Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - FSBC

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$FSBC Risk Factor changes from 00/02/25/22/2022 to 00/02/23/24/2024

Item 1A. Risk FactorsCertain factors may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.Risk Factors Certain factors may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

You should carefully consider the following risks, together with all of the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the sections entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and the related notes thereto. Any of the following risks could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations and could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, which would cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Our business, financial condition, and results of operations could also be harmed by risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently do not believe are material.Risk Factor SummaryThe most significant risks that may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations are summarized below. Risk Factor Summary The most significant risks that may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations are summarized below. •Our business and operations are concentrated in Northern California, and we are sensitive to adverse changes in the local economy. · Our business and operations are concentrated in Northern California, and we are sensitive to adverse changes in the local economy. •We operate in a highly competitive market and face increasing competition from traditional and new financial services providers. · We operate in a highly competitive market and face increasing competition from traditional and new financial services providers. •We are subject to the various risks associated with our banking business and operations, including, among others, credit, market, liquidity, interest rate, and compliance risks, which may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations if we are unable to manage such risks. · We are subject to the various risks associated with our banking business and operations, including, among others, credit, market, liquidity, interest rate, and compliance risks, which may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations if we are unable to manage such risks. •We may be unable to effectively manage our growth, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. · We may be unable to effectively manage our growth, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. •We operate in a highly regulated industry, and current regulatory requirements, including stringent capital requirements, consumer protection laws, and anti-money laundering laws, and failure to comply with these requirements and any future legislative and regulatory changes may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.•We are subject to laws regarding privacy, information security, and protection of personal information, and any violation of these laws or incidents involving personal, confidential, or proprietary information of individuals, including, among others, system failures or cybersecurity breaches of our network security, could damage our reputation and otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. · We are subject to laws regarding privacy, information security, and protection of personal information, and any violation of these laws or incidents involving personal, confidential, or proprietary information of individuals, including, among others, system failures or cybersecurity breaches of our network security, could damage our reputation and otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. •Our charter documents contain certain provisions, including anti-takeover and exclusive forum provisions, that limit the ability of our shareholders to take certain actions and could delay or discourage takeover attempts that shareholders may consider favorable. · Our charter documents contain certain provisions, including anti-takeover and exclusive forum provisions, that limit the ability of our shareholders to take certain actions and could delay or discourage takeover attempts that shareholders may consider favorable. 18Risks Related to Our BusinessOur business and operations are concentrated in California, specifically Northern California, and we are more sensitive than our more geographically diversified competitors to adverse changes in the local economy. Risks Related to Our Business Our business and operations are concentrated in California, specifically Northern California, and we are more sensitive than our more geographically diversified competitors to adverse changes in the local economy. Unlike many of our larger competitors that maintain significant operations located outside our market, substantially all of our customers are individuals and businesses located and doing business in the state of California. Unlike many of our larger competitors that maintain significant operations located outside our market, substantially all of our customers are individuals and businesses located and doing business in the state of California. As of December 31, 2023, approximately more than half of our real estate loans measured by dollar amount were secured by collateral located in California, substantially all of which is in Northern California. Therefore, our success will depend upon the general economic conditions and real estate activity in these areas, which we cannot predict with certainty. As a result, our operations and profitability may be more adversely affected by a local economic downturn than those of larger, more geographically diverse competitors. A downturn in the local economy could make it more difficult for our borrowers to repay their loans, may lead to credit losses that are not offset by operations in other markets, and may also reduce the ability of depositors to make or maintain deposits with us. A downturn in the local economy could make it more difficult for our borrowers to repay their loans, may lead to loan losses that are not offset by operations in other markets, and may also reduce the ability of depositors to make or maintain deposits with us. In addition, businesses operating in Northern California, and Sacramento in particular, depend on California state government employees for business, and reduced spending activity by such employees in the event of furloughing or termination of such employees could have an adverse impact on the success or failure of these businesses, some of which are current or could become future customers of the Bank. For these reasons, any regional or local economic downturn could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.The small to medium-sized businesses to which we lend may have fewer resources to weather adverse business developments, which may impair a borrower’s ability to repay a loan. The small to medium-sized businesses to which we lend may have fewer resources to weather adverse business developments, which may impair a borrower’s ability to repay a loan. We target our business development and marketing strategy primarily to serve the banking and financial services needs of small to medium-sized businesses. We target our business development and marketing strategy primarily to serve the banking and financial services needs of small to medium-sized businesses. These businesses generally have fewer financial resources in terms of capital or borrowing capacity than larger entities, frequently have smaller market shares than their competition, may be more vulnerable to economic downturns, often need substantial additional capital to expand or compete, and may experience substantial volatility in operating results, any of which may impair their ability as a borrower to repay a loan. In addition, the success of small and medium-sized businesses often depends on the management skills, talents, and efforts of one or two people or a small group of people, and the death, disability, or resignation of one or more of these people could have an adverse impact on the business and its ability to repay its loan. If general economic conditions negatively impact the markets in which we operate or any of our borrowers are otherwise affected by adverse business developments, our small to medium-sized borrowers may be disproportionately affected and their ability to repay outstanding loans may be negatively affected, resulting in an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.Our business is significantly dependent on the real estate markets in which we operate, as a significant percentage of our loan portfolio is secured by real estate. 19 Our business is significantly dependent on the real estate markets in which we operate, as a significant percentage of our loan portfolio is secured by real estate. As of December 31, 2023, a significant majority of our loan portfolio was comprised of loans with real estate as a primary or secondary component of collateral, with a majority of these real estate loans concentrated in Northern California. Real property values in our market may be different from, and in some instances worse than, real property values in other markets or in the United States as a whole and may be affected by a variety of factors outside of our control and the control of our borrowers, including national and local economic conditions, generally. Declines in real estate values, including prices for homes and commercial properties, could result in a deterioration of the credit quality of our borrowers, an increase in the number of loan delinquencies, defaults, and charge-offs, and reduced demand for our products and services, generally. Our commercial real estate loans may have a greater risk of loss than residential mortgage loans, in part because these loans are generally larger or more complex to underwrite. In particular, real estate construction and land acquisition and development loans have risks not present in other types of loans, including risks associated with construction cost overruns, project completion risk, general contractor credit risk, and risks associated with the ultimate sale or use of the completed construction. In particular, real estate construction and acquisition and development loans have risks not present in other types of loans, including risks associated with construction cost overruns, project completion risk, general contractor credit risk, and risks associated with the ultimate sale or use of the completed construction. In addition, declines in real property values in California could reduce the value of any collateral we realize following a default on these loans and could adversely affect our ability to continue to grow our loan portfolio consistent with our underwriting standards. We may have to foreclose on real estate assets if borrowers default on their loans, in which case we are required to record the related asset to the then-fair market value of the collateral, which may ultimately result in a loss. An increase in the level of nonperforming assets increases our risk profile and may affect the capital levels regulators believe are appropriate in light of the ensuing risk profile. Our failure to effectively mitigate these risks could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.19We are subject to interest rate risk, which could adversely affect our profitability. We are subject to interest rate risk, which could adversely affect our profitability. Our profitability, like that of most financial institutions of our type, depends to a large extent on our net interest income, which is the difference between our interest income on interest-earning assets, such as loans and investment securities, and our interest expense on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. Our profitability, like that of most financial institutions of our type, depends to a large extent on our net interest income, which is the difference between our interest income on interest-earning assets, such as loans and investment securities, and our interest expense on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. Changes in interest rates can increase or decrease our net interest income because different types of assets and liabilities may react differently, and at different times, to market interest rate changes.Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, including general economic conditions and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies and, in particular, the Federal Reserve, which has raised interest rates significantly in 2022 and 2023. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, including general economic conditions and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies and, in particular, the Federal Reserve, which has suggested that it may take steps to raise interest rates in 2022. As interest rates have increased, so have competitive pressures on the deposit cost of funds. This has been exacerbated by the bank failures in the first half of 2023 and the resulting heightened competition for deposits, which has also affected the interest we pay on deposits. It is not possible to predict the pace and magnitude of changes in interest rates, or the impact rate changes will have on our results of operations. Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, could influence not only the interest we receive on loans and securities and the interest we pay on deposits and borrowings, but such changes could also affect our ability to originate loans and obtain deposits, the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities, and the average duration of our assets and liabilities. If the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings increase at a faster rate than the interest rates received on loans and other investments, our net interest income, and therefore earnings, could be adversely affected. Earnings could also be adversely affected if the interest rates received on loans and other investments fall more quickly than the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings. Any substantial, unexpected, or prolonged change in market interest rates could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. As of December 31, 2023, significant portions of our interest-bearing liabilities were variable rate, where our variable rate liabilities reprice at a faster rate than our variable rate assets.In addition, an increase in interest rates could also have a negative impact on our results of operations by reducing the demand for loans, decreasing the ability of borrowers to repay their current loan obligations, and increasing early withdrawals on term deposits. In addition, an increase in interest rates could also have a negative impact on our results of operations by reducing the demand for loans, decreasing the ability of borrowers to repay their current loan obligations, and increasing early withdrawals on term deposits. These circumstances could not only result in increased loan defaults, foreclosures, and charge-offs, but also reduce collateral values and necessitate further increases to the allowance for credit losses, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. These circumstances could not only result in increased loan defaults, foreclosures, and charge-offs, but also reduce collateral values and necessitate further increases to the allowance for loan losses, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. The Federal Reserve has indicated that it expects to lower the target range for the federal funds rate beginning in 2024. The Federal Reserve has indicated that it expects it will soon be appropriate to raise the target range for the federal funds rate. A decrease in the general level of interest rates may affect us through, among other things, increased prepayments on our loan portfolio, and our cost of funds may not fall as quickly as yields on interest-earning assets. Our asset-liability management strategy may not be effective in mitigating exposure to the risks related to changes in market interest rates.We operate in a highly competitive market and face increasing competition from a variety of traditional and new financial services providers. 20 We operate in a highly competitive market and face increasing competition from a variety of traditional and new financial services providers. We have many competitors. We have many competitors. Our principal competitors are commercial and community banks, credit unions, savings and loan associations, mortgage banking firms and online mortgage lenders, and commercial and consumer finance companies, including large national financial institutions that operate in our market. Many of these competitors are larger than we are, have significantly more resources, greater brand recognition, and more extensive and established branch networks or geographic footprints than we do, and may be able to attract customers more effectively than we can. Because of their scale, many of these competitors can be more aggressive on loan and deposit pricing than we can and may better afford and make broader use of media advertising, support services, and electronic technology than we do. Also, many of our non-bank competitors have fewer regulatory constraints and may have lower cost structures. We compete with these other financial institutions both in attracting deposits and making loans. We expect competition to continue to increase as a result of legislative, regulatory, and technological changes, the continuing trend of consolidation in the financial services industry, and the emergence of alternative banking sources. Our profitability in large part depends upon our continued ability to compete successfully with traditional and new financial services providers, some of which maintain a physical presence in our market and others of which maintain only a virtual presence. Increased competition could require us to increase the rates we pay on deposits or lower the rates that we offer on loans, which could reduce our profitability.Additionally, like many of our competitors, we rely on customer deposits as our primary source of funding for our lending activities, and we continue to seek and compete for customer deposits to maintain this funding base. Additionally, like many of our competitors, we rely on customer deposits as our primary source of funding for our lending activities, and we continue to seek and compete for customer deposits to maintain this funding base. Our future growth will largely depend on our ability to retain and grow our deposit base. Although we have historically maintained a high deposit customer retention rate, these deposits are subject to potentially dramatic fluctuations in availability or price due to certain factors outside of our control, such as increasing competitive pressures for deposits, changes in interest rates and returns on other investment classes, customer perceptions of our financial health and general reputation, and a loss of confidence by 20customers in us or the banking sector generally, which could result in significant outflows of deposits within short periods of time or significant changes in pricing necessary to maintain current customer deposits or attract additional deposits. Additionally, any such loss of funds could result in lower loan originations, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Our failure to compete effectively in our market could restrain our growth or cause us to lose market share, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.Failure to keep up with the rapid technological changes in the financial services industry could have an adverse effect on our competitive position and profitability. Failure to keep up with the rapid technological changes in the financial services industry could have an adverse effect on our competitive position and profitability. The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes, with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes, with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and reduce costs. Our future success will depend, in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands for convenience, as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations. Many of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements than we do. We may not be able to implement new technology-driven products and services effectively or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers. Failure to keep pace successfully with technological change affecting the financial services industry could harm our ability to compete effectively and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. As these technologies improve in the future, we may be required to make significant capital expenditures in order to remain competitive, which may increase our overall expenses and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.We are dependent on the use of data and modeling in both our management’s decision-making generally and in meeting regulatory expectations in particular. We are dependent on the use of data and modeling in both our management’s decision-making generally and in meeting regulatory expectations in particular. The use of statistical and quantitative models and other quantitatively based analyses is endemic to bank decision making and regulatory compliance processes, and the employment of such analyses is becoming increasingly widespread in our operations. The use of statistical and quantitative models and other quantitatively based analyses is endemic to bank decision making and regulatory compliance processes, and the employment of such analyses is becoming increasingly widespread in our operations. Liquidity stress testing, interest rate sensitivity analysis, allowance for credit loss measurement, portfolio stress testing, and the identification of possible violations of anti-money laundering regulations are examples of areas in which we are dependent on models and the data that underlie them. Liquidity stress testing, interest rate sensitivity analysis, allowance for loan loss measurement, portfolio stress testing, and the identification of possible violations of anti-money laundering regulations are examples of areas in which we are dependent on models and the data that underlie them. We anticipate that model-derived insights will be used more widely in our decision making in the future. While these quantitative techniques and approaches improve our decision making, they also create the possibility that faulty data or flawed quantitative approaches could yield adverse outcomes or regulatory scrutiny. Secondarily, because of the complexity inherent in these approaches, misunderstanding or misuse of their outputs could similarly result in suboptimal decision making, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.We may not be able to measure and limit our credit risk adequately, which could adversely affect our profitability. 