Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - CREG

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-Changes in blue
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$CREG Risk Factor changes from 00/05/08/23/2023 to 00/04/11/24/2024

Item 1A. Risk Factors” beginning on page 28 of this annual report. Risks Related to Our Business and Industry ●Our business could be materially harmed by the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic (see “Risk Factors - Risks Related to Our Business and Industry - We face risks related to natural disasters, extreme weather conditions, health epidemics and other catastrophic incidents, which could significantly disrupt our operations. Risks Related to Our Business and Industry ● Our business could be materially harmed by the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic (see “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Our Business and Industry – We face risks related to natural disasters, extreme weather conditions, health epidemics and other catastrophic incidents, which could significantly disrupt our operations. ” on page 33 of this annual report); ●Changes in the economic and credit environment could have an adverse effect on demand for our projects, which would in turn have a negative impact on our results of operations, our cash flows, our financial condition, our ability to borrow and our stock price (see “Risk Factors - Risks Related to Our Business and Industry - Changes in the economic and credit environment could have an adverse effect on demand for our projects, which would in turn have a negative impact on our results of operations, our cash flows, our financial condition, our ability to borrow and our stock price.” on page 32 of this annual report); ● Changes in the economic and credit environment could have an adverse effect on demand for our projects, which would in turn have a negative impact on our results of operations, our cash flows, our financial condition, our ability to borrow and our stock price (see “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Our Business and Industry – Changes in the economic and credit environment could have an adverse effect on demand for our projects, which would in turn have a negative impact on our results of operations, our cash flows, our financial condition, our ability to borrow and our stock price. ” on page 29 of this annual report); 5 Risks Related to Doing Business in China (for a more detailed discussion, see “Item 1A.” on page 28 of this annual report); Risks Related to Doing Business in China (for a more detailed discussion, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors-Risks Related to Doing Business in China” on page 34 of this annual report) ●We may rely on dividends paid by our subsidiaries for our cash needs. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China” on page 33 of this annual report) ● We may rely on dividends paid by our subsidiaries for our cash needs. Any limitation on the ability of our subsidiaries to make dividend payments to us, or any tax implications of making dividend payments to us, could limit our ability to pay our parent company expenses or pay dividends to holders of our common stock (see “Risk Factors - We are a holding company, and will rely on dividends paid by our subsidiaries for our cash needs. Any limitation on the ability of our subsidiaries to make dividend payments to us, or any tax implications of making dividend payments to us, could limit our ability to pay our parent company expenses or pay dividends to holders of our common stock” on page 34 of this annual report); ●The Chinese government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we conduct our business activities and may intervene or influence our operations at any time with little advance notice, which could result in a material change in our operations and the value of our common stock (see “Risk Factors -The Chinese government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we must conduct our business activities and may intervene or influence our operations at any time with little advance notice, which could result in a material change in our operations and the value of our common stock” on page 35 of this annual report); ●The M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China (see “Risk Factors - The M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China” on page 38 of this annual report); ●China’s legal system is evolving and has inherent uncertainties that could limit the legal protection available to you (see “Risk Factors - Risks Related to Doing Business in China - Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could adversely affect us” on page 43 of this annual report); ●We may be exposed to liabilities under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Chinese anti-corruption law (see “Risk Factors - Risks Related to Doing Business in China - We may be exposed to liabilities under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Chinese anti-corruption law” on page 41 of this annual report); ●The joint statement by the SEC and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), or the “PCAOB,” proposed rule changes submitted by Nasdaq and the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act(“HFCAA”) all call for additional and more stringent criteria to be applied to emerging market companies upon assessing the qualification of their auditors, especially the non-U. Any limitation on the ability of our subsidiaries to make dividend payments to us, or any tax implications of making dividend payments to us, could limit our ability to pay our parent company expenses or pay dividends to holders of our common stock” on page 33 of this annual report); 5 ● The Chinese government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we conduct our business activities and may intervene or influence our operations at any time with little advance notice, which could result in a material change in our operations and the value of our common stock (see “Risk Factors –The Chinese government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we must conduct our business activities and may intervene or influence our operations at any time with little advance notice, which could result in a material change in our operations and the value of our common stock” on page 34 of this annual report); ● The M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China (see “Risk Factors – The M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China” on page 38 of this annual report); ● China’s legal system is evolving and has inherent uncertainties that could limit the legal protection available to you (see “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Doing Business in China – Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could adversely affect us” on page 43 of this annual report); ● We may be exposed to liabilities under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Chinese anti-corruption law (see “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Doing Business in China – We may be exposed to liabilities under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Chinese anti-corruption law” on page 41 of this annual report); ● The joint statement by the SEC and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), or the “PCAOB,” proposed rule changes submitted by Nasdaq and the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act(“HFCAA”) all call for additional and more stringent criteria to be applied to emerging market companies upon assessing the qualification of their auditors, especially the non-U. S. auditors which are not inspected by the PCAOB. These developments could add uncertainties to the trading of our common stock (see “Risk Factors - Risks Related to Doing Business in China - The recent joint statement by the SEC and PCAOB, proposed rule changes submitted by Nasdaq, and the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act all call for additional and more stringent criteria to be applied to emerging market companies upon assessing the qualification of their auditors, especially the non-U.S. auditors which are not inspected by the PCAOB. These developments could add uncertainties to the trading of our common stock” on page 46 of this annual report); Risks Related to Our Common Stock (for a more detailed discussion, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors- Risks Related to Our Common Stock” on page 48 of this annual report) ●The market price of our common stock may be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance (see “Risk Factors - Risks Related to Our Common Stock - The market price for our common stock may be volatile” on page 48 of this annual report); 6 Transfers of Cash to and from Our Subsidiaries Smart Powerr Corp. Risk Factors— Risks Related to Our Common Stock” on page 33 of this annual report) ● The market price of our common stock may be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance (see “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Our Common Stock – The market price for our common stock may be volatile” on page 48 of this annual report); Transfers of Cash to and from Our Subsidiaries Smart Powerr Corp. is a holding company with no operations of its own. We conduct our operations in China primarily through our subsidiaries in China. We may rely on dividends to be paid by our subsidiaries in China to fund our cash and financing requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders, to service any debt we may incur and to pay our operating expenses. If our subsidiaries incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict its ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us. Our equity structure is a direct holding company structure. 