin was approximately $5.2 billion. As of December 31, 2021, the aggregate market value of Bitcoin was $875.9 billion. On January 11, 2019, the Trust changed its name from Bitcoin Investment Trust to Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (BTC) by filing a Certificate of Amendment to the Certificate of Trust with the Delaware Secretary of State. The Trust issues common units of fractional undivided beneficial interest (“Shares”), which represent ownership in the Trust, on a periodic basis to certain “accredited investors” within the meaning of Rule 501(a) of Regulation D under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) in exchange for deposits of Bitcoin. The Shares are quoted on OTC Markets Group Inc.’s OTCQX® Best Marketplace (“OTCQX”) under the ticker symbol “GBTC.” Grayscale Investments, LLC is the sponsor of the Trust (the “Sponsor”), Delaware Trust Company is the trustee of the Trust (the “Trustee”), Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company is the transfer agent of the Trust (in such capacity, the “Transfer Agent”), Coinbase Custody Trust Company, LLC is the custodian of the Trust (the “Custodian”) and BNY Mellon Asset Servicing, a division of The Bank of New York Mellon, is the administrator of the Trust (the “Administrator”). The Trust issues Shares only in one or more blocks of 100 Shares (a block of 100 Shares is called a “Basket”) to certain authorized participants (“Authorized Participants”) from time to time. The Trust issues Shares only in one or more blocks of 100 Shares (a block of 100 Shares is called a “Basket”) to certain authorized participants (“Authorized Participants”) from time to time. Baskets are offered in exchange for Bitcoins. At this time, the Sponsor is not operating a redemption program for the Shares and therefore Shares are not redeemable by the Trust. Due to the lack of an ongoing redemption program as well as price volatility, trading volume and closings of Digital Asset Exchanges due to fraud, failure, security breaches or otherwise, there can be no assurance that the value of the Shares will reflect the value of the Trust’s Bitcoin, less the Trust’s expenses and other liabilities, and the Shares may trade at a substantial premium over, or a substantial discount to, the value of the Trust’s Bitcoin, less the Trust’s expenses and other liabilities. The U.S. dollar value of a Basket of Shares at 4:00 p.m., New York time, on the trade date of a creation order is equal to the Basket Amount, which is the number of Bitcoins required to create a Basket of Shares, multiplied by the “Index Price,” which is the price of a Bitcoin in U.S. dollars calculated by applying a weighting algorithm to the price and trading volume data for the immediately preceding 24-hour period as of 4:00 p.m., New York time, derived from the selected Digital Asset Exchanges that are reflected in the CoinDesk Bitcoin Price Index (XBX) (the “Index”), on each business day., New York time derived from the selected Digital Asset Exchanges that are reflected in the TradeBlock XBX Index (the “Index”) on such trade date. Prior to February 1, 2022, the Trust valued its Bitcoin for operational purposes by reference to a volume-weighted average index price (the “Old Index Price”) of a Bitcoin in U.S dollars calculated by applying a weighting algorithm to the price and trading volume data for the immediately preceding 24-hour period as of 4:00 p.m., New York time, derived from the selected Digital Asset Exchanges reflected in the Index on such trade date., New York time derived from the selected Digital Asset Exchanges that are reflected in the TradeBlock XBX Index (the “Index”) on such trade date. The Old Index Price was calculated using the same methodology as the Index Price with an additional averaging mechanism overlaid to the price produced resulting in the Old Index Price reflecting an average price for the 24-hour period. The Index Price is calculated using non-GAAP methodology and is not used in the Trust’s financial statements. In other words, the Index Price is the price of a Bitcoin at 4:00 p.m., New York time, calculated based on the price and trading volume data of the Digital Asset Exchanges included in the Index over the preceding 24-hour period whereas the Old Index Price was the price of a Bitcoin at 4:00 p.m., New York time, calculated by taking the average of each price of Bitcoin produced by the Index over the preceding 24-hour period. See “—Overview of the Bitcoin Industry and Market—Bitcoin Value—The Index and the Index Price.” The Basket Amount is determined by dividing (x) the number of Bitcoins owned by the Trust at 4:00 p.” The Basket Amount is determined by dividing (x) the number of Bitcoins owned by the Trust at 4:00 p. m., New York time, on such trade date, after deducting the number of Bitcoins representing the U.S. dollar value of accrued but unpaid fees and expenses of the Trust (converted using the Index Price at such time, and carried to the eighth decimal place), by (y) the number of Shares outstanding at such time (with the quotient so obtained calculated to one one-hundred-millionth of one Bitcoin (i.e., carried to the eighth decimal place)), and multiplying such quotient by 100. The Shares are neither interests in nor obligations of the Sponsor or the Trustee. The Sponsor maintains an Internet website at www. The Sponsor maintains an Internet website at www. grayscale.

com/products/grayscale/bitcoin-trust/, through which the registrant’s annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), are made available free of charge after they have been filed or furnished to the SEC.co/bitcoin-trust/, through which the registrant’s annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), are made available free of charge after they have been filed or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Additional information regarding the Trust may also be found on the SEC’s EDGAR database at www.sec.gov. 1 Table of ContentsInvestment Objective The Trust’s investment objective is for the value of the Shares (based on Bitcoin per Share) to reflect the value of Bitcoin held by the Trust, determined by reference to the Index Price, less the Trust’s expenses and other liabilities. Trust Objective and Key Operating Metrics The investment objective of the Trust is for the Shares (based on Bitcoin per Share) to reflect the value of the Bitcoin held by the Trust, determined by reference to the Index Price, less the Trust’s expenses and other liabilities. To date, the Trust has not met its investment objective and the Shares quoted on OTCQX have not reflected the value of Bitcoin held by the Trust, less the Trust’s expenses and other liabilities, but instead have traded at both premiums and discounts to such value, which at times have been substantial. To date, the Trust has not met its investment objective and the Shares quoted on OTCQX have not reflected the value of Bitcoin held by the Trust, less the Trust’s expenses and other liabilities, but have instead traded at a premium over such value, which at times has been substantial. In the event the Shares trade at a substantial premium, investors who purchase Shares on OTCQX will pay substantially more for their Shares than investors who purchase Shares in the private placement. In the event the Shares trade at a substantial premium, investors who purchase Shares on OTCQX will pay substantially more for their Shares than investors who purchase Shares in the private placement. The value of the Shares may not reflect the value of the Trust’s Bitcoin, less the Trust’s expenses and other liabilities, for a variety of reasons, including the holding period under Rule 144 for Shares purchased in the private placement, the lack of an ongoing redemption program, any halting of creations by the Trust, Bitcoin price volatility, trading volumes on, or closures of, exchanges where digital assets trade due to fraud, failure, security breaches or otherwise, and the non-current trading hours between OTCQX and the global exchange market for trading Bitcoin. As a result, the Shares may continue to trade at a substantial premium over, or a substantial discount to, the value of the Trust’s Bitcoin, less the Trust’s expenses and other liabilities, and the Trust may be unable to meet its investment objective for the foreseeable future. As a result, the 1 Shares may continue to trade at a substantial premium over, or a substantial discount to, the value of the Trust’s Bitcoin, less the Trust’s expenses and other liabilities, and the Trust may be unable to meet its investment objective for the foreseeable future. For example, from May 5, 2015 to December 31 2021, the maximum premium of the closing price of the Shares quoted on OTCQX over the value of the Trust’s Digital Asset Holdings per Share was 142% (142% based on Old Index Price) and the average premium was 37% (37% based on Old Index Price), and the maximum discount of the closing price of the Shares quoted on OTCQX below the value of the Trust’s Digital Asset Holdings per Share was 21% (22% based on Old Index Price) and the average discount was 13% (13% based on Old Index Price). As of December 31, 2021, the Trust’s Shares were quoted on OTCQX at a discount of 20% (22% based on Old Index Price) to the Trust’s Digital Asset Holdings per Share. As of December 31, 2020, the Trust’s Shares were quoted on OTCQX at a premium of 17% to the Trust’s Digital Asset Holdings per Share. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Secondary Market Trading.” While an investment in the Shares is not a direct investment in Bitcoin, the Shares are designed to provide investors with a cost- effective and convenient way to gain investment exposure to Bitcoin. While an investment in the Shares is not a direct investment in Bitcoin, the Shares are designed to provide investors with a cost-effective and convenient way to gain investment exposure to Bitcoin. A substantial direct investment in Bitcoin may require expensive and sometimes complicated arrangements in connection with the acquisition, security and safekeeping of the Bitcoin and may involve the payment of substantial fees to acquire such Bitcoin from third-party facilitators through cash payments of U.S. dollars. Because the value of the Shares is correlated with the value of the Bitcoin held by the Trust, it is important to understand the investment attributes of, and the market for, Bitcoin. Shares purchased in the private placement are restricted securities that may not be resold except in transactions exempt from registration under the Securities Act and state securities laws and any such transaction must be approved in advance by the Sponsor. In determining whether to grant approval, the Sponsor will specifically look at whether the conditions of Rule 144 under the Securities Act, including the requisite holding period thereunder, and any other applicable laws have been met. Any attempt to sell the Shares without the approval of the Sponsor in its sole discretion will be void ab initio. See “—Description of the Shares—Transfer Restrictions” for more information. Pursuant to Rule 144, the minimum holding period for Shares purchased in the private placement is six months. The Trust’s Bitcoins are carried, for financial statement purposes, at fair value, as required by the U. The Trust’s Bitcoins are carried, for financial statement purposes, at fair value, as required by the U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). The Trust determines the fair value of Bitcoins based on the price provided by the Digital Asset Market that the Trust considers its principal market as of 4:00 p.m., New York time, on the valuation date. The net asset value of the Trust determined on a GAAP basis is referred to in this Annual Report as “NAV.” See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates—Principal Market and Fair Value Determination” for more information on the Trust’s principal market selection. As of February 1, 2022, the Trust uses the Index Price to calculate its “Digital Asset Holdings,” which is the aggregate value, expressed in U. The Trust uses the Index Price to calculate its “Digital Asset Holdings,” which is the aggregate value, expressed in U. S. dollars, of the Trust’s assets (other than U.S. dollars, other fiat currency, Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency), less the U.S. dollar value of the Trust’s expenses and other liabilities calculated in the manner set forth under “—Valuation of Bitcoin and Determination of the Trust’s Digital Asset Holdings.” “Digital Asset Holdings per Share” is calculated by dividing Digital Asset Holdings by the number of Shares currently outstanding. Digital Asset Holdings and Digital Asset Holdings per Share are not measures calculated in accordance with GAAP. Digital Asset Holdings is not intended to be a substitute for the Trust’s NAV calculated in accordance with GAAP, and Digital Asset Holdings per Share is not intended to be a substitute for the Trust’s NAV per Share calculated in accordance with GAAP. Prior to February 1, 2022, the Trust calculated its Digital Asset Holdings and Digital Asset Holdings per Share by reference to the Old Index Price. All references to the Digital Asset Holdings and Digital Asset Holdings per Share of the Trust in this report have been calculated using the Index Price unless otherwise indicated. 2 Table of ContentsAt this time, the Trust is not operating a redemption program for Shares and therefore Shares are not redeemable by the Trust. At this time, the Sponsor is not operating a redemption program for the Shares and therefore Shares are not redeemable by the Trust. In addition, the Trust may halt creations for extended periods of time for a variety of reasons, including in connection with forks, airdrops and other similar occurrences. As a result, Authorized Participants are not able to take advantage of arbitrage opportunities created when the market value of the Shares deviates from the value of the Trust’s Digital Asset Holdings per Share, which may cause the Shares to trade at a substantial premium over, or a substantial discount to, the value of the Trust’s Digital Asset Holdings per Share. As a result of these factors in addition to the holding period under Rule 144, Authorized Participants are not able to take advantage of arbitrage opportunities created when the market value of the Shares deviates from the value of the Trust’s Digital Asset Holdings per Share, which may cause the Shares to trade at a substantial premium over, or substantial discount to, the value of the Trust’s Digital Asset Holdings per Share. Subject to receipt of regulatory approval from the SEC and approval by the Sponsor in its sole discretion, the Trust may in the future operate a redemption program. The Trust has not sought such relief as of the date of this Annual Report. Even if such relief is sought in the future, no assurance can be given as to the timing of such relief or that such relief will be granted. If such relief is granted and the Sponsor approves a redemption program, the Shares will be redeemable in accordance with the provisions of the Trust Agreement and the relevant Participant Agreement. Although the Sponsor cannot predict with certainty what effect, if any, the operation of a redemption program would have on the trading price of the Shares, a redemption program would allow Authorized Participants to take advantage of arbitrage opportunities created when the market value of the Shares deviates from the value of the Trust’s Bitcoin, less the Trust’s expenses and other liabilities, which may have the effect of reducing any premium at which the Shares trade on OTCQX over such value or cause the Shares to trade at a discount to such value from time to time. For a discussion of risks relating to the deviation in the trading price of the Shares from the Digital Asset Holdings per Share, see “Item 1A. 2 For a discussion of risks relating to the deviation in the trading price of the Shares from the Digital Asset Holdings per Share, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risk Factors Related to the Trust and the Shares—Because of the holding period under Rule 144, and the lack of an ongoing redemption program and the Trust’s ability to halt creations from time to time, there is no arbitrage mechanism to keep the value of the Shares closely linked to the Index Price and the Shares have historically traded at a substantial premium over, or a substantial discount to, the Digital Asset Holdings per Share, “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risk Factors Related to the Trust and the Shares—Because of the holding period under Rule 144, the lack of an ongoing redemption program and the Trust’s ability to halt creations from time to time, there is no arbitrage mechanism to keep the price of the Shares closely linked to the Index Price and the Shares have historically traded at a substantial premium over the Digital Asset Holdings per Share,” “Item 1A. Risk Factors— Risk Factors Related to the Trust and the Shares—The Shares may trade at a price that is at, above or below the Trust’s Digital Asset Holdings per Share as a result of the non-current trading hours between OTCQX and the Digital Asset Exchange Market,” “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risk Factors Related to the Trust and the Shares—The Shares may trade at a price that is at, above or below the Trust’s Digital Asset Holdings per Share as a result of the non-current trading hours between OTCQX and the Digital Asset Exchange Market. Risk Factors—Risk Factors Related to the Trust and the Shares—Shareholders who purchase Shares on OTCQX that are trading at a substantial premium over the Digital Asset Holdings per Share may suffer a loss on their investment if such premium decreases” and “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risk Factors Related to the Trust and the Shares—The Shares may trade at a price that is at, above or below the Trust’s Digital Asset Holdings per Share as a result of the non-current trading hours between OTCQX and the Digital Asset Exchange Market. Risk Factors—Risk Factors Related to the Trust and the Shares—The restrictions on transfer and redemption may result in losses on the value of the Shares. Risk Factors—Risk Factors Related to Digital Assets—A temporary or permanent “fork” could adversely affect the value of the Shares. ” Characteristics of the Shares The Shares are intended to offer investors an opportunity to participate in Digital Asset Markets through an investment in securities.” Characteristics of the Shares The Shares are intended to offer investors an opportunity to participate in Digital Asset Markets through an investment in securities. As of December 31, 2021, each Share represented approximately 0.0009 of one Bitcoin. The logistics of accepting, transferring and safekeeping of Bitcoins are dealt with by the Sponsor and Custodian, and the related expenses are built into the value of the Shares. Therefore, shareholders do not have additional tasks or costs over and above those generally associated with investing in any other privately placed security. The Shares have certain other key characteristics, including the following: • Easily Accessible and Relatively Cost Efficient. The Shares have certain other key characteristics, including the following: • Easily Accessible and Relatively Cost Efficient. Investors in the Shares can also directly access the Digital Asset Markets. The Sponsor believes that investors will be able to more effectively implement strategic and tactical asset allocation strategies that use Bitcoins by using the Shares instead of directly purchasing and holding Bitcoins, and for many investors, transaction costs related to the Shares will be lower than those associated with the direct purchase, storage and safekeeping of Bitcoins. • Market-Traded and Transparent. • Market-Traded and Transparent. The Shares are quoted on OTCQX. Shareholders that purchased Shares directly from the Trust and have held them for the requisite holding period under Rule 144 may sell their Shares on OTCQX upon receiving approval from the Sponsor. Investors may also choose to purchase Shares on OTCQX. Shares purchased on OTCQX are not restricted. The Sponsor