21 We may not be able to measure and limit our credit risk adequately, which could adversely affect our profitability. Our business depends on our ability to successfully measure and manage credit risk. Our business depends on our ability to successfully measure and manage credit risk. As a lender, we are exposed to the risk that the principal of, or interest on, a loan will not be paid timely or at all or that the value of any collateral supporting a loan will be insufficient to cover our outstanding exposure. In addition, we are exposed to risks with respect to the period of time over which the loan may be repaid, risks relating to proper loan underwriting, risks resulting from changes in economic and industry conditions, and risks inherent in dealing with individual loans and borrowers. The creditworthiness of a borrower is affected by many factors, including local market conditions and general economic conditions. Many of our loans are made to small to medium-sized businesses that are less able to withstand competitive, economic, and financial pressures than larger borrowers. If the overall economic climate in the United States, generally, or in our market specifically, experiences material disruption, our borrowers may experience difficulties in repaying their loans, the collateral we hold may decrease in value or become illiquid, and the level of nonperforming loans, charge-offs, and delinquencies could rise and require significant additional provisions for credit losses. If the overall economic climate in the United States, generally, or in our market specifically, experiences material disruption, particularly due to the continuing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, our borrowers may experience difficulties in repaying their loans, the collateral we hold may decrease in value or become illiquid, and the level of nonperforming loans, charge-offs, and delinquencies could rise and require significant additional provisions for loan losses. Additional factors related to the credit quality of multifamily residential, real estate construction, and other commercial real estate loans include the quality of management of the business and tenant vacancy rates.Our risk management practices, such as monitoring the concentration of our loans within specific markets and our credit approval, review, and administrative practices, may not adequately reduce credit risk, and our credit administration personnel, policies, and procedures may not adequately adapt to changes in economic or any other conditions affecting customers and the quality of the loan portfolio. Our risk management practices, such as monitoring the concentration of our loans within specific markets and our credit approval, review, and administrative practices, may not adequately reduce credit risk, and our credit administration personnel, policies, and procedures may not adequately adapt to changes in economic or any other conditions affecting customers and the quality of the loan portfolio. A failure to effectively measure and limit the credit risk associated with our loan portfolio may result in loan defaults, foreclosures, and additional charge-offs, and may necessitate that we significantly increase our allowance for credit losses, each of which could adversely affect our net income. As a result, our 21inability to successfully manage credit risk could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.We are exposed to higher credit risk and other risks and costs by our commercial real estate, commercial land and construction, commercial construction, farmland loans and other real estate assets.Commercial real estate, commercial land and construction, commercial construction, and farmland-based lending, which form significant portions of our loan portfolio, usually involve higher credit risks than other types of mortgage loans. These types of loans also involve larger loan balances to a single borrower or groups of related borrowers. These higher credit risks are further heightened when the loans are concentrated in a small number of larger borrowers, leading to relationship exposure.Non-owner-occupied commercial real estate loans may be affected to a greater extent than residential loans by adverse conditions in real estate markets or the economy because commercial real estate borrowers’ ability to repay their loans depends on successful development of their properties, in addition to the factors affecting residential real estate borrowers. Non-owner-occupied commercial real estate loans may be affected to a greater extent than residential loans by adverse conditions in real estate markets or the economy because commercial real estate borrowers’ ability to repay their loans depends on successful development of their properties, in addition to the factors affecting residential real estate borrowers. These loans also involve greater risk because they generally are not fully amortizing over the loan period but have a balloon payment due at maturity. A borrower’s ability to make a balloon payment typically will depend on being able to either refinance the loan or sell the underlying property in a timely manner.Banking regulators closely supervise banks’ commercial real estate lending activities and may require banks with higher levels of commercial real estate loans to implement improved underwriting, internal controls, risk management policies, and portfolio stress testing, as well as possibly higher levels of allowances for losses and capital levels as a result of commercial real estate lending growth and exposures. Banking regulators closely supervise banks’ commercial real estate lending activities and may require banks with higher levels of commercial real estate loans to implement improved underwriting, internal controls, risk management policies, and portfolio stress testing, as well as possibly higher levels of allowances for losses and capital levels as a result of commercial real estate lending growth and exposures. Commercial land development loans and owner-occupied commercial real estate loans are typically based on the borrowers’ ability to repay the loans from the cash flow of their businesses. Commercial land development loans and owner-occupied commercial real estate loans are typically based on the borrowers’ ability to repay the loans from the cash flow of their businesses. These loans may involve greater risk because the availability of funds to repay each loan depends substantially on the success of the business itself. In addition, the assets securing the loans have the following characteristics: (i) they depreciate over time; (ii) they are difficult to appraise and liquidate; and (iii) they fluctuate in value based on the success of the business.Commercial real estate loans, commercial and industrial loans, and construction loans are more susceptible to a risk of loss during a downturn in the business cycle. Commercial real estate loans, commercial and industrial loans, and construction loans are more susceptible to a risk of loss during a downturn in the business cycle. In particular, the increase in working from home since outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic could have adverse effects on our loans for office space, which are dependent for repayment on the successful operation and management of the associated commercial real estate. In particular, the COVID-19 pandemic could have adverse effects on our loans for office and hospitality space, which are dependent for repayment on the successful operation and management of the associated commercial real estate. Our underwriting, review, and monitoring cannot eliminate all the risks related to these loans.We also make both secured and unsecured loans to our commercial clients. 22 We also make both secured and unsecured loans to our commercial clients. Secured commercial loans are generally collateralized by real estate, accounts receivable, inventory, equipment, or other assets owned by the borrower, or may include a personal guaranty of the business owner. Unsecured loans generally involve a higher degree of risk of loss than do secure loans because, without collateral, repayment is wholly dependent upon the success of the borrowers’ businesses. Because of this lack of collateral, we are limited in our ability to collect on defaulted unsecured loans. Furthermore, the collateral that secures our secured commercial and industrial loans typically includes inventory, accounts receivable, and equipment, which, if the business is unsuccessful, usually has a value that is insufficient to satisfy the loan without a loss.We may be forced to foreclose on the collateral and own the underlying real estate, subjecting us to the costs and potential risks associated with the ownership of real property, or consumer protection initiatives or changes in state or federal law may substantially raise the cost of foreclosure or prevent us from foreclosing at all. We engage in lending secured by real estate and may be forced to foreclose on the collateral and own the underlying real estate, subjecting us to the costs and potential risks associated with the ownership of real property, or consumer protection initiatives or changes in state or federal law may substantially raise the cost of foreclosure or prevent us from foreclosing at all. The amount that we, as a mortgagee, may realize after a foreclosure depends on factors outside of our control, including, but not limited to, general or local economic conditions, environmental cleanup liabilities, assessments, interest rates, real estate tax rates, operating expenses of the mortgaged properties, our ability to obtain and maintain adequate occupancy of the properties, zoning laws, governmental and regulatory rules, and natural disasters. Our inability to manage the amount of costs or size of the risks associated with the ownership of real estate, or write-downs in the value of OREO could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Our inability to manage the amount of costs or size of the risks associated with the ownership of real estate, or write-downs in the value of other real estate owned (“OREO”) could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Additionally, consumer protection initiatives or changes in state or federal law may substantially increase the time and expenses associated with the foreclosure process or prevent us from foreclosing at all. 25 Additionally, consumer protection initiatives or changes in state or federal law may substantially increase the time and expenses associated with the foreclosure process or prevent us from foreclosing at all. A number of states in recent years have either considered or adopted foreclosure reform laws that