6 Our equity structure is a direct holding company structure. Within our direct holding company structure, the cross-border transfer of funds between our corporate entities is legal and compliant with the laws and regulations of the PRC. After the foreign investors’ funds enter CREG, the funds can be directly transferred to the PRC operating companies through its subsidiaries. Specifically, Smart Powerr Corp. is permitted under the Nevada laws to provide funding to our subsidiary, Sifang Holdings, in Cayman Islands through loans or capital contributions without restrictions on the amount of the funds, subject to satisfaction of applicable government registration, approval and filing requirements. Sifang Holdings is also permitted under the laws of Cayman Islands to provide funding to Smart Powerr Corp. through dividend distribution without restrictions on the amount of the funds. As of the date hereof, there have not been any transfers, dividends or distributions made between the holding company, its subsidiaries, and to investors. As of the date hereof, there have not been any transfers, dividends or distributions made between the holding company, its subsidiaries, and to investors. We currently intend to retain all available funds and future earnings, if any, for the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination related to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors after considering our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, contractual requirements, business prospects and other factors the Board of Directors deems relevant, and subject to the restrictions contained in any future financing instruments. Subject to the Nevada Business Corporation Act and our bylaws, our Board of Directors may authorize and declare a dividend to shareholders at such time and of such an amount as it thinks fit if they are satisfied, on reasonable grounds, that immediately following the dividend the value of our assets will exceed our liabilities and we will be able to pay our debts as they become due. To address persistent capital outflows and the RMB’s depreciation against the U.S. dollar in the fourth quarter of 2016, the People’s Bank of China and the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, have implemented a series of capital control measures in the subsequent months, including stricter vetting procedures for China-based companies to remit foreign currency for overseas acquisitions, dividend payments and shareholder loan repayments. The PRC government may continue to strengthen its capital controls and our PRC subsidiaries’ dividends and other distributions may be subject to tightened scrutiny in the future. The PRC government also imposes controls on the conversion of RMB into foreign currencies and the remittance of currencies out of the PRC. Therefore, we may experience difficulties in completing the administrative procedures necessary to obtain and remit foreign currency for the payment of dividends from our profits, if any. Furthermore, if our subsidiaries in the PRC incur debt on their own in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other payments. If we or our subsidiaries are unable to receive all of the revenues from our operations, we may be unable to pay dividends on our common stock. Cash dividends, if any, on our common stock will be paid in U.S. dollars. If we are considered a PRC tax resident enterprise for tax purposes, any dividends we pay to our overseas shareholders may be regarded as China-sourced income and as a result may be subject to PRC withholding tax at up to 10%. To pay dividends to our shareholders, we will rely on payments made from our PRC subsidiaries, i.e., Shanghai Yinghua Financial Leasing Co., Ltd, Shanghai TCH Energy Technology Co., Ltd., Huahong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd., Xi’an TCH Energy Technology Co., Ltd., Erdos TCH Energy Saving Development Co., Ltd., Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd., and Zhongxun Energy Investment (Beijing) Co., Ltd., to Smart Powerr Corp. As of the date hereof, our PRC subsidiaries have not made any transfers or distributions. As of the date hereof, no cash or asset transfers have occurred between the Company and its subsidiaries. We do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Furthermore, as of the date hereof, no cash generated from one subsidiary is used to fund another subsidiary’s operations and we do not anticipate any difficulties or limitations on our ability to transfer cash between subsidiaries. We have also not installed any cash management policies that dictate the amount of such funds and how such funds are transferred. 7 Implications of Holding Foreign Company Accountable Act On March 24, 2021, the SEC adopted interim final rules relating to the implementation of certain disclosure and documentation requirements of the HFCAA. An identified issuer will be required to comply with these rules if the SEC identifies it as having a “non-inspection” year under a process to be subsequently established by the SEC. On June 22, 2021, U.S Senate passed the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, which was signed into law on December 29, 2022, amending the HFCAA and requiring the SEC to prohibit an issuer’s securities from trading on any U.S. stock exchange if its auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspections for two consecutive years instead of three consecutive years. If our auditor cannot be inspected by the PCAOB, PCAOB, for two consecutive years, the trading of our securities on any U.S. national securities exchanges, as well as any over-the-counter trading in the U.S., will be prohibited. On September 22, 2021, the PCAOB adopted a final rule implementing the HFCAA, which provides a framework for the PCAOB to use when determining, as contemplated under the HFCAA, whether the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms located in a foreign jurisdiction because of a position taken by one or more authorities in that jurisdiction. On December 2, 2021, the SEC issued amendments to finalize rules implementing the submission and disclosure requirements in the HFCA Act. The rules apply to registrants that the SEC identifies as having filed an annual report with an audit report issued by a registered public accounting firm that is located in a foreign jurisdiction and that PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a position taken by an authority in foreign jurisdictions. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report on its determinations that it is unable to inspect or investigate completely PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and in Hong Kong, because of positions taken by PRC authorities in those jurisdictions. Kreit & Chiu CPA LLP (“Kreit & Chiu,” formerly Paris Kreit & Chiu CPA LLP), the independent registered public account firm that issued the audit report for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 included elsewhere in this annual report, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the U.S. and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the U.S pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess such auditor’s compliance with the applicable professional standards. Kreit & Chiu is headquartered in New York, New York, and is subject to inspection by the PCAOB on a regular basis. Enrome LLP, our independent registered public accounting firm for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, is based in Singapore and is registered with PCAOB and subject to PCAOB inspection. Therefore, we believe neither Kreit & Chiu, our previous auditor, nor Enrome LLP, our current auditor, is subject to the determinations as to the inability to inspect or investigate registered firms completely announced by the PCAOB on December 16, 2021. However, as more stringent criteria have been imposed by the SEC and the PCAOB, recently, which would add uncertainties to future offerings, and we cannot assure you whether Nasdaq or other regulatory authorities would apply additional and more stringent criteria to us after considering the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures and quality control procedures, adequacy of personnel and training, or sufficiency of resources, geographic reach or experience as it relates to the audit of our financial statements. On August 26, 2022, the CSRC, the Ministry of Finance of the PRC (the “MOF”), and the PCAOB signed a Statement of Protocol (the “Protocol”), governing inspections and investigations of audit firms based in China and Hong Kong. On August 26, 2022, the China Securities Regulatory Commission, the Ministry of Finance of the PRC (the “MOF”), and the PCAOB signed a Statement of Protocol (the “Protocol”), governing inspections and investigations of audit firms based in China and Hong Kong. The Protocol remains unpublished and is subject to further explanation and implementation. Pursuant to the fact sheet with respect to the Protocol disclosed by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), the PCAOB shall have independent discretion to select any issuer audits for inspection or investigation and has the unfettered ability to transfer information to the SEC. See “The recent joint statement by the SEC and PCAOB, proposed rule changes submitted by Nasdaq, and the HFCAA all call for additional and more stringent criteria to be applied to emerging market companies upon assessing the qualification of their auditors, especially the non-U.S. auditors which are not inspected by the PCAOB. These developments could add uncertainties to the trading of our common stock” on page 46 of this annual report. 8 PRC Regulatory Permissions We and our operating subsidiaries currently have received all material permissions and approvals required for our operations in compliance with the relevant PRC laws and regulations in the PRC, including the business licenses of our operating subsidiaries. PRC Regulatory Permissions We and our operating subsidiaries currently have received all material permissions and approvals required for our operations in compliance with the relevant PRC laws and regulations in the PRC, including the business licenses of our operating subsidiaries. The business license is a permit issued by Administration for Market Regulation that allows the company to conduct specific business within the government’s geographical jurisdiction. 8 The business license is a permit issued by Administration for Market Regulation that allows the company to conduct specific business within the government’s geographical jurisdiction. Each of our PRC subsidiaries has received its business license. As of the date hereof, except for the business licenses mentioned here, Smart Powerr Corp. and our PRC subsidiaries are not required to obtain any other permissions or approvals from any Chinese authorities to operate the business. However, applicable laws and regulations may be tightened, and new laws or regulations may be introduced to impose additional government approval, license, and permit requirements. If we or our subsidiaries fail to obtain and maintain such approvals, licenses, or permits required for our business, inadvertently conclude that such approval is not required, or respond to changes in the regulatory environment, we or our subsidiaries could be subject to liabilities, penalties, and operational disruption, which may materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and the value of our common stock, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, or cause such securities to significantly decline in value or become worthless. On August 8, 2006, six PRC regulatory agencies jointly adopted the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, which came into effect on September 8, 2006 and were amended on June 22, 2009. The M&A Rules require that an offshore special purpose vehicle formed for overseas listing purposes and controlled directly or indirectly by PRC Citizens shall obtain the approval of the China Securities Regulatory Commission(“CSRC”) prior to overseas listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. Based on our understanding of the Chinese laws and regulations in effect at the time of this annual report, we will not be required to submit an application to the CSRC for its approval of future offerings and the trading of common stock on the Nasdaq under the M&A Rules. However, there remains some uncertainty as to how the M&A Rules will be interpreted or implemented, and the requirement standard may change when new laws, rules and regulations or detailed implementations and interpretations in any form relating to the M&A Rules are installed. We cannot assure you that relevant Chinese government agencies, including the CSRC, would reach the same conclusion. Recently, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued the Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities, which were made available to the public on July 6, 2021. The Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities, and the need to strengthen the supervision over overseas listings by Chinese companies. Pursuant to the Opinions, Chinese regulators are required to accelerate rulemaking related to the overseas issuance and listing of securities, and update the existing laws and regulations related to data security, cross-border data flow, and management of confidential information. Numerous regulations, guidelines and other measures are expected to be adopted under the umbrella of or in addition to the Cybersecurity Law and Data Security Law. As of the date hereof, no official guidance or related implementation rules have been issued. As a result, the Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities remain unclear on how they will be interpreted, amended and implemented by the relevant PRC governmental authorities. On December 28, 2021, the CAC and other relevant PRC governmental authorities jointly promulgated the Cybersecurity Review Measures (the “new Cybersecurity Review Measures”) which took effect on February 15, 2022 and replaced the original Cybersecurity Review Measures. Pursuant to the new Cybersecurity Review Measures, if critical information infrastructure operators purchase network products and services, or network platform operators conduct data processing activities that affect or may affect national security, they will be subject to cybersecurity review. A network platform operator holding more than one million users/users’ individual information also shall be subject to cybersecurity review before listing abroad. The cybersecurity review will evaluate, among others, the risk of critical information infrastructure, core data, important data, or a large amount of personal information being influenced, controlled or maliciously used by foreign governments and risk of network data security after going public overseas. 