believes the quotation of the Shares on OTCQX provides investors with an efficient means to implement various investment strategies. The Trust will not hold or employ any derivative securities. Furthermore, the value of the Trust’s assets will be reported each day on www. Furthermore, the value of the Trust’s assets will be reported each day on https://grayscale. grayscale.com/products/grayscale-bitcoin-trust/. • Minimal Credit Risk. • Minimal Credit Risk. The Shares represent an interest in actual Bitcoins owned by the Trust. The Trust’s Bitcoins are not subject to borrowing arrangements with third parties or to counterparty or credit risks. This contrasts with the other financial products such as CoinShares exchange-traded notes, TeraExchange swaps and Bitcoin futures and options traded on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (“CME”) and the Intercontinental Exchange (“ICE”) through which investors gain exposure to digital assets through the use of derivatives that are subject to counterparty and credit risks. • Safekeeping System. • Safekeeping System. The Custodian has been appointed to control and secure the Bitcoins for the Trust using offline storage, or cold storage, mechanisms to secure the Trust’s private key “shards”. The hardware, software, administration and continued technological development that are used by the Custodian may not be available or cost-effective for many investors. The Trust differentiates itself from competing digital asset financial vehicles, to the extent that such digital asset financial vehicles may develop, in the following ways: • Custodian. The Trust differentiates itself from competing digital asset financial vehicles, to the extent that such digital asset financial vehicles may develop, in the following ways: • Custodian. The Custodian that holds the private key shards associated with the Trust’s Bitcoins is Coinbase Custody Trust Company, LLC. Other digital asset financial vehicles that use cold storage may not use a custodian to hold their private keys. 3 Table of Contents • Cold Storage of Private Keys. The private key shards associated with the Trust’s Bitcoins are kept in cold storage, which means that the Trust’s Bitcoins are disconnected and/or deleted entirely from the internet. See “—Custody of the Trust’s Bitcoins” for more information relating to the storage and retrieval of the Trust’s private keys to and from cold storage. Other digital asset financial vehicles may not utilize cold storage or may utilize less effective cold storage-related hardware and security protocols. • Location of Private Vaults. 3 • Location of Private Vaults. Private key shards associated with the Trust’s Bitcoins are distributed geographically by the Custodian in secure vaults around the world, including in the United States. The locations of the secure vaults may change regularly and are kept confidential by the Custodian for security purposes. • Enhanced Security. • Enhanced Security. Transfers from the Trust’s Digital Asset Account require certain security procedures, including but not limited to, multiple encrypted private key shards, usernames, passwords and 2-step verification. Multiple private key shards held by the Custodian must be combined to reconstitute the private key to sign any transaction in order to transfer the Trust’s Bitcoins. Private key shards are distributed geographically in secure vaults around the world, including in the United States. As a result, if any one secure vault is ever compromised, this event will have no impact on the ability of the Trust to access its assets, other than a possible delay in operations, while one or more of the other secure vaults is used instead. These security procedures are intended to remove single points of failure in the protection of the Trust’s Bitcoins. • Custodian Audits. • Custodian Audits. The Custodian has agreed to allow the Trust and the Sponsor to take any necessary steps to verify that satisfactory internal control system and procedures are in place, and to visit and inspect the systems on which the Custodian’s coins are held. • Directly Held Bitcoins. • Directly Held Bitcoins. The Trust directly owns actual Bitcoins held through the Custodian. The direct ownership of Bitcoins is not subject to counterparty or credit risks. This may differ from other digital asset financial vehicles that provide Bitcoin exposure through other means, such as the use of financial or derivative instruments. • Sponsor’s Fee. • Sponsor’s Fee. The Sponsor’s Fee is a competitive factor that may influence the value of the Shares. Activities of the Trust The activities of the Trust are limited to (i) issuing Baskets in exchange for Bitcoins transferred to the Trust as consideration in connection with the creations, (ii) transferring or selling Bitcoins, Incidental Rights and IR Virtual Currency as necessary to cover the Sponsor’s Fee and/or any Additional Trust Expenses, (iii) transferring Bitcoins in exchange for Baskets surrendered for redemption (subject to obtaining regulatory approval from the SEC and approval from the Sponsor), (iv) causing the Sponsor to sell Bitcoins, Incidental Rights and IR Virtual Currency on the termination of the Trust, (v) making distributions of Incidental Rights and/or IR Virtual Currency or cash from the sale thereof and (vi) engaging in all administrative and security procedures necessary to accomplish such activities in accordance with the provisions of the Trust Agreement, the Custodian Agreement, the Index License Agreement and the Participant Agreements. Activities of the Trust The activities of the Trust are limited to (i) issuing Baskets in exchange for Bitcoins transferred to the Trust as consideration in connection with the creations, (ii) transferring or selling Bitcoins, Incidental Rights and IR Virtual Currency as necessary to cover the Sponsor’s Fee and/or any Additional Trust Expenses, (iii) transferring Bitcoins in exchange for Baskets surrendered for redemption (subject to obtaining regulatory approval from the SEC and approval from the Sponsor), (iv) causing the Sponsor to sell Bitcoins, Incidental Rights and IR Virtual Currency on the termination of the Trust, (v) making distributions of Incidental Rights and/or IR Virtual Currency or cash from the sale thereof and (vi) engaging in all administrative and security procedures necessary to accomplish such activities in accordance with the provisions of the Trust Agreement, the Custodian Agreement, the Index License Agreement and the Participant Agreements. In addition, the Trust may engage in any lawful activity necessary or desirable in order to facilitate shareholders’ access to Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency, provided that such activities do not conflict with the terms of the Trust Agreement. In addition, the Trust may engage in any lawful activity necessary or desirable in order to facilitate shareholders’ access to Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency, provided that such activities do not conflict with the terms of the Trust Agreement. The Trust will not be actively managed. It will not engage in any activities designed to obtain a profit from, or to ameliorate losses caused by changes in the market prices of Bitcoins. Incidental Rights and IR Virtual Currency The Trust may from time to time come into possession of Incidental Rights and/or IR Virtual Currency by virtue of its ownership of Bitcoins, generally through a fork in the Bitcoin Blockchain, an airdrop offered to holders of Bitcoins or other similar event. Incidental Rights and IR Virtual Currency From time to time, the Trust may come into possession of Incidental Rights and/or IR Virtual Currency by virtue of its ownership of Bitcoins, generally through a fork in the Bitcoin Blockchain, an airdrop offered to holders of Bitcoins or other similar event. Pursuant to the terms of the Trust Agreement, the Trust may take any lawful action necessary or desirable in connection with the Trust’s ownership of Incidental Rights, including the acquisition of IR Virtual Currency unless such action would adversely affect the status of the Trust as a grantor trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes or otherwise be prohibited by the Trust Agreement. These actions include (i) selling Incidental Rights and/or IR Virtual Currency in the Digital Asset Market and distributing the cash proceeds to shareholders, (ii) distributing Incidental Rights and/or IR Virtual Currency in-kind to the shareholders or to an agent acting on behalf of the shareholders for sale by such agent if an in-kind distribution would otherwise be infeasible and (iii) irrevocably abandoning Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency. These actions include (i) selling Incidental Rights and/or IR Virtual Currency and distributing the cash proceeds to shareholders, (ii) distributing Incidental Rights and/or IR Virtual Currency in-kind to the shareholders or to an agent acting on behalf of the shareholders for sale by such agent if an in-kind distribution would otherwise be infeasible and (iii) irrevocably abandoning Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency. The Trust may also use Incidental Rights and/or IR Virtual Currency to pay the Sponsor’s Fee and Additional Trust Expenses, if any, as discussed below under “—Expenses; Sales of Bitcoins.” However, the Trust does not expect to take any Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency it may hold into account for purposes of determining the Trust’s Digital Asset Holdings, the Digital Asset Holdings per Share, the NAV and the NAV per Share. With respect to any fork, airdrop or similar event, the Sponsor may, in its discretion, decide to cause the Trust to distribute the Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency in-kind to an agent of the shareholders for resale by such agent, or to irrevocably abandon the Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency. With respect to any fork, airdrop or similar event, the Sponsor may, in its discretion, decide to cause the Trust to distribute the Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency in-kind to an agent of the shareholders for resale by such agent, or to irrevocably abandon the Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency. In the case of a distribution in-kind to an agent acting on behalf of the shareholders, the shareholders’ agent will attempt to sell the Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency, and if the agent is able to do so, will remit the cash proceeds to shareholders, net of expenses and any applicable withholding taxes. There can be no assurance as to the price or prices for any Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency that the agent may realize, and the value of the Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency may increase or decrease after any sale by the agent. In the case of abandonment of Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency, the Trust would not receive any direct or indirect consideration for the Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency and thus the value of the Shares will not reflect the value of the Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency. 4 Table of ContentsOn May 2, 2018 and July 29, 2019, the Sponsor delivered to the former custodian and the current Custodian, respectively, on behalf of the Trust, a notice (each a “Pre-Creation Abandonment Notice,” and collectively, the “Pre-Creation Abandonment Notices”) stating that the Trust is abandoning irrevocably for no direct or indirect consideration, effective immediately prior to each time at which the Trust creates Shares (any such time, a “Creation Time”), all Incidental Rights and IR Virtual Currency to which it would otherwise be entitled as of such time (any such abandonment a “Pre-Creation Abandonment”); provided that a Pre-Creation Abandonment will not apply to any Incidental Rights and IR Virtual Currency if (i) the Trust has taken, or is taking at such time, an “Affirmative Action” to acquire or abandon such Incidental Rights and IR Virtual Currency at any time prior to such Creation Time or (ii) such Incidental Rights and IR Virtual Currency has been subject to a previous Pre-Creation Abandonment. 4 On May 2, 2018 and July 29, 2019, the Sponsor delivered to the former custodian and the current Custodian, respectively, on behalf of the Trust, a notice (each a “Prospective Abandonment Notice,” and collectively, the “Prospective Abandonment Notices”) stating that the Trust is abandoning irrevocably for no direct or indirect consideration, effective immediately prior to each time at which the Trust creates Shares (any such time, a “Creation Time”), all Incidental Rights and IR Virtual Currency to which it would otherwise be entitled as of such time (any such abandonment a “Pre-Creation Abandonment”); provided that a Pre-Creation Abandonment will not apply to any Incidental Rights and IR Virtual Currency if (i) the Trust has taken, or is taking at such time, an “Affirmative Action” to acquire or abandon such Incidental Rights and IR Virtual Currency at any time prior to such Creation Time or (ii) such Incidental Rights and IR Virtual Currency has been subject to a previous Pre-Creation Abandonment. An Affirmative Action refers to a written notification from the Sponsor to the Custodian of the Trust’s intention (i) to acquire and/or retain any Incidental Rights and/or IR Virtual Currency or (ii) to abandon, with effect prior to the relevant Creation Time, any Incidental Rights and/or IR Virtual Currency. An Affirmative Action refers to a written notification from the Sponsor to the Custodian of the Trust’s intention (i) to acquire and/or retain an Incidental Rights and/or IR Virtual Currency or (ii) to abandon, with effect prior to the relevant Creation Time, an Incidental Rights and/or IR Virtual Currency. In determining whether to take an Affirmative Action to acquire and/or retain an Incidental Rights and/or IR Virtual Currency, the Trust takes into consideration a number of factors, including: • the Custodian’s agreement to provide access to the IR Virtual Currency; • the availability of a safe and practical way to custody the IR Virtual Currency; • the costs of taking possession and/or maintaining ownership of the IR Virtual Currency and whether such costs exceed the benefits of owning such IR Virtual Currency; • whether there are any legal restrictions on, or tax implications with respect to, the ownership, sale or disposition of the Incidental Right or IR Virtual Currency, regardless of whether there is a safe and practical way to custody and secure such Incidental Right or IR Virtual Currency; • the existence of a suitable market into which the Incidental Right or IR Virtual Currency may be sold; and • whether the Incidental Right or IR Virtual Currency is, or may be, a security under federal securities laws. In determining whether to take an Affirmative Action to acquire and/or retain an Incidental Rights and/or IR Virtual Currency, the Trust takes into consideration a number of factors, including: • the Custodian’s agreement to provide access to the IR Virtual Currency; • the availability of a safe and practical way to custody the IR Virtual Currency; • the costs of taking possession and/or maintaining ownership of the IR Virtual Currency and whether such costs exceed the benefits of owning such IR Virtual Currency; • whether there are any legal restrictions on, or tax implications with respect to, the ownership, sale or disposition of the Incidental Right or IR Virtual Currency, regardless of whether there is a safe and practical way to custody and secure such Incidental Right or IR Virtual Currency; • the existence of a suitable market into which the Incidental Right or IR Virtual Currency may be sold; and • whether the Incidental Right or IR Virtual Currency is, or may be, a security under federal securities laws. In determining whether the IR Virtual Currency is, or may be, a security under federal securities laws, the Sponsor takes into account a number of factors, including the various definitions of “security” under the federal securities laws and federal court decisions interpreting elements of these definitions, such as the U.S. Supreme Court’s decisions in the Howey and Reves cases, as well as reports, orders, press releases, public statements and speeches by the SEC and its staff providing guidance on when a digital asset may be a security for purposes of the federal securities laws. As a result of the Pre-Creation Abandonment Notices, since May 2, 2018, the Trust has irrevocably abandoned, prior to the Creation Time of any Shares, any Incidental Right or IR Virtual Currency that it may have any right to receive at such time. As a result of the Prospective Abandonment Notices, since May 2, 2018, the Trust has irrevocably abandoned, prior to the Creation Time of any Shares, any Incidental Right or IR Virtual Currency that it may have any right to receive at such time. The Trust has also abandoned Incidental Rights and IR Virtual Currency through Affirmative Actions. The Trust has no right to receive any Incidental Right or IR Virtual Currency abandoned pursuant to either the Pre-Creation Abandonment Notices or Affirmative Actions. Furthermore, the Custodian has no authority, pursuant to the Custodian Agreement or otherwise, to exercise, obtain or hold, as the case may be, any such abandoned Incidental Right or IR Virtual Currency on behalf of the Trust or to transfer any such abandoned Incidental Right or IR Virtual Currency to the Trust if the Trust terminates its custodial agreement with the Custodian. The Sponsor intends to evaluate each fork, airdrop or similar occurrence on a case-by-case basis in consultation with the Trust’s legal advisers, tax consultants, and Custodian, and may decide to abandon any Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency resulting from a hard fork, airdrop or similar occurrence should the Sponsor conclude, in its discretion, that such abandonment is in the best interests of the Trust. The Sponsor intends to evaluate each fork, airdrop or similar occurrence on a case-by-case basis in consultation with the Trust’s legal advisors, tax consultants, and Custodian, and may decide to abandon any Incidental Rights or IR Virtual Currency resulting from a hard fork, airdrop or similar occurrence should the Sponsor conclude, in its discretion, that such abandonment is in the best interests of the Trust. In the event the Sponsor decides to sell any Incidental Right or IR Virtual Currency, it would expect to execute the sale to the Authorized Participant, as principal, or through the Authorized Participant, as broker. In either case, the Sponsor expects that the Authorized Participant would only be willing to transact with the Sponsor on behalf of the Trust if the Authorized Participant considered it possible to trade the Incidental Right or IR Virtual Currency on a Digital Asset Exchange or other venue to which the Authorized Participant has access. The Authorized Participant has access only to Digital Asset Exchanges or other venues that the Authorized Participant reasonably believes are operating in compliance with applicable law, including federal and state licensing requirements, based upon information and assurances provided to it by each venue. Secondary Market Trading While the Trust’s investment objective is for the value of the Shares (based on Bitcoin per Share) to reflect the value of the Bitcoin held by the Trust, determined by reference to the Index Price, less the Trust’s expenses and other liabilities, the Shares may trade in the Secondary Market on OTCQX (or on another Secondary Market in the future) at prices that are lower or higher than the Digital Asset Holdings per Share. Secondary Market Trading While the Trust’s investment objective is for the Shares (based on Bitcoin per Share) to reflect the value of the Bitcoin held by the Trust, determined by reference to the Index Price, less the Trust’s expenses and other liabilities, the Shares may trade in the Secondary Market on OTCQX (or on another Secondary Market in the future) at prices that are lower or higher than the Digital Asset Holdings per Share. The amount of the discount or premium in the trading price relative to the Digital Asset Holdings per Share may be 5 Table of Contentsinfluenced by non-concurrent trading hours and liquidity between OTCQX and larger Digital Asset Exchanges. The amount of the discount or premium in the trading price relative to the Digital Asset Holdings per Share may be influenced by non-concurrent trading hours and liquidity between OTCQX and larger Digital Asset Exchanges. While the Shares are listed and trade on OTCQX from 6:00 a.m. until 5:00 p.m., New York time, liquidity in the Digital Asset Markets may fluctuate depending upon the volume and availability of larger Digital Asset Exchanges. As a result, during periods in which Digital Asset Market liquidity is limited or a major Digital Asset Exchange is off-line, trading spreads, and the resulting premium or discount, on the Shares may widen. Overview of the Bitcoin Industry and Market Bitcoin is a digital asset that is created and transmitted through the operations of the peer-to-peer Bitcoin Network, a decentralized network of computers that operates on cryptographic protocols. 