make it substantially more difficult and expensive for lenders to foreclose on properties in default. Additionally, federal and state regulators and state attorneys general have prosecuted or pursued enforcement action against a number of mortgage servicing companies for alleged consumer protection law violations. If new federal or state laws or regulations are ultimately enacted that significantly raise the cost 22of foreclosure or raise outright barriers to foreclosure, they could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.In addition, if we foreclose on and take title to real property securing loans, there is a risk that hazardous or toxic substances could be found on these properties and that we could be liable for remediation costs, as well as personal injury and property damage. In addition, an increase in interest rates could also have a negative impact on our results of operations by reducing the demand for loans, decreasing the ability of borrowers to repay their current loan obligations, and increasing early withdrawals on term deposits. Environmental laws may require us to incur substantial expenses and may materially reduce the affected property’s value or limit our ability to sell the affected property. The remediation costs and any other financial liabilities associated with an environmental hazard could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.Curtailment of government-guaranteed loan programs could affect a segment of our business. Curtailment of government-guaranteed loan programs could affect a segment of our business. One component of our business consists of originating and periodically selling U. One component of our business consists of originating and periodically selling U. S. government-guaranteed loans, in particular those guaranteed by the SBA. Pursuant to the Consolidated Appropriations Act, the SBA guaranteed 90% of the principal amount of each qualifying SBA loan originated under the SBA’s 7(a) loan program through October 1, 2021. The SBA presently guarantees 75% to 90% of the principal amount of qualifying loans originated under the 7(a) loan program. The SBA presently guarantees 75% to 90% of the principal amount of qualifying loans originated under the 7(a) loan program (excluding PPP loans). The U.S. government may not maintain the SBA 7(a) loan program, and even if it does, the guaranteed portion may not remain at its current or anticipated level. In addition, from time to time, the government agencies that guarantee these loans reach their internal limits and cease to guarantee future loans. In addition, these agencies may change their rules for qualifying loans or Congress may adopt legislation that would have the effect of discontinuing or changing the loan guarantee programs. Non-governmental programs could replace government programs for some borrowers, but the terms might not be equally acceptable. Therefore, if these changes occur, the volume of loans to small business and industrial borrowers of the types that now qualify for government-guaranteed loans could decline. Also, the profitability of the sale of the guaranteed portion of these loans could decline as a result of market displacements due to increases in interest rates, and premiums realized on the sale of the guaranteed portions could decline from current levels. As the funding and sale of the guaranteed portion of SBA 7(a) loans is a major portion of our business and a significant portion of our non-interest income, any significant changes to the SBA 7(a) loan program, such as its funding or eligibility requirements, may have an unfavorable impact on our prospects, future performance, and results of operations. The aggregate principal balance of SBA 7(a) guaranteed portions sold during the year ended December 31, 2023 was $36.5 million, compared to $50.4 million, as compared to $71. 8 million for the year ended December 31, 2022.Liquidity risk could impair our ability to fund operations and meet our obligations as they become due. 24 Liquidity risk could impair our ability to fund operations and meet our obligations as they become due. Liquidity is essential to our business, and we monitor our liquidity and manage our liquidity risk at the holding company and bank levels. Liquidity is essential to our business, and we monitor our liquidity and manage our liquidity risk at the holding company and bank levels. We require sufficient liquidity to fund asset growth, meet customer loan requests, facilitate customer deposit maturities and withdrawals, make payments on our debt obligations as they come due, and fulfill other cash commitments under both normal operating conditions and other unpredictable circumstances, including events causing industry or general financial market stress. Liquidity risk can increase due to a number of factors, which include, but are not limited to, an over-reliance on a particular source of funding, changes in the liquidity needs of our depositors, adverse regulatory actions against us, or a downturn in the markets in which our loans are concentrated.Market conditions or other events could also negatively affect the level or cost of funding, affecting our ongoing ability to accommodate liability maturities and deposit withdrawals, meet contractual obligations, and fund asset growth and new business transactions at a reasonable cost, in a timely manner, and without adverse consequences. Market conditions or other events could also negatively affect the level or cost of funding, affecting our ongoing ability to accommodate liability maturities and deposit withdrawals, meet contractual obligations, and fund asset growth and new business transactions at a reasonable cost, in a timely manner, and without adverse consequences. Our inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, the sale of loans, and other sources could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations, and could result in the closure of the Bank.Other primary sources of funds consist of cash flows from operations, maturities and sales of investment securities, and proceeds from issuance and sale of our equity and debt securities. Other primary sources of funds consist of cash flows from operations, maturities and sales of investment securities, and proceeds from issuance and sale of our equity and debt securities. Additional liquidity is provided by the ability to borrow from the FHLB and the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco to fund our operations. We may also borrow funds from third-party lenders, such as other financial institutions. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance our activities or on acceptable terms could be impaired by factors that affect our organization specifically or the financial services industry or economy in general. Our access to funding sources could also be affected by a decrease in the level of our business activity as a result of a downturn in our primary market or by one or more adverse regulatory actions against us.Any substantial, unexpected, and/or prolonged change in the level or cost of liquidity could impair our ability to fund operations and meet our obligations as they become due and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Any substantial, unexpected, and/or prolonged change in the level or cost of liquidity could impair our ability to fund operations and meet our obligations as they become due and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Although we have historically been able to replace maturing deposits and advances if 23desired, we may not be able to replace such funds in the future if our financial condition, the financial condition of the FHLB, or market conditions change. FHLB borrowings and other current sources of liquidity may not be available or, if available, may not be sufficient to provide adequate funding for operations and to support our continued growth. The unavailability of sufficient funding could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.We may be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions. We may be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions. Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services companies may be interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, and other relationships. The failures of Silicon Valley Bank, Signature Bank, and First Republic Bank in 2023 resulted in significant disruption in the financial services industry and negative media attention, which has also adversely impacted the volatility and market prices of the securities of financial institutions and resulted in outflows of deposits for us and many other financial institutions. These events have adversely impacted and could continue to adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition, as well as the market price and volatility of our common stock.The rapid rise in interest rates during 2022 and 2023 and the resulting industry-wide reduction in the fair value of securities portfolios, among other events, have resulted in a current state of volatility and uncertainty with respect to the health of the United States banking system. There is heightened awareness around liquidity, uninsured deposits, deposit composition, unrecognized investment losses, and capital. We are exposed to different industries and counterparties through transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including broker-dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, and other financial intermediaries. We have exposure to different industries and counterparties through transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including broker-dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, and other financial intermediaries. As a result, defaults by, declines in the financial condition of, or even rumors or questions about one or more financial services companies, or the financial services industry generally, could lead to market-wide liquidity problems and losses or defaults by us or other institutions. These losses could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. These losses could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Regulatory requirements affecting our loans secured by commercial real estate could limit our ability to leverage our capital and adversely affect our growth and profitability. Regulatory requirements affecting our loans secured by commercial real estate could limit our ability to leverage our capital and adversely affect our growth and profitability. The federal banking agencies have issued guidance regarding concentrations in commercial real estate lending for institutions that are deemed to have particularly high concentrations of commercial real estate loans within their lending portfolios. The federal banking agencies have issued guidance regarding concentrations in commercial real estate lending for institutions that are deemed to have particularly high concentrations of commercial real estate loans within their lending portfolios. Under this guidance, an institution that has: (i) total reported loans for construction, land development, and other land which represent 100% or more of the institution’s total risk-based capital or (ii) total commercial