9 We believe that neither we nor our subsidiaries are currently required to obtain permission from any of the PRC authorities to operate and issue our common stock to foreign investors, or required to obtain permission or approval from the CSRC, CAC or any other governmental agency. Recently, however, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued the “Opinions on Severely Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities According to Law,” or the “Opinions,” which were made available to the public on July 6, 2021. The Opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities and the need to strengthen the supervision over overseas listings by Chinese companies. Effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems, will be taken to deal with the risks and incidents of China-concept overseas listed companies, cybersecurity, data privacy protection requirements, and similar matters. The Opinions and any related implementing rules to be enacted may subject us to compliance requirements in the future. Given the current regulatory environment in the PRC, we are still subject to the uncertainty of different interpretation and enforcement of the rules and regulations in the PRC adverse to us, which may take place quickly with little advance notice. See “The Opinions recently issued by the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council may subject us to additional compliance requirement in the future” on page 46 of this annual report. We believe we will not be subject to the Cybersecurity Review Measures that became effective on February 15, 2022 under the CAC, because we currently do not have over one million users’ personal information and do not anticipate that we will be collecting over one million users’ personal information in the foreseeable future, which we understand might check subject us to the Cybersecurity Review Measures. We are also not subject to network data security review by the CAC if the Draft Regulations on the Network Data Security Administration are enacted as proposed, since we currently do not have over one million users’ personal information and do not collect data that affects or may affect national security and we do not anticipate that we will be collecting over one million users’ personal information or data that affects or may affect national security in the foreseeable future, which we understand might otherwise subject us to the Security Administration Draft. Moreover, we believe that no relevant laws or regulations in the PRC explicitly require us to seek approval from the CSRC for our overseas listing plan. As of the date of this annual report, we and our PRC subsidiaries have not received any inquiry, notice, warning, or sanctions regarding our planned overseas listing from the CSRC or any other PRC governmental authorities. However, on February 17, 2023, the CSRC promulgated Trial Administrative Measures of the Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (the “Overseas Listing Trial Measures”) and five relevant guidelines, which became effective on March 31, 2023. According to the Overseas Listing Trial Measures, PRC domestic companies that seek to offer and list securities in overseas markets, either in direct or indirect means, are required to fulfill the filing procedure with the CSRC and report relevant information. According to the Overseas Listing Trial Measures, PRC domestic companies that seek to offer and list securities in overseas markets, either in direct or indirect means, are required to fulfill the filing procedure with the CSRC and report relevant information. The Overseas Listing Trial Measures provides that an overseas listing or offering is explicitly prohibited, if any of the following: (1) such securities offering and listing is explicitly prohibited by provisions in laws, administrative regulations and relevant state rules; (2) the intended securities offering and listing may endanger national security as reviewed and determined by competent authorities under the State Council in accordance with law; (3) the domestic company intending to make the securities offering and listing, or its controlling shareholder(s) and the actual controller, have committed relevant crimes such as corruption, bribery, embezzlement, misappropriation of property or undermining the order of the socialist market economy during the latest three years; (4) the domestic company intending to make the securities offering and listing is currently under investigations for suspicion of criminal offenses or major violations of laws and regulations, and no conclusion has yet been made thereof; or (5) there are material ownership disputes over equity held by the domestic company’s controlling shareholder(s) or by other shareholder(s) that are controlled by the controlling shareholder(s) and/or actual controller. The Overseas Listing Trial Measures also provides that if the issuer meets both the following criteria, the overseas securities offering and listing conducted by such issuer will be deemed as indirect overseas offering by PRC domestic companies: (1) 50% or more of any of the issuer’s operating revenue, total profit, total assets or net assets as documented in its audited consolidated financial statements for the most recent fiscal year is accounted for by domestic companies; and (2) the issuer’s main business activities are conducted in China, or its main place(s) of business are located in China, or the majority of senior management staff in charge of its business operations and management are PRC citizens or have their usual place(s) of residence located in China. Where an issuer submits an application for initial public offering to competent overseas regulators, such issuer must file with the CSRC within three business days after such application is submitted. In addition, the Overseas Listing Trial Measures provide that the direct or indirect overseas listings of the assets of domestic companies through one or more acquisitions, share swaps, transfers or other transaction arrangements shall be subject to filing procedures in accordance with the Overseas Listing Trial Measures. The Overseas Listing Trial Measures also requires subsequent reports to be filed with the CSRC on material events, such as change of control or voluntary or forced delisting of the issuer(s) who have completed overseas offerings and listings. 10 At a press conference held for these new regulations (“Press Conference”), officials from the CSRC clarified that the domestic companies that have already been listed overseas on or before March 31, 2023 shall be deemed as existing issuers (the “Existing Issuers”). Existing Issuers are not required to complete the filling procedures immediately, and they shall be required to file with the CSRC upon occurrences of certain subsequent matters such as follow-on offerings of securities. According to the Overseas Listing Trial Measures and the Press Conference, the existing domestic companies that have completed overseas offering and listing before March 31, 2023, such as us, shall not be required to perform filing procedures for the completed overseas securities issuance and listing. However, from the effective date of the regulation, any of our subsequent securities offering in the same overseas market or subsequent securities offering and listing in other overseas markets shall be subject to the filing requirement with the CSRC within three working days after the offering is completed or after the relevant application is submitted to the relevant overseas authorities, respectively. If it is determined that any approval, filing or other administrative procedures from other PRC governmental authorities is required for any future offering or listing, we cannot assure you that we can obtain the required approval or accomplish the required filings or other regulatory procedures in a timely manner, or at all. If we fail to fulfill filing procedure as stipulated by the Trial Measures or offer and list securities in an overseas market in violation of the Trial Measures, the CSRC may order rectification, issue warnings to us, and impose a fine of between RMB1,000,000 and RMB10,000,000. Persons-in-charge and other persons that are directly liable for such failure shall be warned and each imposed a fine from RMB500,000 to RMB5,000,000. Controlling shareholders and actual controlling persons of us that organize or instruct such violations shall be imposed a fine from RMB1,000,000 and RMB10,000,000. On February 24, 2023, the CSRC published the Provisions on Strengthening the Confidentiality and Archives Administration Related to the Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Enterprises (the “Provisions on Confidentiality and Archives Administration”), which came into effect on March 31, 2023. The Provisions on Confidentiality and Archives Administration requires that, in the process of overseas issuance and listing of securities by domestic entities, the domestic entities, and securities companies and securities service institutions that provide relevant securities service shall strictly implement the provisions of relevant laws and regulations and the requirements of these provisions, establish and improve rules on confidentiality and archives administration. Where the domestic entities provide with or publicly disclose documents, materials or other items related to the state secrets