5 Overview of the Bitcoin Industry and Market Bitcoin is a digital asset that is created and transmitted through the operations of the peer-to-peer Bitcoin Network, a decentralized network of computers that operates on cryptographic protocols. No single entity owns or operates the Bitcoin Network, the infrastructure of which is collectively maintained by a decentralized user base. The Bitcoin Network allows people to exchange tokens of value, called Bitcoin, which are recorded on a public transaction ledger known as a Blockchain. Bitcoin can be used to pay for goods and services, or it can be converted to fiat currencies, such as the U.S. dollar, at rates determined on Digital Asset Markets that trade Bitcoin or in individual end-user-to-end-user transactions under a barter system. The Bitcoin Network is decentralized and does not require governmental authorities or financial institution intermediaries to create, transmit or determine the value of Bitcoin. The Bitcoin Network is decentralized and does not require governmental authorities or financial institution intermediaries to create, transmit or determine the value of Bitcoin. Rather, Bitcoin is created and allocated by the Bitcoin Network protocol through a “mining” process. The value of Bitcoin is determined by the supply of and demand for Bitcoin on the Digital Asset Markets or in private end-user-to-end-user transactions. New Bitcoin are created and rewarded to the miners of a block in the Blockchain for verifying transactions. New Bitcoin are created and rewarded to the miners of a block in the Blockchain for verifying transactions. The Blockchain is effectively a decentralized database that includes all blocks that have been mined by miners and it is updated to include new blocks as they are solved. Each Bitcoin transaction is broadcast to the Bitcoin Network and, when included in a block, recorded in the Blockchain. As each new block records outstanding Bitcoin transactions, and outstanding transactions are settled and validated through such recording, the Blockchain represents a complete, transparent and unbroken history of all transactions of the Bitcoin Network. For further details, see “—Creation of New Bitcoin” below. History of Bitcoin The Bitcoin Network was initially contemplated in a white paper that also described Bitcoin and the operating software to govern the Bitcoin Network. History of Bitcoin The Bitcoin Network was initially contemplated in a white paper that also described Bitcoin and the operating software to govern the Bitcoin Network. The white paper was purportedly authored by Satoshi Nakamoto. However, no individual with that name has been reliably identified as Bitcoin’s creator, and the general consensus is that the name is a pseudonym for the actual inventor or inventors. The first Bitcoins were created in 2009 after Nakamoto released the Bitcoin Network source code (the software and protocol that created and launched the Bitcoin Network). The Bitcoin Network has been under active development since that time by a group of engineers known as core developers. Overview of the Bitcoin Network’s Operations In order to own, transfer or use Bitcoin directly on the Bitcoin Network (as opposed to through an intermediary, such as a custodian), a person generally must have internet access to connect to the Bitcoin Network. Overview of the Bitcoin Network’s Operations In order to own, transfer or use Bitcoin directly on the Bitcoin Network (as opposed to through an intermediary, such as a custodian), a person generally must have internet access to connect to the Bitcoin Network. Bitcoin transactions may be made directly between end-users without the need for a third-party intermediary. To prevent the possibility of double-spending Bitcoin, a user must notify the Bitcoin Network of the transaction by broadcasting the transaction data to its network peers. The Bitcoin Network provides confirmation against double-spending by memorializing every transaction in the Blockchain, which is publicly accessible and transparent. This memorialization and verification against double-spending is accomplished through the Bitcoin Network mining process, which adds “blocks” of data, including recent transaction information, to the Blockchain. Brief Description of Bitcoin Transfers Prior to engaging in Bitcoin transactions directly on the Bitcoin Network, a user generally must first install on its computer or mobile device a Bitcoin Network software program that will allow the user to generate a private and public key pair associated with a Bitcoin address commonly referred to as a “wallet. Brief Description of Bitcoin Transfers Prior to engaging in Bitcoin transactions directly on the Bitcoin Network, a user generally must first install on its computer or mobile device a Bitcoin Network software program that will allow the user to generate a private and public key pair associated with a Bitcoin address commonly referred to as a “wallet. ” The Bitcoin Network software program and the Bitcoin address also enable the user to connect to the Bitcoin Network and transfer Bitcoin to, and receive Bitcoin from, other users. Each Bitcoin Network address, or wallet, is associated with a unique “public key” and “private key” pair. Each Bitcoin Network address, or wallet, is associated with a unique “public key” and “private key” pair. To receive Bitcoin, the Bitcoin recipient must provide its public key to the party initiating the transfer. This activity is analogous to a recipient for a transaction in U.S. dollars providing a routing address in wire instructions to the payor so that cash may be wired to the recipient’s account. The payor approves the transfer to the address provided by the recipient by “signing” a transaction that consists of the recipient’s public key with the private key of the address from where the payor is transferring the Bitcoin. The recipient, however, does not make public or provide to the sender its related private key. 6 Table of ContentsNeither the recipient nor the sender reveal their private keys in a transaction, because the private key authorizes transfer of the funds in that address to other users. Neither the recipient nor the sender reveal their private keys in a transaction, because the private key authorizes transfer of the funds in that address to other users. Therefore, if a user loses his private key, the user may permanently lose access to the Bitcoin contained in the associated address. Likewise, Bitcoin is irretrievably lost if the private key associated with them is deleted and no backup has been made. When sending Bitcoin, a user’s Bitcoin Network software program must validate the transaction with the associated private key. The resulting digitally validated transaction is sent by the user’s Bitcoin Network software program to the Bitcoin Network to allow transaction confirmation. Some Bitcoin transactions are conducted “off-blockchain” and are therefore not recorded in the Blockchain. 6 Some Bitcoin transactions are conducted “off-blockchain” and are therefore not recorded in the Blockchain. Some “off- blockchain transactions” involve the transfer of control over, or ownership of, a specific digital wallet holding Bitcoin or the reallocation of ownership of certain Bitcoin in a pooled-ownership digital wallet, such as a digital wallet owned by a Digital Asset Exchange. Some “off-blockchain transactions” involve the transfer of control over, or ownership of, a specific digital wallet holding Bitcoin or the reallocation of ownership of certain Bitcoin in a pooled-ownership digital wallet, such as a digital wallet owned by a Digital Asset Exchange. In contrast to on-blockchain transactions, which are publicly recorded on the Blockchain, information and data regarding off-blockchain transactions are generally not publicly available. Therefore, off-blockchain transactions are not truly Bitcoin transactions in that they do not involve the transfer of transaction data on the Bitcoin Network and do not reflect a movement of Bitcoin between addresses recorded in the Blockchain. For these reasons, off-blockchain transactions are subject to risks as any such transfer of Bitcoin ownership is not protected by the protocol behind the Bitcoin Network or recorded in, and validated through, the blockchain mechanism. Summary of a Bitcoin Transaction In a Bitcoin transaction directly on the Bitcoin Network between two parties (as opposed to through an intermediary, such as a custodian), the following circumstances must initially be in place: (i) the party seeking to send Bitcoin must have a Bitcoin Network public key, and the Bitcoin Network must recognize that public key as having sufficient Bitcoin for the transaction; (ii) the receiving party must have a Bitcoin Network public key; and (iii) the spending party must have internet access with which to send its spending transaction. Summary of a Bitcoin Transaction In a Bitcoin transaction directly on the Bitcoin Network between two parties (as opposed to through an intermediary, such as a custodian), the