real estate loans representing 300% or more of the institution’s total risk-based capital, where the outstanding balance of the institution’s commercial real estate loan portfolio has increased 50% or more during the prior 36 months, is identified as having potential commercial real estate concentration risk. An institution that is deemed to have concentrations in commercial real estate lending is expected to employ heightened levels of risk management with respect to its commercial real estate portfolios and may be required to maintain higher levels of capital. We have a concentration in commercial real estate loans, and we have experienced significant growth in our commercial real estate portfolio in recent years. We cannot guarantee that any risk management practices we implement will be effective to prevent losses relating to our commercial real estate portfolio. Management has extensive experience in commercial real estate lending and has implemented and continues to maintain heightened portfolio monitoring and reporting, and strong underwriting criteria with respect to our commercial real estate portfolio. Nevertheless, we could be required to maintain higher levels of capital as a result of our commercial real estate concentration, which could limit our growth, require us to obtain additional capital, and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.Our recovery on commercial real estate loans could be further reduced by a lack of a liquid secondary market for such mortgage loans and mortgage-backed securities. Our recovery on commercial real estate loans could be further reduced by a lack of a liquid secondary market for such mortgage loans and mortgage-backed securities. Our current business strategy includes an emphasis on commercial real estate lending. Our current business strategy includes an emphasis on commercial real estate lending. Although we sold $36. Although we sold $41. 5 million of loans in the year ended December 31, 2023, we may decide to sell more loans in the future.4 million of loans in the year ended December 31, 2021, one of which was a commercial real estate loan, we may decide to sell more loans in the future. A secondary market for most types of commercial real estate loans is not readily liquid, so we have less opportunity to mitigate credit risk by selling part or all of our interest in these loans. As a result of these characteristics, if we foreclose on a commercial real estate loan, our holding period for the collateral typically is longer than for residential mortgage loans because there are fewer potential purchasers of the collateral. Accordingly, charge-offs on commercial real estate loans may be larger as a percentage of the total principal outstanding than those incurred with our residential or consumer loan portfolios.24The appraisals and other valuation techniques we use in evaluating and monitoring loans secured by real property and OREO may not accurately reflect the net value of the asset. 26 The appraisals and other valuation techniques we use in evaluating and monitoring loans secured by real property and OREO may not accurately reflect the net value of the asset. In considering whether to make a loan secured by real property, we generally require an appraisal of the property. In considering whether to make a loan secured by real property, we generally require an appraisal of the property. However, an appraisal is only an estimate of the value of the property at the time the appraisal is made, and as real estate values may change significantly in value in relatively short periods of time (especially in periods of heightened economic uncertainty), this estimate may not accurately reflect the net value of the collateral after the loan is made. As a result, we may not be able to realize the full amount of any remaining indebtedness when we foreclose on and sell the relevant property. In addition, we rely on appraisals and other valuation techniques to establish the value of OREO that we acquire through foreclosure proceedings and to determine loan impairments. If any of these valuations are inaccurate, our consolidated financial statements may not reflect the correct value of our OREO, if any, and our allowance for credit losses may not reflect accurate loan impairments. Inaccurate valuation of OREO or inaccurate provisioning for credit losses could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Inaccurate valuation of OREO or inaccurate provisioning for loan losses could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Federal, state, and local consumer lending laws may restrict our or our partners’ ability to originate certain loans or increase our risk of liability with respect to such loans. Federal, state, and local consumer lending laws may restrict our or our partners’ ability to originate certain loans or increase our risk of liability with respect to such loans. Federal, state, and local laws have been adopted that are intended to prevent certain lending practices considered “predatory. Federal, state, and local laws have been adopted that are intended to prevent certain lending practices considered “predatory. ” These laws prohibit practices such as steering borrowers away from more affordable products, selling unnecessary insurance to borrowers, repeatedly refinancing loans, and making loans without a reasonable expectation that the borrowers will be able to repay the loans irrespective of the value of the underlying property. It is our policy to determine borrowers’ ability to repay and not to make predatory loans. Nonetheless, the law and related rules create the potential for increased liability with respect to our lending and loan investment activities. Compliance with these laws increases our cost of doing business.Additionally, consumer protection initiatives or changes in state or federal law may substantially increase the time and expenses associated with the foreclosure process or prevent us from foreclosing at all. 25 Additionally, consumer protection initiatives or changes in state or federal law may substantially increase the time and expenses associated with the foreclosure process or prevent us from foreclosing at all. A number of states in recent years have either considered or adopted foreclosure reform laws that make it substantially more difficult and expensive for lenders to foreclose on properties in default, and we cannot be certain that the state in which we operate will not adopt similar legislation in the future. Additionally, federal regulators have prosecuted or pursued enforcement actions against a number of mortgage servicing companies for alleged consumer protection law violations. If new state or federal laws or regulations are ultimately enacted that significantly raise the cost of foreclosure or raise outright barriers to foreclosure, such laws or regulations could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.Our largest loan relationships make up a material percentage of our total loan portfolio, and credit risks relating to these would have a disproportionate impact. Our largest loan relationships make up a material percentage of our total loan portfolio, and credit risks relating to these would have a disproportionate impact. As of December 31, 2023, our 30 largest borrowing relationships ranged from approximately $19. As of December 31, 2021, our 30 largest borrowing relationships ranged from approximately $14. 9 million to $71.7 million to $58. 5 million (including unfunded commitments) and totaled approximately $1.1 billion in total commitments (representing, in the aggregate, 35.6 million in total commitments (representing, in the aggregate, 40. 49% of our total loans held for investment before deferred fees at that date).53% of our total loans held for investment as of December 31, 2021). Each of the loans associated with these relationships has been underwritten in accordance with our underwriting policies and limits. Along with other risks inherent in these loans, such as the deterioration of the underlying businesses or property securing these loans, this concentration of borrowers presents a risk that, if one or more of these relationships were to become delinquent or suffer default, we could be exposed to material losses. The allowance for credit losses may not be adequate to cover losses associated with any of these relationships, and any loss or increase in the allowance would negatively affect our earnings and capital. The allowance for loan losses may not be adequate to cover losses associated with any of these relationships, and any loss or increase in the allowance would negatively affect our earnings and capital. Even if these loans are adequately collateralized, an increase in classified assets could harm our reputation with our regulators and inhibit our ability to execute our business plan.Our largest deposit relationships currently make up a material percentage of our deposits and the withdrawal of deposits by our largest depositors could force us to fund our business through more expensive and less stable sources. Our largest deposit relationships currently make up a material percentage of our deposits and the withdrawal of deposits by our largest depositors could force us to fund our business through more expensive and less stable sources. At December 31, 2023, our 40 largest deposit relationships, each accounting for more than $10. At December 31, 2021, our 26 largest deposit relationships, each accounting for more than $10. 0 million, amounted to $1.5 billion, or 49.7 million, or 39. 80% of our total deposits.93%, of our total deposits. This includes $693. This includes $424. 