and government work secrets to the relevant securities companies, securities service institutions, overseas regulatory authorities, or other entities or individuals, the companies shall apply for approval of competent departments with the authority of examination and approval in accordance with law and report the matter to the secrecy administrative departments at the same level for record filing. Where there is unclear or controversial whether or not the concerned materials are related to state secrets, the materials shall be reported to the relevant secrecy administrative departments for determination. However, there remain uncertainties regarding the further interpretation and implementation of the Provisions on Confidentiality and Archives Administration. As of the date of this annual report, we and our PRC subsidiaries have obtained the requisite licenses and permits from the PRC government authorities that are material for the business operations of our PRC subsidiaries. In addition, as of the date of this annual report, we and our PRC subsidiaries are not required to obtain approval or permission from the CSRC or the CAC or any other entity that is required to approve our PRC subsidiaries’ operations or required for us to offer securities to foreign investors under any currently effective PRC laws, regulations, and regulatory rules. If it is determined that we are subject to filing requirements imposed by the CSRC under the Overseas Listing Regulations or approvals from other PRC regulatory authorities or other procedures, including the cybersecurity review under the revised Cybersecurity Review Measures, for our future offshore offerings, it would be uncertain whether we can or how long it will take us to complete such procedures or obtain such approval and any such approval could be rescinded. Any failure to obtain or delay in completing such procedures or obtaining such approval for our offshore offerings, or a rescission of any such approval, if obtained by us, would subject us to sanctions by the CSRC or other PRC regulatory authorities for failure to file with the CSRC or failure to seek approval from other government authorization for our offshore offerings. These regulatory authorities may impose fines and penalties on our operations in China, limit our ability to pay dividends outside of China, limit our operating privileges in China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from our offshore offerings into China or take other actions that could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects, as well as the trading price of our common stock. The CSRC or other PRC regulatory authorities also may take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to halt our offshore offerings before settlement and delivery of the securities offered. Consequently, if investors engage in market trading or other activities in anticipation of and prior to settlement and delivery, they do so at the risk that settlement and delivery may not occur. In addition, if the CSRC or other regulatory authorities later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that we obtain their approvals or accomplish the required filing or other regulatory procedures for our prior offshore offerings, we may be unable to obtain a waiver of such approval requirements, if and when procedures are established to obtain such a waiver. Any uncertainties or negative publicity regarding such approval requirement could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, reputation, and the trading price of our common stock. 11 Since these statements and regulatory actions by the PRC government are newly published and official guidance and related implementation rules have not been issued, it is highly uncertain how soon legislative or administrative regulation making bodies will respond and what existing or new laws or regulations or detailed implementations and interpretations will be modified or promulgated, if any, and the potential impact such modified or new laws and regulations will have on our daily business operation, the ability to accept foreign investments and list on an U.S. or other foreign exchange. The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, or the SCNPC, or other PRC regulatory authorities may in the future promulgate laws, regulations or implementing rules that requires our company or any of our subsidiaries to obtain regulatory approval from Chinese authorities before future offerings in the U.S. In other words, although the Company is currently not required to obtain permission from any of the PRC federal or local government to obtain such permission and has not received any denial to list on the U.S. exchange, our operations could be adversely affected, directly or indirectly; our ability to offer, or continue to offer, securities to investors would be potentially hindered and the value of our securities might significantly decline or be worthless, by existing or future laws and regulations relating to its business or industry or by intervene or interruption by PRC governmental authorities, if we or our subsidiaries (i) do not receive or maintain such permissions or approvals, (ii) inadvertently conclude that such permissions or approvals are not required, (iii) applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations change and we are required to obtain such permissions or approvals in the future, or (iv) any intervention or interruption by PRC governmental with little advance notice. For more details, see “Risk Factors - Risks Related to Doing Business in China - The Chinese government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we must conduct our business activities. We are currently not required to obtain approval from Chinese authorities to list on U.S exchanges, however, if our subsidiaries or the holding company were required to obtain approval or filing in the future and were denied permission from Chinese authorities to list on U.S. exchanges, we will not be able to continue listing on U.S. exchange, which would materially affect the interest of the investors” on page 35 of this annual report. As of the date hereof, we and our PRC subsidiaries have received from PRC authorities all requisite licenses, permissions or approvals needed to engage in the businesses currently conducted in China, and no permission or approval has been denied. The following table provides details on the licenses and permissions held by our PRC subsidiaries. 12 Our Projects We design, finance, construct, operate and eventually transfer waste energy recycling projects to meet the energy saving and recovery needs of our customers. 12 Our Projects We design, finance, construct, operate and eventually transfer waste energy recycling projects to meet the energy saving and recovery needs of our customers. Our waste energy recycling projects use the pressure, heat or gas, which is generated as a byproduct of a variety of industrial processes, to create electricity. The residual energy from industrial processes, which was traditionally wasted, may be captured in a recovery process and utilized by our waste energy recycling projects to generate electricity burning additional fuel and additional emissions. Among a wide variety of waste-to-energy technologies and solutions, we primarily focus on waste pressure to energy systems, waste heat to energy systems and waste gas power generation systems. We do not manufacture the equipment and materials that are used in the construction of our waste energy recycling projects. Rather, we incorporate standard power generating equipment into a fully integrated onsite project for our customers. Waste Heat to Energy Systems Waste heat to energy systems utilize waste heat generated in industrial production to generate electricity. The waste heat is trapped to heat a boiler to create steam and power a steam turbine. Our waste heat to energy systems have used waste heat from cement production and from metal production. Shanghai TCH and its Subsidiaries Shanghai TCH was established as a foreign investment enterprise in Shanghai under the laws of the PRC on May 25, 2004 and has a registered capital of $29.80 million. Xi’an TCH was incorporated in Xi’an, Shaanxi Province under the laws of the PRC on November 8, 2007. In February 2009, Huahong was incorporated in Xi’an, Shaanxi province. Erdos TCH was incorporated in April 2009 in Erdos, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. On July 19, 2013, Xi’an TCH formed Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd (“Zhonghong”). Xi’an TCH owns 90% and Shanghai TCH owns 10% of Zhonghong, which provides energy saving solutions and services, including constructing, selling and leasing energy saving systems and equipment to customers. Erdos TCH - Joint Venture On April 14, 2009, the Company formed Erdos TCH as a joint venture (the “JV” or “Erdos TCH”) with Erdos Metallurgy Co., Ltd. (“Erdos”) to recycle waste heat from Erdos’ metal refining plants to generate power and steam to be sold back to Erdos. The JV has a term of 20 years with a total investment for the project estimated at $79 million (RMB 500 million) and an initial investment of $17.55 million (RMB 120 million). Erdos contributed 7% of the total investment for the project, and Xi’an TCH contributed 93%. According to Xi’an TCH and Erdos’ agreement on profit distribution, Xi’an TCH and Erdos will receive 80% and 20%, respectively, of the profit from the JV until Xi’an TCH receives the complete return of its investment. Xi’an TCH and Erdos will then receive 60% and 40%, respectively, of the profit from the JV. On June 15, 2013, Xi’an TCH and Erdos entered into a share transfer agreement, pursuant to which Erdos transferred and sold its 7% ownership interest in the JV to Xi’an TCH for $1.29 million (RMB 8 million), plus certain accumulated profits as described below. Xi’an TCH paid the $1.29 million in July 2013 and, as a result, became the sole stockholder of Erdos TCH. In addition, Xi’an TCH is required to pay Erdos accumulated profits from inception up to June 30, 2013 in accordance with the supplementary agreement entered on August 6, 2013. In August 2013, Xi’an TCH paid 20% of the accumulated profit (calculated under PRC GAAP) of $226,000 to Erdos. Erdos TCH currently has two power generation systems in Phase I with a total of 18 MW power capacity, and three power generation systems in Phase II with a total of 27 MW power capacity. The power generation systems were built in 2009, and it is now 13 years old. The equipment is obsolete and the efficiency of the power generation systems is declining year by year. The current power generation efficiency can only reach 30%, and the equipment needs to be upgraded. The Erdos government has requested the Erdos to carry out a comprehensive technical upgrade of its ferrosilicon production line to meet the city’s energy-saving targets. Erdos is researching the technical rectification scheme. Erdos is researching the technical rectification scheme. After the scheme is determined, the Company will carry out supporting technical transformation for our waste heat power station project. Before it goes into production, the Company is still entitled to a compensation of RMB 1 million per month. Before it goes into production, the Company is still entitled to a compensation of RMB 1 million per month. After considering the challenging economic conditions facing Erdos, and to maintain the long-term cooperative relationship between the parties, which we believe will continue to produce long-term benefits, on April 28, 2016, Erdos TCH and Erdos entered into a supplemental agreement, effective May 1, 2016. 13 After considering the challenging economic conditions facing Erdos, and to maintain the long-term cooperative relationship between the parties, which we believe will continue to produce long-term benefits, on April 28, 2016, Erdos TCH and Erdos entered into a supplemental agreement, effective May 1, 2016. Under the supplemental agreement, Erdos TCH cancelled monthly minimum lease payments from Erdos, and agreed to charge Erdos based on actual electricity sold at RMB 0.30 / KWH, which such price will be adjusted annually based on prevailing market conditions. 13 The Company evaluated the modified terms for payments based on actual electricity sold as minimum lease payments as defined in ASC 840-10-25-4, since lease payments that depend on a factor directly related to the future use of the leased property are contingent rentals and, accordingly, are excluded from minimum lease payments in their entirety. The Company evaluated the modified terms for payments based on actual electricity sold as minimum lease payments as defined in ASC 840-10-25-4, since lease payments that depend on a factor directly related to the future use of the leased property are contingent rentals and, accordingly, are excluded from minimum lease payments in their entirety. The Company wrote off the net investment receivables of these leases at the lease modification date. Pucheng Biomass Power Generation Projects On June 29, 2010, Xi’an TCH entered into a Biomass Power Generation (“BMPG”) Project Lease Agreement with PuchengXinHeng Yuan Biomass Power Generation Co., Ltd. (“Pucheng”), a limited liability company incorporated in China. Under this lease agreement, Xi’an TCH leased a set of 12MW BMPG systems to Pucheng at a minimum of $279,400 (RMB 1,900,000) per month for a term of 15 years. (“Pucheng Phase I”). On September 11, 2013, Xi’an TCH entered into a BMPG Asset Transfer Agreement (the “Pucheng Transfer Agreement”) with Pucheng Xin Heng Yuan Biomass Power Generation Corporation (“Pucheng”), a limited liability company incorporated in China. The Pucheng Transfer Agreement provided for the sale by Pucheng to Xi’an TCH of a set of 12 MW BMPG systems with the completion of system transformation for a purchase price of RMB 100 million ($16.48 million) in the form of 8,766,547 shares of common stock of the Company at $1.87 per share (the share and per share numbers were not adjusted for the Reverse Stock Split). Also on September 11, 2013, Xi’an TCH also entered into a BMPG Project Lease Agreement with Pucheng (the “Pucheng Lease”). Under the Pucheng Lease, Xi’an TCH leases this same set of 12 MW BMPG system to Pucheng, and combines this lease with the lease for the 12 MW BMPG station of Pucheng Phase I project, under a single lease to Pucheng for RMB 3.8 million ($0.63 million) per month (the “Pucheng Phase II Project”). The term for the consolidated lease is from September 2013 to June 2025. The lease agreement for the 12 MW station from Pucheng Phase I project terminated upon the effective date of the Pucheng Lease. The ownership of two 12 MW BMPG systems will transfer to Pucheng at no additional charge when the Pucheng Lease expires. Shenqiu Yuneng Biomass Power Generation Projects On May 25, 2011, Xi’an TCH entered into a Letter of Intent with Shenqiu YuNeng Thermal Power Co., Ltd. (“Shenqiu”) to reconstruct and transform a Thermal Power Generation System owned by Shenqiu into a 75T/H BMPG System for $3.57 million (RMB 22.5 million). The project commenced in June 2011 and was completed in the third quarter of 2011. On September 28, 2011, Xi’an TCH entered into a Biomass Power Generation Asset Transfer Agreement with Shenqiu (the “Shenqiu Transfer Agreement”). Pursuant to the Shenqiu Transfer Agreement, Shenqiu sold Xi’an TCH a set of 12 MW BMPG systems (after Xi’an TCH converted the system for BMPG purposes). As consideration for the BMPG systems, Xi’an TCH paid Shenqiu $10.94 million (RMB 70 million) in cash in three installments within six months upon the transfer of ownership of the systems. By the end of 2012, all the consideration was paid. On September 28, 2011, Xi’an TCH and Shenqiu also entered into a Biomass Power Generation Project Lease Agreement (the “2011 Shenqiu Lease”). Under the 2011 Shenqiu Lease, Xi’an TCH agreed to lease a set of 12 MW BMPG systems to Shenqiu at a monthly rental rate of $286,000 (RMB 1.8 million) for 11 years. Upon expiration of the 2011 Shenqiu Lease, ownership of this system will transfer from Xi’an TCH to Shenqiu at no additional cost. In connection with the 2011 Shenqiu Lease, Shenqiu paid one month’s rent as a security deposit to Xi’an TCH, in addition to providing personal guarantees. On October 8, 2012, Xi’an TCH entered into a Letter of Intent for technical reformation of Shenqiu Project Phase II with Shenqiu for technical reformation to enlarge the capacity of the Shenqiu Project Phase I (the “Shenqiu Phase II Project”). The technical reformation involved the construction of another 12 MW BMPG system. After the reformation, the generation capacity of the power plant increased to 24 MW. The project commenced on October 25, 2012 and was completed during the first quarter of 2013. The total cost of the project was $11.1 million (RMB 68 million). On March 30, 2013, Xi’an TCH and Shenqiu entered into a BMPG Project Lease Agreement (the “2013 Shenqiu Lease”). Under the 2013 Shenqiu Lease, Xi’an