following circumstances must initially be in place: (i) the party seeking to send Bitcoin must have a Bitcoin Network public key, and the Bitcoin Network must recognize that public key as having sufficient Bitcoin for the transaction; (ii) the receiving party must have a Bitcoin Network public key; and (iii) the spending party must have internet access with which to send its spending transaction. The receiving party must provide the spending party with its public key and allow the Blockchain to record the sending of Bitcoin to that public key. The receiving party must provide the spending party with its public key and allow the Blockchain to record the sending of Bitcoin to that public key. After the provision of a recipient’s Bitcoin Network public key, the spending party must enter the address into its Bitcoin Network software program along with the number of Bitcoin to be sent. The number of Bitcoin to be sent will typically be agreed upon between the two parties based on a set number of Bitcoin or an agreed upon conversion of the value of fiat currency to Bitcoin. Since every computation on the Bitcoin Network requires the payment of Bitcoin, including verification and memorialization of Bitcoin transfers, there is a transaction fee involved with the transfer, which is based on computation complexity and not on the value of the transfer and is paid by the payor with a fractional number of Bitcoin. After the entry of the Bitcoin Network address, the number of Bitcoin to be sent and the transaction fees, if any, to be paid, will be transmitted by the spending party. After the entry of the Bitcoin Network address, the number of Bitcoin to be sent and the transaction fees, if any, to be paid, will be transmitted by the spending party. The transmission of the spending transaction results in the creation of a data packet by the spending party’s Bitcoin Network software program, which is transmitted onto the decentralized Bitcoin Network, resulting in the distribution of the information among the software programs of users across the Bitcoin Network for eventual inclusion in the Blockchain. As discussed in greater detail below in “—Creation of New Bitcoin,” Bitcoin Network miners record transactions when they solve for and add blocks of information to the Blockchain. As discussed in greater detail below in “—Creation of New Bitcoin,” Bitcoin Network miners record transactions when they solve for and add blocks of information to the Blockchain. When a miner solves for a block, it creates that block, which includes data relating to (i) the solution to the block, (ii) a reference to the prior block in the Blockchain to which the new block is being added and (iii) transactions that have occurred but have not yet been added to the Blockchain. The miner becomes aware of outstanding, unrecorded transactions through the data packet transmission and distribution discussed above. Upon the addition of a block included in the Blockchain, the Bitcoin Network software program of both the spending party and the receiving party will show confirmation of the transaction on the Blockchain and reflect an adjustment to the Bitcoin balance in each party’s Bitcoin Network public key, completing the Bitcoin transaction. Upon the addition of a block included in the Blockchain, the Bitcoin Network software program of both the spending party and the receiving party will show confirmation of the transaction on the Blockchain and reflect an adjustment to the Bitcoin balance in each party’s Bitcoin Network public key, completing the Bitcoin transaction. Once a transaction is confirmed on the Blockchain, it is irreversible. Creation of New Bitcoin New Bitcoins are created through the mining process as discussed below. Creation of New Bitcoin New Bitcoins are created through the mining process as discussed below. The Bitcoin Network is kept running by computers all over the world. The Bitcoin Network is kept running by computers all over the world. In order to incentivize those who incur the computational costs of securing the network by validating transactions, there is a reward that is given to the computer that was able to create the latest block on the chain. Every 10 minutes, on average, a new block is added to the Blockchain with the latest transactions processed by the network, and the computer that generated this block is currently awarded 6.25 Bitcoin. Due to the nature of the algorithm for block generation, this process (generating a “proof-of-work”) is guaranteed to be random. Over time, rewards are expected to be proportionate to the computational power of each machine. The process by which Bitcoin is “mined” results in new blocks being added to the Blockchain and new Bitcoin tokens being issued to the miners. The process by which Bitcoin is “mined” results in new blocks being added to the Blockchain and new Bitcoin tokens being issued to the miners. Computers on the Bitcoin Network engage in a set of prescribed complex mathematical calculations in order to add a block to the Blockchain and thereby confirm Bitcoin transactions included in that block’s data. 7 Table of ContentsTo begin mining, a user can download and run Bitcoin Network mining software, which turns the user’s computer into a “node” on the Bitcoin Network that validates blocks. To begin mining, a user can download and run Bitcoin Network mining software, which turns the user’s computer into a “node” on the Bitcoin Network that validates blocks. Each block contains the details of some or all of the most recent transactions that are not memorialized in prior blocks, as well as a record of the award of Bitcoin to the miner who added the new block. Each unique block can be solved and added to the Blockchain by only one miner. Each unique block 7 can be solved and added to the Blockchain by only one miner. Therefore, all individual miners and mining pools on the Bitcoin Network are engaged in a competitive process of constantly increasing their computing power to improve their likelihood of solving for new blocks. As more miners join the Bitcoin Network and its processing power increases, the Bitcoin Network adjusts the complexity of the block-solving equation to maintain a predetermined pace of adding a new block to the Blockchain approximately every ten minutes. A miner’s proposed block is added to the Blockchain once a majority of the nodes on the Bitcoin Network confirms the miner’s work. Miners that are successful in adding a block to the Blockchain are automatically awarded Bitcoin for their effort and may also receive transaction fees paid by transferors whose transactions are recorded in the block. This reward system is the method by which new Bitcoin enter into circulation to the public. The Bitcoin Network is designed in such a way that the reward for adding new blocks to the Blockchain decreases over time. The Bitcoin Network is designed in such a way that the reward for adding new blocks to the Blockchain decreases over time. Once new Bitcoin tokens are no longer awarded for adding a new block, miners will only have transaction fees to incentivize them, and as a result, it is expected that miners will need to be better compensated with higher transaction fees to ensure that there is adequate incentive for them to continue mining. Limits on Bitcoin Supply The supply of new Bitcoin is mathematically controlled so that the number of Bitcoin grows at a limited rate pursuant to a pre- set schedule. Limits on Bitcoin Supply The supply of new Bitcoin is mathematically controlled so that the number of Bitcoin grows at a limited rate pursuant to a pre-set schedule. The number of Bitcoin awarded for solving a new block is automatically halved after every 210,000 blocks are added to the Blockchain. Currently, the fixed reward for solving a new block is 6.25 Bitcoin per block and this is expected to decrease by half to become 3.125 Bitcoin after the next 210,000 blocks have entered the Bitcoin Network, which is expected to be mid-2024. This deliberately controlled rate of Bitcoin creation means that the number of Bitcoin in existence will increase at a controlled rate until the number of Bitcoin in existence reaches the pre-determined 21 million Bitcoin. As of December 31, 2021, approximately 18. As of December 31, 2020, approximately 18. 9 million Bitcoins were outstanding and the date when the 21 million Bitcoin limitation will be reached is estimated to be the year 2140. Modifications to the Bitcoin Protocol Bitcoin is an open source project with no official developer or group of developers that controls the Bitcoin Network. Modifications to the Bitcoin Protocol Bitcoin is an open source project with no official developer or group of developers that controls the Bitcoin Network. However, the Bitcoin Network’s development is overseen by a core group of developers. The core developers are able to access, and can alter, the Bitcoin Network source code and, as a result, they are responsible for quasi-official releases of updates and other changes to the Bitcoin Network’s source code. The release of updates to the Bitcoin Network’s source code does not guarantee that the updates will be automatically adopted. Users and miners must accept any changes made to the Bitcoin source code by downloading the proposed modification of the Bitcoin Network’s source code. A modification of the Bitcoin Network’s source code is effective only with respect to the Bitcoin users and miners that download it. If a modification is accepted by only a percentage of users and miners, a division in the Bitcoin Network will occur such that one network will run the pre-modification source code and the other network will run the modified source code. Such a division is known as a “fork.” See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risk Factors Related to Digital Assets—A temporary or permanent “fork” could adversely affect the value of the Shares.” Consequently, as a practical matter, a modification to the source code becomes part of the Bitcoin Network only if accepted by participants collectively having most of the processing power on the Bitcoin Network. In the past, there