7 million in deposits from municipalities, of which we conduct a monthly review. Withdrawals of deposits by any one of our largest depositors or by one of our related customer groups could force us to rely more heavily on borrowings and other sources of funding for our business and withdrawal demands, adversely affecting our net interest margin and results of operations. If a significant amount of these deposits were withdrawn within a short period of time, it could have a negative impact on our short-term liquidity and have an adverse impact on our earnings. We may also be forced, as a result of withdrawals of deposits, to rely more heavily on other, 25potentially more expensive and less stable, funding sources. Additionally, such circumstances could require us to raise deposit rates in an attempt to attract new deposits, which would adversely affect our results of operations, and/or to raise funding through brokered deposits. Under applicable regulations, if the Bank were no longer “well-capitalized,” the Bank would not be able to accept brokered deposits without the approval of the FDIC.Our allowance for credit losses may be inadequate to absorb losses inherent in the loan portfolio.Experience in the banking industry indicates that a portion of our loans will become delinquent, and that some may only be partially repaid or may never be repaid at all. Experience in the banking industry indicates that a portion of our loans will become delinquent, and that some may only be partially repaid or may never be repaid at all. We may experience losses for reasons beyond our control, such as the impact of general economic conditions on customers and their businesses. Accordingly, we maintain an allowance for credit losses that represents management’s judgment of probable losses and risks inherent in our loan portfolio. Accordingly, we maintain an allowance for loan losses that represents management’s judgment of probable losses and risks inherent in our loan portfolio. In determining the size of our allowance for credit losses, we rely on an analysis of our loan portfolio that considers historical loss experience, volume and types of loans, trends in classification, volume and trends in delinquencies and non-accruals, economic conditions, and other pertinent information. In determining the size of our allowance for loan losses, we rely on an analysis of our loan portfolio that considers historical loss experience, volume and types of loans, trends in classification, volume and trends in delinquencies and non-accruals, economic conditions, and other pertinent information. The determination of the appropriate level of the allowance for credit losses is inherently highly subjective and requires us to make significant estimates of and assumptions regarding current credit risk and future trends, all of which may change materially. The determination of the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses is inherently highly subjective and requires us to make significant estimates of and assumptions regarding current credit risk and future trends, all of which may change materially. Although we endeavor to maintain our allowance for credit losses at a level adequate to absorb any inherent losses in the loan portfolio, these estimates of credit losses are necessarily subjective, and their accuracy depends on the outcome of future events. Although we endeavor to maintain our allowance for loan losses at a level adequate to absorb any inherent losses in the loan portfolio, these estimates of loan losses are necessarily subjective, and their accuracy depends on the outcome of future events. At December 31, 2023, the allowance for credit losses was $34. At December 31, 2021, the allowance for loan losses was $23. 4 million.Deterioration of economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, inaccurate management assumptions, identification of additional problem loans, temporary modifications, loan forgiveness, automatic forbearance, and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may result in our experiencing higher levels of nonperforming assets and charge-offs, and incurring credit losses in excess of our current allowance for credit losses, requiring us to make material additions to our allowance for credit losses, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Deterioration of economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, inaccurate management assumptions, identification of additional problem loans, temporary modifications, loan forgiveness, automatic forbearance, and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may result in our experiencing higher levels of nonperforming assets and charge-offs, and incurring loan losses in excess of our current allowance for loan losses, requiring us to make material additions to our allowance for loan losses, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Additionally, federal and state banking regulators, as an integral part of their supervisory function, periodically review the allowance for credit losses. Additionally, federal and state banking regulators, as an integral part of their supervisory function, periodically review the allowance for loan losses. These regulatory agencies may require us to increase our allowance for credit losses or to recognize further loan charge-offs based upon their judgments, which may be different from ours. These regulatory agencies may require us to increase our allowance for loan losses or to recognize further loan charge-offs based upon their judgments, which may be different from ours. If we need to make significant and unanticipated increases in the loss allowance in the future, or to take additional charge-offs for which we have not established adequate reserves, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected at that time.On January 1, 2023, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments and all subsequent amendments that modified ASU 2016-13 (collectively, “ASC 326,”), which replaces the current “incurred loss” model for recognizing credit losses with an “expected loss” model referred to as the CECL model. The CECL model applies to estimated credit losses on loans receivable, held-to-maturity debt securities, unfunded loan commitments, and certain other financial assets measured at amortized cost. Under ASC 326, available-for-sale debt securities are evaluated for impairment if fair value is less than amortized cost, with any estimated credit losses recorded through a credit loss expense and an allowance, rather than a write-down of the investment. Changes in fair value that are not credit-related will continue to be recorded in other comprehensive income. Under the CECL model, the calculated allowance for credit losses was $5.3 million higher on January 1, 2023 than the allowance under the incurred loss model.

For further information, please see Note 2, Recently Issued Accounting Standards, in the notes to our audited consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.We could recognize losses on investment securities held in our securities portfolio, particularly if interest rates increase or economic and market conditions deteriorate. We could recognize losses on investment securities held in our securities portfolio, particularly if interest rates increase or economic and market conditions deteriorate. As of December 31, 2023, the carrying value of our investment securities portfolio was approximately $111. As of December 31, 2021, the carrying value of our investment securities portfolio was approximately $153. 2 million. As of the same date, 9.48% of our investments were U.S. government agency securities. Factors beyond our control can significantly influence the fair value of securities in our portfolio and can cause potential adverse changes to the fair value of these securities. These factors include, but are not limited to, rating agency actions with respect to the securities, defaults by the issuer or with respect to the underlying securities, and changes in market interest rates and instability in the capital markets. These factors include, but are not limited to, rating agency actions in respect to the securities, defaults by the issuer or with respect to the underlying securities, and changes in market interest rates and instability in the capital markets. Any of these factors, among others, could require the Company to record an allowance for credit losses, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Additionally, acts of terrorism, war, civil unrest, violence, other man-made disasters, or the effects of climate change could also cause disruptions to our business or to the economy as a whole. The process for determining whether an allowance for credit losses is required involves complex, subjective judgments about the future financial performance and liquidity of the issuer, any collateral underlying the security, and our intent and ability to hold the security 26for a sufficient period of time to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value, in order to assess the probability of receiving all contractual principal and interest payments on the security. The process for determining whether impairment of a security is OTTI usually requires complex, subjective judgments about the future financial performance and liquidity of the issuer, any collateral underlying the security, and our intent and ability to hold the security for a sufficient period of time to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value, in order to assess the probability of receiving all contractual principal and interest payments on the security. Our failure to correctly and timely assess any impairments or losses with respect to our securities could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.We depend on the accuracy and completeness of information provided by customers and counterparties. 28 We depend on the accuracy and completeness of information provided by customers and counterparties. In deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions with customers and counterparties, we may rely on information furnished by or on behalf of customers and counterparties, including financial information. In deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions with customers and counterparties, we may rely on information furnished by or on behalf of customers and counterparties, including financial information. We may also rely on representations of customers and counterparties as to the accuracy and completeness of that information. In deciding whether to extend credit, we may rely upon customers’ representations that their financial statements conform to GAAP and present fairly the financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows of the customer. We also may rely on customer representations and certifications, or other audit or accountants’ reports, with respect to the business and financial condition of our customers. Our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected if we rely on misleading, false, inaccurate, or fraudulent information.Risks Related to Our Industry and RegulationOur industry is highly regulated, and the regulatory framework, together with any future legislative or regulatory changes, may have an adverse effect on our operations. Risks Related to Our Industry and Regulation Our industry is highly regulated, and the regulatory framework, together with any future legislative or regulatory changes, may have a materially adverse effect on our operations. The banking industry is highly regulated and supervised under both federal and state laws and regulations that are intended primarily for the protection of depositors, customers, the public, the banking system as a whole, and/or the FDIC DIF, not for the protection of our shareholders and creditors. The banking industry is highly regulated and supervised under both federal and state laws and regulations that are intended primarily for the protection of depositors, customers, the public, the banking system as a whole, or the FDIC DIF, not for the protection of our shareholders and creditors. We are subject to regulation and supervision by the Federal Reserve, and our Bank is subject to regulation and supervision by the FDIC and the DFPI. Compliance with these laws and regulations can be difficult and costly, and changes to laws and regulations can impose additional compliance costs. The Dodd-Frank Act, which imposed significant regulatory and compliance changes on financial institutions, is an example of this type of federal law. The laws and regulations applicable to us govern a variety of matters, including permissible types, amounts, and terms of loans and investments we may make, the maximum interest rate that may be charged, the amount of reserves we must hold against