TCH agreed to lease the second set of 12 MW BMPG systems to Shenqiu for $239,000 (RMB 1.5 million) per month for 9.5 years. When the 2013 Shenqiu Lease expires, ownership of this system will transfer from Xi’an TCH to Shenqiu at no additional cost. 14 On January 4, 2019, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, and Mr. Chonggong Bai, a resident of China, entered into a Projects Transfer Agreement (the “Agreement”), pursuant to which Xi’an TCH transferred two Biomass Power Generation Projects in Shenqiu (“Shenqiu Phase I and II Projects”) to Mr. Bai for RMB 127,066,000 ($18.55 million). Mr. Bai agreed to transfer all the equity shares of his wholly owned company, Xi’an Hanneng Enterprises Management Consulting Co. Ltd. (“Xi’an Hanneng”) to Beijing Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Center, LLP (the “HYREF”) as repayment for the loan made by Xi’an Zhonghong to HYREE as consideration for the transfer of the Shenqiu Phase I and II Projects (See Note 10). The transfer was completed on February 15, 2019. Yida Coke Oven Gas Power Generation Projects On June 28, 2014, Xi’an TCH entered into an Asset Transfer Agreement (the “Transfer Agreement”) with Qitaihe City Boli Yida Coal Selection Co., Ltd. (“Yida”), a limited liability company incorporated in China. The Transfer Agreement provided for the sale to Xi’an TCH of a 15 MW coke oven WGPG station, which was converted from a 15 MW coal gangue power generation station from Yida. As consideration for the Transfer Asset, Xi’an TCH paid Yida RMB 115 million ($18.69 million) in common stock of the Company at the average closing price per share of the Stock for the 10 trading days prior to the closing date of the transaction. The exchange rate between US Dollar and Chinese RMB in connection with the stock issuance was the rate equal to the middle rate published by the PBOC on the closing date of the assets transfer. On June 28, 2014, Xi’an TCH also entered into a Coke Oven Gas Power Generation Project Lease Agreement (the “Lease Agreement”) with Yida. Under the Lease Agreement, Xi’an TCH leased the Transfer Asset to Yida for RMB 3 million ($0.49 million) per month, from June 28, 2014 to June 27, 2029. Yida will also provide an RMB 3 million ($0.49 million) security deposit (without interest) for the lease. Xi’an TCH will transfer the Transfer Asset back to Yida at no cost at the end of the lease. The Fund Management Company and the HYREF Fund On June 25, 2013, Xi’an TCH and Hongyuan Huifu Venture Capital Co. Ltd (“Hongyuan Huifu”) jointly established Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Management Beijing Co., Ltd (the “Fund Management Company”) with registered capital of RMB 10 million ($1.45 million). With respect to the Fund Management Company, voting rights and dividend rights are allocated 80% and 20% between Hongyuan Huifu and Xi’an TCH, respectively. The Fund Management Company is the general partner of Beijing Hongyuan Recycling Energy Investment Center, LLP (the “HYREF Fund”), a limited liability partnership established July 18, 2013 in Beijing. The Fund Management Company made an initial capital contribution of RMB 5 million ($830,000) to the HYREF Fund. An initial amount of RMB 460 million ($77 million) was fully subscribed by all partners for the HYREF Fund. The HYREF Fund has three limited partners: (1) China Orient Asset Management Co., Ltd., which made an initial capital contribution of RMB 280 million ($46.67 million) to the HYREF Fund and is a preferred limited partner; (2) Hongyuan Huifu, which made an initial capital contribution of RMB 100 million ($16.67 million) to the HYREF Fund and is an ordinary limited partner; and (3) the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Xi’an TCH, which made an initial capital contribution of RMB 75 million ($11.6 million) to the HYREF Fund and is a secondary limited partner. The term of the HYREF Fund’s partnership is six years from the date of its establishment, expiring on July 18, 2019. The term is four years from the date of contribution for the preferred limited partner, and four years from the date of contribution for the ordinary limited partner. The size of the HYREF Fund is RMB 460 million ($76.66 million). The HYREF Fund was formed for the purpose of investing in Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd., a then 90% owned subsidiary of Xi’an TCH, for the construction of two coke dry quenching (“CDQ”) waste heat power generation (“WHPG”) stations with Jiangsu Tianyu Energy and Chemical Group Co., Ltd. (“Tianyu”) and one CDQ WHPG station with Boxing County Chengli Gas Supply Co., Ltd. (“Chengli”). On December 2018, Xi’an TCH transferred its 40% ownership of the Fund Management Company to Hongyuan Huifu, pursuant to an equity transfer agreement signed by both sides. 15 Chengli Waste Heat Power Generation Projects On July 19, 2013, Xi’an TCH formed a new company, “Xi’an Zhonghong New Energy Technology Co., Ltd.” (“Zhonghong”), with registered capital of RMB 30 million ($4.85 million). Xi’an TCH paid RMB 27 million ($4.37 million) and owns 90% of Zhonghong. Zhonghong is engaged to provide energy saving solution and services, including constructing, selling and leasing energy saving systems and equipment to customers. On December 29, 2018, Shanghai TCH entered into a Share Transfer Agreement with HYREF, pursuant to which HYREF transferred its 10% ownership in Xi’an Zhonghong to Shanghai TCH for RMB 3 million ($0.44 million). The transfer was completed on January 22, 2019. The Company owns 100% of Xi’an Zhonghong after the transaction. On July 24, 2013, Zhonghong entered into a Cooperative Agreement of CDQ and CDQ WHPG Project (Coke Dry Quenching Waste Heat Power Generation Project) with Boxing County Chengli Gas Supply Co. On July 24, 2013, Zhonghong entered into a Cooperative Agreement of CDQ and CDQ WHPG Project (Coke Dry Quenching Waste Heat Power Generation Project) with Boxing County Chengli Gas Supply Co. , Ltd. (“Chengli”). The parties entered into a supplement agreement on July 26, 2013. Pursuant to these agreements, Zhonghong will design, build and maintain a 25 MW CDQ system and a CDQ WHPG system to supply power to Chengli, and Chengli will pay energy saving fees (the “Chengli Project”). On December 29, 2018, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, HYREF, Guohua Ku, and Mr. Chonggong Bai entered into a CDQ WHPG Station Fixed Assets Transfer Agreement, pursuant to which Xi’an Zhonghong transferred Chengli CDQ WHPG station as the repayment for the loan of RMB 188,639,400 ($27.54 million) to HYREF. Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, Guohua Ku and Chonggong Bai also agreed to buy back the CDQ WHPG Station when conditions under the Buy Back Agreement are met (see Note 9). The transfer of the Station was completed January 22, 2019, the Company recorded $624,133 loss from this transfer. Since the original terms of Buy Back Agreement are still valid, and the Buy Back possibility could occur; therefore, the loan principal and interest and the corresponding asset of Chengli CDQ WHPG station cannot be derecognized due to the existence of Buy Back clauses (see Note 5 for detail). Tianyu Waste Heat Power Generation Project On July 19, 2013, Zhonghong entered into a Cooperative Agreement (the “Tianyu Agreement”) for Energy Management of CDQ and CDQ WHPG Projects with Jiangsu Tianyu Energy and Chemical Group Co., Ltd. (“Tianyu”). Pursuant to the Tianyu Agreement, Zhonghong will design, build, operate and maintain two sets of 25 MW CDQ systems and CDQ WHPG systems for two subsidiaries of Tianyu - Xuzhou Tian’an Chemical Co., Ltd. (“Xuzhou Tian’an”) and Xuzhou Huayu Coking Co., Ltd. (“Xuzhou Huayu”) - to be located at Xuzhou Tian’an and Xuzhou Huayu’s respective locations (the “Tianyu Project”). Upon completion of the Tianyu Project, Zhonghong will charge Tianyu an energy saving fee of RMB 0.534 ($0.087) per kilowatt hour (excluding tax). The term of the Tianyu Agreement is 20 years. The construction of the Xuzhou Tian’an Project was completed by the second quarter of 2020. The Xuzhou Huayu Project has been on hold due to a conflict between Xuzhou Huayu Coking Co., Ltd. and local residents on certain pollution-related issues. On January 4, 2019, Xi’an Zhonghong, Xi’an TCH, and Mr. Chonggong Bai entered into a Projects Transfer Agreement (the “Agreement”), pursuant to which Xi’an Zhonghong transferred a CDQ WHPG station (under construction) located in Xuzhou City for Xuzhou Huayu Coking Co., Ltd. (“Xuzhou Huayu Project”) to Mr. Bai for RMB 120,000,000 ($17.52 million). Mr. Bai agreed that as consideration for the transfer of the Xuzhou Huayu Project to him (Note 9), he would transfer all the equity shares of his wholly owned company, Xi’an Hanneng, to HYREF as repayment for the loan made by Xi’an Zhonghong to HYREF. The transfer of the project was completed on February 15, 2019. The Company recorded $397,033 loss from this transfer during the year ended December 31, 2019. On January 10, 2019, Mr. Chonggong Bai transferred all the equity shares of his wholly owned company, Xi’an Hanneng, to HYREF as repayment for the loan. Xi’an Hanneng was expected to own 47,150,000 shares of Xi’an Huaxin New Energy Co., Ltd for the repayment of Huayu system and Shenqiu system. As of September 30, 2019, Xi’an Hanneng already owned 29,948,000 shares of Huaxin, but was not able to obtain the remaining 17,202,000 shares due to halted trading of Huaxin stock by NEEQ for not filing its 2018 annual report. On December 20, 2019, Mr. Bai and all the related parties agreed to have Mr. Bai instead pay in cash for the transfer price of Huayu (see Note 9 for detail). 