have been several forks in the Bitcoin Network, including, but not limited to, forks resulting in the creation of Bitcoin Cash (August 1, 2017), Bitcoin Gold (October 24, 2017) and Bitcoin SegWit2X (December 28, 2017), among others. Core development of the Bitcoin Network source code has increasingly focused on modifications of the Bitcoin Network protocol to increase speed and scalability and also allow for non-financial, next generation uses. Core development of the Bitcoin Network source code has increasingly focused on modifications of the Bitcoin Network protocol to increase speed and scalability and also allow for non-financial, next generation uses. For example, following the recent activation of Segregated Witness on the Bitcoin Network, an alpha version of the Lightning Network was released. The Lightning Network is an open-source decentralized network that enables instant off-Blockchain transfers of the ownership of Bitcoin without the need of a trusted third party. The system utilizes bidirectional payment channels that consist of multi-signature addresses. One on-Blockchain transaction is needed to open a channel and another on-Blockchain transaction can close the channel. Once a channel is open, value can be transferred instantly between counterparties, who are engaging in real Bitcoin transactions without broadcasting them to the Bitcoin Network. New transactions will replace previous transactions and the counterparties will store everything locally as long as the channel stays open to increase transaction throughput and reduce computational burden on the Bitcoin Network. Other efforts include increased use of smart contracts and distributed registers built into, built atop or pegged alongside the Blockchain. For example, the white paper for Blockstream, an organization that includes core developer Pieter Wuille, calls for the use of “pegged sidechains” to develop programming environments that are built within Blockchain ledgers that can interact with and rely on the security of the Bitcoin Network and Blockchain, while remaining independent from them. Open-source projects such as RSK are a manifestation of this concept and seek to create the first open-source, smart contract platform built on the Blockchain to enable automated, condition-based payments with increased speed and scalability. The Trust’s activities will not directly relate to such projects, though such projects may utilize Bitcoin as tokens for the facilitation of their non-financial uses, thereby potentially increasing demand for Bitcoin and the utility of the Bitcoin Network as a whole. Conversely, projects that operate and are built within the Blockchain may increase the data flow on the Bitcoin Network and could either “bloat” the size of the Blockchain or slow confirmation times. At this time, such projects remain in early stages and have not been materially integrated into the Blockchain or the Bitcoin Network. 8 Table of ContentsIn 2021, the Bitcoin protocol implemented the Taproot upgrade to add enhanced support for complex transactions on the network such as multi-signature transactions, which require two or more parties to execute a transaction on the Bitcoin network. Prior to the upgrade, multi-signature transactions were historically slow, expensive, and easily identifiable. Taproot reduces the amount of data written to a block, speeding up the time to transaction finality, and makes multi-signature transactions indistinguishable from regular transactions, adding an enhanced layer of privacy. Bitcoin Value Digital Asset Exchange Valuation The value of Bitcoin is determined by the value that various market participants place on Bitcoin through their transactions. Bitcoin Value Digital Asset Exchange Valuation The value of Bitcoin is determined by the value that various market participants place on Bitcoin through their transactions. The most common means of determining the value of a Bitcoin is by surveying one or more Digital Asset Exchanges where Bitcoin is traded publicly and transparently (e.g., Bitstamp, Coinbase, Kraken and LMAX Digital). Additionally, there are over-the-counter dealers or market makers that transact in Bitcoin. Digital Asset Exchange Public Market Data On each online Digital Asset Exchange, Bitcoin is traded with publicly disclosed valuations for each executed trade, measured by one or more fiat currencies such as the U. Digital Asset Exchange Public Market Data On each online Digital Asset Exchange, Bitcoin is traded with publicly disclosed valuations for each executed trade, measured by one or more fiat currencies such as the U. S. dollar or euro. Over-the-counter dealers or market makers do not typically disclose their trade data. As of December 31, 2021, the Digital Asset Exchanges included in the Index are Coinbase Pro, Bitstamp, Kraken and LMAX Digital. As of December 31, 2020, the constituent Digital Asset Exchanges of the Index were Coinbase Pro, Bitstamp, Kraken and LMAX Digital. As further described below, each of these Digital Asset Exchanges are in compliance with applicable U.S. federal and state licensing requirements and practices regarding AML and KYC regulations. federal and state licensing requirements and practices regarding Anti-Money Laundering (“AML”) and Know-Your-Customer (“KYC”) regulations (i. Coinbase Pro: A U.S.-based exchange registered as a money services business (“MSB”) with FinCen and licensed as a virtual currency business under the NYDFS BitLicense as well as money transmitter in various U.S. states. Bitstamp: A U.K.-based exchange registered as an MSB with FinCen and licensed as a virtual currency business under the NYDFS BitLicense as well as money transmitter in various U.S. states. Kraken: A U.S.-based exchange registered as an MSB with FinCen and licensed as money transmitter in various U.S. states. Kraken does not hold a BitLicense. LMAX Digital: A U.K.-based exchange registered as a broker with FCA. LMAX Digital does not hold a BitLicense. Currently, there are several Digital Asset Exchanges operating worldwide and online Digital Asset Exchanges represent a substantial percentage of Bitcoin buying and selling activity and provide the most data with respect to prevailing valuations of Bitcoins. Currently, there are several Digital Asset Exchanges operating worldwide and online Digital Asset Exchanges represent a substantial percentage of Bitcoin buying and selling activity and provide the most data with respect to prevailing valuations of Bitcoins. These exchanges include established exchanges such as exchanges included in the Index which provide a number of options for buying and selling Bitcoins. The below table reflects the trading volume in Bitcoins and market share of the BTC-U.S. dollar trading pair of each of the Digital Asset Exchanges included in the Index as of December 31, 2021 using data reported by the Index Provider since the inception of the Trust: (1) On January 19, 2020, the Index Provider removed Bittrex due to a lack of trading volume and added LMAX Digital due to the exchange meeting the liquidity thresholds. dollar trading pair of each of the Digital Asset Exchanges included in the Index as of December 31, 2020 using data reported by the Index Provider: (1) On January 15, 2019, the Index Provider added back Kraken and also added Bittrex to the Index. On April 6, 2020, the Index Provider removed itBit due to a lack of trading volume and did not add any constituents as part of its scheduled quarterly review. On April 6, 2020, the Index Provider removed itBit and did not add any constituents as part of its scheduled quarterly review. 9 Table of Contents (2) Market share is calculated using trading volume data (in Bitcoins) provided by the Index Provider for certain Digital Asset Exchanges, including Coinbase Pro, Bitstamp, Kraken, and LMAX Digital, as well as certain other large U. (2) Market share is calculated using trading volume data (in Bitcoins) provided by the Index Provider for certain Digital Asset Exchanges, including Coinbase Pro, Bitstamp, Kraken, and LMAX Digital, as well as certain other large U. S.-dollar denominated Digital Asset Exchanges that are not currently included in the Index, including Binance.US (data included from April 1, 2020), Bitfinex, Bitflyer (data included from December 24, 2018), Bittrex (data included from July 31, 2018), ErisX (data included from October 1, 2020), Gemini, itBit, LakeBTC (data included from May 1, 2015 to June 1, 2018 and from January 27, 2019), HitBTC (data included from April 1, 2019 to March 31, 2020) and OKCoin. The domicile, regulation and legal compliance of the Digital Asset Exchanges included in the Index varies. The domicile, regulation and legal compliance of the Digital Asset Exchanges included in the Index varies. Information regarding each Digital Asset Exchange may be found, where available, on the websites for such Digital Asset Exchanges, among other places. Although the Index is designed to accurately capture the market price of Bitcoin, third parties may be able to purchase and sell Bitcoin on public or private markets not included among the constituent Digital Asset Exchanges of the Index, and such transactions may take place at prices materially higher or lower than the Index Price. Moreover, there may be variances in the prices of Bitcoin on the various Digital Asset Exchanges, including as a result of differences in fee structures or administrative procedures on different Digital Asset Exchanges. For example, based on data provided by the Index Provider, on any given day during the year ended December 31, 2021, the maximum differential between the 4:00 p.m., New York time spot price of any single Digital Asset Exchange included in the Index and the Index Price was 0.64% (8.50% based on Old Index Price) and the average of the maximum differentials of the 4:00 p.m., New York time, spot price of each Digital Asset Exchange included in the Index and the Index Price was 0.32% (8.47% based on Old Index Price). During this same period, the average differential between the 4:00 p.m., New York time, spot prices of all the Digital Asset Exchanges included in the Index and