deposits we take, the types of deposits we may accept and the rates we may pay on such deposits, maintenance of adequate capital and liquidity, changes in control of us and our Bank, transactions between us and our Bank, handling of nonpublic information, restrictions on dividends, and establishment of new offices. We must obtain approval from our regulators before engaging in certain activities, and there is risk that such approvals may not be granted, either in a timely manner or at all. These requirements may constrain our operations, and the adoption of new laws and changes to or repeal of existing laws may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Also, the burden imposed by those federal and state regulations may place banks in general, including our Bank in particular, at a competitive disadvantage compared to their non-bank competitors. Compliance with current and potential regulation, as well as supervisory scrutiny by our regulators, may significantly increase our costs, impede the efficiency of our internal business processes, require us to increase our regulatory capital, and limit our ability to pursue business opportunities in an efficient manner by requiring us to expend significant time, effort, and resources to ensure compliance and respond to any regulatory inquiries or investigations. Our failure to comply with any applicable laws or regulations, interpretations of such laws and regulations, or regulatory policies could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil money penalties, and/or damage to our reputation, all of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.Applicable laws, regulations, interpretations, enforcement policies, and accounting principles have been subject to significant changes in recent years and may be subject to significant future changes. Applicable laws, regulations, interpretations, enforcement policies, and accounting principles have been subject to significant changes in recent years and may be subject to significant future changes. Additionally, federal and state regulatory agencies may change the manner in which existing regulations are applied. We cannot predict the substance or effect of pending or future legislation or regulation or changes to the application of laws and regulations to us. Future changes may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.In addition, given the current economic and financial environment, regulators may elect to alter standards or the interpretation of the standards used to measure regulatory compliance or to determine the adequacy of liquidity, risk management, or other operational practices for financial service companies. In addition, given the current economic and financial environment, regulators may elect to alter standards or the interpretation of the standards used to measure regulatory compliance or to determine the adequacy of liquidity, risk management, or other operational practices for financial service companies. This could impact our ability to implement our strategy, could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways, and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Furthermore, the regulatory agencies have broad discretion in their interpretation of laws and regulations and their assessment of the quality of our loan portfolio, securities portfolio, and other assets. Based on our regulators’ assessment of the quality of our assets, operations, lending practices, investment practices, capital 27structure, or other aspects of our business, we may be required to take additional charges or undertake, or refrain from taking, actions that could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.Monetary policies and regulations of the Federal Reserve could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. 29 Monetary policies and regulations of the Federal Reserve could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Our earnings and growth are affected by the policies of the Federal Reserve. Our earnings and growth are affected by the policies of the Federal Reserve. An important function of the Federal Reserve is to regulate the money supply and credit conditions. Among the instruments used by the Federal Reserve to implement these objectives are open market purchases and sales of U.S. government securities, adjustments of the discount rate, and changes in banks’ reserve requirements against bank deposits. These instruments are used in varying combinations to influence overall economic growth and the distribution of credit, bank loans, investments, and deposits. Their use also affects interest rates charged on loans or paid on deposits.The monetary policies and regulations of the Federal Reserve have had a significant effect on the operating results of commercial banks in the past and are expected to continue to do so in the future. The monetary policies and regulations of the Federal Reserve have had a significant effect on the operating results of commercial banks in the past and are expected to continue to do so in the future. The effects of such policies upon our business, financial condition, and results of operations cannot be predicted with certainty.Federal and state regulators periodically examine our business and may require us to remediate adverse examination findings or may take enforcement action against us. Federal and state regulators periodically examine our business and may require us to remediate adverse examination findings or may take enforcement action against us. The Federal Reserve, the FDIC, and the DFPI periodically examine our business, including our compliance with laws and regulations. The Federal Reserve, the FDIC, and the DFPI periodically examine our business, including our compliance with laws and regulations. If, as a result of an examination, the Federal Reserve, the FDIC, or the DFPI were to determine that our financial condition, capital resources, asset quality, earnings prospects, management, liquidity, or other aspects of any of our operations had become unsatisfactory, or that we were in violation of any law or regulation, they may take a number of different remedial actions as they deem appropriate. These actions may include requiring us to remediate any such adverse examination findings.In addition, these agencies have the power to take enforcement action against us to enjoin “unsafe or unsound” practices, to require affirmative action to correct any conditions resulting from any violation of law or regulation or unsafe or unsound practice, to issue an administrative order that can be judicially enforced, to direct an increase in our capital, to direct the sale of subsidiaries or other assets, to limit dividends and distributions, to restrict our growth, to assess civil money penalties against us or our officers or directors, to remove officers and directors, and, if it is concluded that such conditions cannot be corrected or there is imminent risk of loss to depositors, to terminate our deposit insurance and place the Bank into receivership or conservatorship. In addition, these agencies have the power to take enforcement action against us to enjoin “unsafe or unsound” practices, to require affirmative action to correct any conditions resulting from any violation of law or regulation or unsafe or unsound practice, to issue an administrative order that can be judicially enforced, to direct an increase in our capital, to direct the sale of subsidiaries or other assets, to limit dividends and distributions, to restrict our growth, to assess civil money penalties against us or our officers or directors, to remove officers and directors, and, if it is concluded that such conditions cannot be corrected or there is imminent risk of loss to depositors, to terminate our deposit insurance and place our Bank into receivership or conservatorship. Any regulatory enforcement action against us could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.We are subject to stringent capital requirements, which could have an adverse effect on our operations. We are subject to stringent capital requirements, which could have an adverse effect on our operations. Federal regulations establish minimum capital requirements for insured depository institutions, including minimum risk-based capital and leverage ratios, and define different forms of capital for calculating these ratios. Federal regulations establish minimum capital requirements for insured depository institutions, including minimum risk-based capital and leverage ratios, and define different forms of capital for calculating these ratios. The capital rules generally require bank holding companies and banks to maintain a common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of at least 7.00% (a minimum of 4.50% plus a capital conservation buffer of 2.50%), a Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of at least 8.50% (a minimum of 6.00% plus a capital conservation buffer of 2.50%), a total capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of at least 10.50% (a minimum of 8.00% plus a capital conservation buffer of 2.50%), and a Tier 1 leverage ratio of at least 4.00%. An institution’s failure to exceed the capital conservation buffer with common equity Tier 1 capital would result in limitations on an institution’s ability to make capital distributions and discretionary bonus payments. In addition, for an insured depository institution to be “well-capitalized” under the banking agencies’ prompt corrective action framework, it must have a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 6.50%, a Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 8.00%, a total capital ratio of at least 10.00%, and a Tier 1 leverage ratio of at least 5.00%, and must not be subject to any written agreement, order or capital directive, or prompt corrective action directive issued by its primary federal or state banking regulator to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure.Historically, as a bank holding company with less than $3.0 billion in total consolidated assets and that met certain other criteria, the Company had been operating under the Federal Reserve’s Small Bank Holding Company Policy Statement, which exempts from the Federal Reserve’s risk-based capital and leverage rules bank holding companies with total consolidated assets of less than $3.0 billion that are not engaged in significant nonbanking activities, do not conduct significant off-balance sheet activities, and do not have a material amount of debt or equity securities registered with the SEC. Because the Company’s total consolidated assets exceeded the $3.0 billion threshold as of September 30, 2022, the 28Company is no longer subject to this policy statement and its capital adequacy is evaluated relative to the Federal Reserve’s generally applicable capital requirements.Any new or revised standards adopted in the future may require us to maintain materially more capital, with common equity as a more predominant component, or manage the configuration of our assets and liabilities to comply with formulaic capital requirements. Any new or revised standards adopted in the future may require us to maintain materially more capital, with common equity as a more predominant component, or manage the configuration of our assets and liabilities to comply with formulaic capital requirements. We may not be able to raise additional capital at all, or on terms acceptable to us. Failure to maintain capital to meet current or future regulatory requirements could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.We are subject to numerous “fair and responsible banking” laws and other laws and regulations designed to protect consumers, and failure to comply with these laws could lead to a wide variety of sanctions. 30 We are subject to numerous “fair and responsible banking” laws and other laws and regulations designed to protect consumers, and failure to comply with these laws could lead to a wide variety of sanctions. The Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, and other fair lending laws and regulations, including state laws and regulations, prohibit discriminatory lending practices by financial institutions. The Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, and other fair lending laws and regulations, including state laws and regulations, prohibit discriminatory lending practices by financial institutions. The Federal Trade Commission Act prohibits unfair or deceptive acts or practices, and the Dodd-Frank Act prohibits unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices by financial institutions. The U.S. Department of Justice, federal and state banking agencies, and other federal and state agencies, including the CFPB, are responsible for enforcing these fair and responsible banking laws and regulations. Banks with no more than $10.0 billion in total consolidated assets, including the Bank, are subject to rules promulgated by the CFPB but are examined and supervised by federal banking agencies for compliance with federal consumer protection laws and regulations. The CFPB has proposed rules that would restrict various fees that financial institutions can charge consumers, including credit card late fees and certain insufficient funds (“NSF”) fees. Accordingly, CFPB rulemaking has the potential to have a significant impact on the operations of the Bank.A challenge to an institution’s compliance with fair and responsible banking laws and regulations could result in a wide variety of sanctions, including damages and civil money penalties, injunctive relief, restrictions on mergers and acquisitions activity, restrictions on expansion, and restrictions on entering new business lines. A challenge to an institution’s compliance with fair and responsible banking laws and regulations could result in a wide variety of sanctions, including damages and civil money penalties, injunctive relief, restrictions on mergers and acquisitions activity, restrictions on expansion, and restrictions on entering new business lines. Private parties may also have the ability to challenge an institution’s performance under fair lending laws in private litigation, including through class action litigation. Such actions could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.We are a bank holding company and are dependent upon the Bank for cash flow, and the Bank’s ability to make cash distributions is restricted. We are a bank holding company and are dependent upon the Bank for cash flow, and the Bank’s ability to make cash distributions is restricted. Additionally, the Federal Reserve may require us to commit capital resources to support the Bank. 31 The Federal Reserve may require us to commit capital resources to support the Bank. We are a bank holding company with no material activities other than activities incidental to holding the common stock of the Bank. We are a bank holding company with no material activities other than activities incidental to holding the common stock of the Bank. Our principal source of funds to pay distributions on our common stock and service any of our obligations, other than further issuances of securities, is dividends received from the Bank. The holding company, Five Star Bancorp, is a legal entity separate and distinct from the Bank. Furthermore, the Bank is not obligated to pay dividends to us, and any dividends paid to us would depend on the earnings or financial condition of the Bank, various business considerations, and applicable law and regulation. As is generally the case for banking institutions, the profitability of the Bank is subject to the fluctuating cost and availability of money, changes in interest rates, and economic conditions in general. In addition, various federal and state statutes and regulations limit the amount of dividends that the Bank may pay to the Company without regulatory approval.In addition, the Federal Reserve requires a bank holding company to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to its subsidiary banks and to commit resources to support its subsidiary banks. The Federal Reserve requires a bank holding company to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to its subsidiary banks and to commit resources to support its subsidiary banks. Under the “source of strength” doctrine that was codified by the Dodd-Frank Act, the Federal Reserve may require a bank holding company to make capital injections into a subsidiary bank, including at times when the bank holding company may not be inclined to do so, and may charge the bank holding company with engaging in unsafe and unsound practices for failure to commit resources to such a subsidiary bank. Accordingly, we could be required to provide financial assistance to the Bank if it experiences financial distress.A capital injection may be required at a time when our resources are limited, and we may be required to borrow the funds or raise capital to make the required capital injection. A capital injection may be required at a time when our resources are limited, and we may be required to borrow the funds or raise capital to make the required capital injection. Any loan by a bank holding company to its subsidiary bank is subordinate in right of payment to deposits and certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary bank. In the event of a bank holding company’s bankruptcy, the bankruptcy trustee will assume any commitment by the holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank. Moreover, bankruptcy law provides that claims based on any such commitment will be entitled to a priority of payment over the claims of the holding company’s general unsecured creditors, including the holders of any note obligations. Thus, any borrowing by a bank holding company for the 29purpose of making a capital injection to a subsidiary bank may become more difficult and expensive relative to other corporate borrowings.We face a risk of noncompliance and enforcement action with the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations. We face a risk of noncompliance and enforcement action with the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations. The Bank Secrecy Act, the Patriot Act, and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain an effective anti-money laundering program and to file reports such as suspicious activity reports and currency transaction reports. The Bank Secrecy Act, the Patriot Act, and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain an effective anti-money laundering program and to file reports such as suspicious activity reports and currency transaction reports. We are required to comply with these and other anti-money laundering requirements. Our federal and state banking regulators, the Treasury Department’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, and other government agencies are authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of anti-money laundering requirements. We are also subject to increased scrutiny of compliance with the regulations issued and enforced by the Treasury Department’s OFAC, which is responsible for helping to ensure that U.S. entities do not engage in transactions with certain prohibited parties, as defined by various Executive Orders and Acts of Congress. If our program is deemed deficient, we could be subject to liability, including fines, civil money penalties, and other regulatory actions, which may include restrictions on our business operations and our ability to pay dividends, restrictions on mergers and acquisitions activity, restrictions on expansion, and restrictions on entering new business lines. Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could also have significant reputational consequences for us. Any of these circumstances could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common StockThe market price of our common stock may be volatile, and we may not be able to meet investor or analyst expectations. Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock Our stock price may be volatile, and we may not be able to meet investor or analyst expectations. You may not be able to resell your shares at or above the price you paid and may lose part or all of your investment as a result.Our stock price has fluctuated from a low of $18.21 to a high of $31.92 between our initial public offering and December 31, 2023. Volatility in the market price of our common stock may negatively impact the price at which our common stock may be sold and may also negatively impact the timing of any sale. Stock price volatility may negatively impact the price at which our common stock may be sold and may also negatively impact the timing of any sale. The market price of our common stock may continue to fluctuate widely in response to a variety of factors including the risk factors described herein and, among other things:•actual or anticipated variations in quarterly or annual operating results, financial conditions, or credit quality;•changes in business or economic conditions;•changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations, or principles;•changes in recommendations or research reports about us or the financial services industry in general published by securities analysts;•the failure of securities analysts to cover, or to continue to cover, us;•changes in financial estimates or publication of research reports and recommendations by financial analysts or actions taken by rating agencies with respect to us or other financial institutions;•news reports relating to trends, concerns, and other issues in the financial services industry;•reports related to the impact of natural or man-made disasters in our market;•perceptions in the marketplace regarding us and or our competitors;•sudden increases in the demand for our common stock, including as a result of any “short squeezes”;•significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments by or involving us or our competitors;•additional investments from third parties;•additions or departures of key personnel;•future sales or issuance of additional shares of our common stock;30•fluctuations in the market price of our common stock and operating results of our competitors;•changes or proposed changes in laws or regulations, or differing interpretations thereof, affecting our business, or enforcement of these laws or regulations;•new technology used, or services offered, by competitors;•additional investments from third parties; or