the Index Price was 0.0003% (0.24% based on Old Index Price). All Digital Asset Exchanges that were included in the Index throughout the period were considered in this analysis. To the extent such prices differ materially from the Index Price, investors may lose confidence in the Shares’ ability to track the market price of Bitcoin. The Index and the Index Price The Index is a U. 9 The Index and the Index Price The Index is a U. S. dollar-denominated composite reference rate for the price of Bitcoin. The Index is designed to (1) mitigate the effects of fraud, manipulation and other anomalous trading activity from impacting the Bitcoin reference rate, (2) provide a real-time, volume-weighted fair value of Bitcoin and (3) appropriately handle and adjust for non-market related events. The Index Price is determined by the Index Provider through a process in which trade data is cleansed and compiled in such a manner as to algorithmically reduce the impact of anomalistic or manipulative trading. This is accomplished by adjusting the weight of each data input based on price deviation relative to the observable set, as well as recent and long-term trading volume at each venue relative to the observable set. The Index Price is calculated using non-GAAP methodology and is not used in the Trust’s financial statements. Prior to February 1, 2022, the Trust valued its Bitcoins for operational purposes by reference to the Old Index Price. The Old Index Price was calculated by applying a weighting algorithm to the price and trading volume data for the immediately preceding 24-hour period as of 4:00 p. dollars calculated by applying a weighting algorithm to the price and trading volume data for the immediately preceding 24-hour period as of 4:00 p. m., New York time, derived from the Constituent Exchanges reflected in the Index on such trade date and overlaid an averaging mechanism to the price produced resulting in the Old Index Price reflecting an average price for the 24-hour period. In other words, the Index Price is the price of a Bitcoin at 4:00 p.m., New York time, calculated based on the price and trading volume data of the Digital Asset Exchanges included in the Index over the preceding 24-hour period whereas the Old Index Price was the price of a Bitcoin at 4:00 p.m., New York time, calculated by taking the average of each price of a Bitcoin produced by the Index over the preceding 24-hour period. The Index Price uses the same methodology without the additional averaging mechanism being applied to the Index Price. There was no change to the Index used to determine the Index Price or the criteria used to select the Constituent Exchanges. Constituent Exchange Selection The Digital Asset Exchanges that are included in the Index are selected by the Index Provider utilizing a methodology that is guided by the International Organization of Securities Commissions (“IOSCO”) principles for financial benchmarks. The Digital Asset Exchanges that are included in the Index are selected by the Index Provider utilizing a methodology that is guided by the International Organization of Securities Commissions (“IOSCO”) principles for financial benchmarks. For an exchange to become a Constituent Exchange, it must satisfy the criteria listed below (the “Inclusion Criteria”): • Compliance with applicable U. For an exchange to become a Digital Asset Exchange included in the Index (a “Constituent Exchange”), it must satisfy the criteria listed below (the “Inclusion Criteria”): • Compliance with applicable U. S. federal and state licensing requirements and practices regarding anti-money laundering (“AML”) and know-your-customer (“KYC”) regulations (i. federal and state licensing requirements and practices regarding Anti-Money Laundering (“AML”) and Know-Your-Customer (“KYC”) regulations (i. e., a U.S.-Compliant Exchange), based on a review of the exchanges’ publicly disclosed policies and guidelines • Publicly known ownership • No restrictions on deposits and/or withdrawals of Bitcoin • No restrictions on deposits and/or withdrawals of U.S. dollars • Reliably displays new trade prices and volumes on a real-time basis through APIs • Programmatic trading of the indexed asset’s spot price • Liquid market in the indexed asset • Trading volume must represent a minimum of total eligible trading volumes (5% for U.S. exchanges and 10% non-U.S. exchanges) 10 Table of Contents • Discretion of the Index Provider’s analysts, which applies to both the inclusion and exclusion of such exchanges. The Index Provider would only use this discretion to include or exclude an exchange in order to ensure the integrity of the Index; to date, the Index Provider has not exercised such discretion. A Digital Asset Exchange is removed from the Constituent Exchanges when it no longer satisfies the Inclusion Criteria. The Index Provider does not currently include data from over-the-counter markets or derivatives platforms among the Constituent Exchanges. The Index Provider does not currently include data from over-the-counter markets or derivatives platforms in the Index. Over-the-counter data is not currently included because of the potential for trades to include a significant premium or discount paid for larger liquidity, which creates an uneven comparison relative to more active markets. There is also a higher potential for over-the-counter transactions to not be arms-length, and thus not be representative of a true market price. Bitcoin derivative markets are also not currently included as the markets remain relatively thin. While the Index Provider has no plans to include data from over-the-counter markets or derivative platforms at this time, the Index Provider will consider IOSCO principles for financial benchmarks, the management of trading venues of Bitcoin derivatives and the aforementioned Inclusion Criteria when considering whether to include over-the-counter or derivative platform data in the future. The Index Provider and the Sponsor have entered into an index license agreement, dated as of February 1, 2022 (the “Index License Agreement”) governing the Sponsor’s use of the Index Price. In connection with the entry into the Index License Agreement, the Sponsor and the Index Provider terminated that certain license agreement, dated as of February 28, 2019, between the Sponsor and the Index Provider that governed the Sponsor’s use of the Old Index Provider. Pursuant to the terms of the Index License Agreement, the Index Provider may adjust the calculation methodology for the Index Price without notice to, or consent of, the Trust or its shareholders. The Index Provider may decide to change the calculation methodology to maintain the integrity of the Index Price calculation should it identify or become aware of previously unknown variables or issues with the existing methodology that it believes could materially impact its performance and/or reliability. The Index Provider has sole discretion over the determination of Index Price and may change the methodologies for determining the Index Price from time to time. Shareholders will be notified of any material changes to the calculation methodology or the Index Price in the Trust’s current reports and will be notified of all other changes that the Sponsor considers significant in the Trust’s periodic reports. The Trust will determine the materiality of any changes to the Index Price on a case-by-case basis, in consultation with external counsel. The Index Provider may change the trading venues that are used to calculate the Index or otherwise change the way in which the Index is calculated at any time. The Index Provider may change the trading venues that are used to calculate the Index or otherwise change the way in which the Index is calculated at any time. For example, the Index Provider has scheduled quarterly reviews in which it may add or remove Constituent Exchanges that satisfy or fail the Inclusion Criteria. The Index Provider does not have any obligation to consider the interests of the Sponsor, the Trust, the shareholders, or anyone else in connection with such changes. While the Index Provider is not required to publicize or explain the changes or to alert the Sponsor to such changes, it has historically notified the Trust of any material changes to the Constituent Exchanges, including any additions or removals of the Constituent Exchanges, in addition to issuing press releases in connection with the same. The Sponsor will notify investors of any such material event by filing a current report on Form 8-K. Although the Index methodology is designed to operate without any manual intervention, rare events would justify manual intervention. Although the Index methodology is designed to operate without any human interference, rare events would justify manual intervention. Intervention of this kind would be in response to non-market-related events, such as the halting of deposits or withdrawals of funds on a Digital Asset Exchange, the unannounced closure of operations on a Digital Asset Exchange, insolvency or the compromise of user funds. In the event that such an intervention is necessary, the Index Provider would issue a public announcement through its website, API and other established communication channels with its clients. Determination of the Index Price The Index applies an algorithm to the price of Bitcoin on the Constituent Exchanges calculated on a per second basis over a 24-hour period. The Index’s algorithm is expected to reflect a four-pronged methodology to calculate the Index Price from the Constituent Exchanges: • Volume Weighting: Constituent Exchanges with greater liquidity receive a higher weighting in the Index, increasing the ability to execute against (i. The Index’s algorithm reflects a four-pronged methodology to calculate the Index Price from the Constituent Exchanges: • Volume Weighting: Constituent Exchanges with greater liquidity receive a higher weighting in the Index, increasing the ability to execute against (i. e., replicate) the Index in the underlying spot markets. • Price-Variance Weighting: The Index Price reflects data points that are discretely weighted in prop