16 On January 10, 2020, Zhonghong, Tianyu and Huaxin signed a transfer agreement to transfer all assets under construction and related rights and interests of Xuzhou Tian’an Project to Tianyu for RMB 170 million including VAT ($24. On January 10, 2020, Zhonghong, Tianyu and Huaxin signed a transfer agreement to transfer all assets under construction and related rights and interests of Xuzhou Tian’an Project to Tianyu for RMB 170 million including VAT ($24. 37 million) in three installment payments. The 1st installment payment of RMB 50 million ($7.17 million) to be paid within 20 working days after the contract is signed. The 2nd installment payment of RMB 50 million ($7.34 million) was to be paid within 20 working days after completion of the project construction but no later than July 31, 2020. The final installment payment of RMB 70 million ($10.28 million) was to be paid before December 31, 2020. In December, 2020, the Company received payment in full for Tian’an Project. Zhongtai Waste Heat Power Generation Energy Management Cooperative Agreement On December 6, 2013, Xi’an TCH entered into a CDQ and WHPG Energy Management Cooperative Agreement (the “Zhongtai Agreement”) with Xuzhou Zhongtai Energy Technology Co. 16 Zhongtai Waste Heat Power Generation Energy Management Cooperative Agreement On December 6, 2013, Xi’an TCH entered into a CDQ and WHPG Energy Management Cooperative Agreement (the “Zhongtai Agreement”) with Xuzhou Zhongtai Energy Technology Co. , Ltd. (“Zhongtai”), a limited liability company incorporated in Jiangsu Province, China. Pursuant to the Zhongtai Agreement, Xi’an TCH was to design, build and maintain a 150 ton per hour CDQ system and a 25 MW CDQ WHPG system and sell the power to Zhongtai, and Xi’an TCH is also to build a furnace to generate steam from the smoke pipeline’s waste heat and sell the steam to Zhongtai. The construction period of the Project was expected to be 18 months from the date when conditions are ready for construction to begin. Zhongtai is to start to pay an energy saving service fee from the date when the WHPG station passes the required 72-hour test run. The payment term is 20 years. For the first 10 years, Zhongtai shall pay an energy saving fee at RMB 0.534 ($0.089) per kilowatt hour (KWH) (including value added tax) for the power generated from the system. For the second 10 years, Zhongtai shall pay an energy saving fee at RMB 0.402 ($0.067) per KWH (including value added tax). During the term of the contract the energy saving fee shall be adjusted at the same percentage as the change of local grid electricity price. Zhongtai shall also pay an energy saving fee for the steam supplied by Xi’an TCH at RMB 100 ($16.67) per ton (including value added tax). Zhongtai and its parent company will provide guarantees to ensure Zhongtai will fulfill its obligations under the Agreement. Upon the completion of the term, Xi’an TCH will transfer the systems to Zhongtai for RMB 1 ($0.16). Zhongtai shall provide waste heat to the systems for no less than 8,000 hours per year and waste gas volume no less than 150,000 Normal Meter Cubed (Nm3) per hour, with a temperature no less than 950°C. If these requirements are not met, the term of the Agreement will be extended accordingly. If Zhongtai wants to terminate the Zhongtai Agreement early, it shall provide Xi’an TCH with a 60 day notice and pay the termination fee and compensation for the damages to Xi’an TCH according to the following formula: (1) if it is less than five years into the term when Zhongtai requests termination, Zhongtai shall pay: Xi’an TCH’s total investment amount plus Xi’an TCH’s annual investment return times five years minus the years in which the system has already operated; or 2) if it is more than five years into the term when Zhongtai requests the termination, Zhongtai shall pay: Xi’an TCH’s total investment amount minus total amortization cost (the amortization period is 10 years). 17 In March 2016, Xi’an TCH entered into a Transfer Agreement of CDQ and a CDQ WHPG system with Zhongtai and Xi’an Huaxin (the “Transfer Agreement”). In March 2016, Xi’an TCH entered into a Transfer Agreement of CDQ and a CDQ WHPG system with Zhongtai and Xi’an Huaxin (the “Transfer Agreement”). Under the Transfer Agreement, Xi’an TCH agreed to transfer to Zhongtai all of the assets associated with the CDQ Waste Heat Power Generation Project (the “Project”), which is under construction pursuant to the Zhongtai Agreement. Additionally, Xi’an TCH agreed to transfer to Zhongtai the Engineering, Procurement and Construction (“EPC”) Contract for the CDQ Waste Heat Power Generation Project which Xi’an TCH had entered into with Xi’an Huaxin in connection with the Project. Xi’an Huaxin will continue to construct and complete the Project and Xi’an TCH agreed to transfer all its rights and obligations under the EPC Contract to Zhongtai. As consideration for the transfer of the Project, Zhongtai agreed to pay to Xi’an TCH RMB 167,360,000 ($25.77 million) including (i) RMB 152,360,000 ($23.46 million) for the construction of the Project; and (ii) RMB 15,000,000 ($2.31 million) as payment for partial loan interest accrued during the construction period. Those amounts have been, or will be, paid by Zhongtai to Xi’an TCH according to the following schedule: (a) RMB 50,000,000 ($7.70 million) was to be paid within 20 business days after the Transfer Agreement was signed; (b) RMB 30,000,000 ($4.32 million) was to be paid within 20 business days after the Project was completed, but no later than July 30, 2016; and (c) RMB 87,360,000 ($13.45 million) was to be paid no later than July 30, 2017. Xuzhou Taifa Special Steel Technology Co., Ltd. (“Xuzhou Taifa”) guaranteed the payments from Zhongtai to Xi’an TCH. The ownership of the Project was conditionally transferred to Zhongtai following the initial payment of RMB 50,000,000 ($7.70 million) by Zhongtai to Xi’an TCH and the full ownership of the Project will be officially transferred to Zhongtai after it completes all payments pursuant to the Transfer Agreement. The Company recorded a $2.82 million loss from this transaction in 2016. In 2016, Xi’an TCH had received the first payment of $7.70 million and the second payment of $4.32 million. However, the Company received a repayment commitment letter from Zhongtai on February 23, 2018, in which Zhongtai committed to pay the remaining payment of RMB 87,360,000 ($13.45 million) no later than the end of July 2018; in July 2018, Zhongtai and the Company reached a further oral agreement to extend the repayment term of RMB 87,360,000 ($13.45 million) by another two to three months. In January 2020, Zhongtai paid RMB 10 million ($1.41 million); in March 2020, Zhongtai paid RMB 20 million ($2.82 million); in June 2020, Zhongtai paid RMB 10 million ($1.41 million); and in December 2020, Zhongtai paid RMB 30 million ($4.28 million), which was payment in full. Accordingly, the Company reversed bad debt expense of $5.80 million which was recorded earlier. Formation of Zhongxun On March 24, 2014, Xi’an TCH incorporated a new subsidiary, Zhongxun Energy Investment (Beijing) Co. 17 Formation of Zhongxun On March 24, 2014, Xi’an TCH incorporated a new subsidiary, Zhongxun Energy Investment (Beijing) Co. , Ltd (“Zhongxun”) with registered capital of $5,695,502 (RMB 35,000,000), to be paid no later than October 1, 2028. Zhongxun is 100% owned by Xi’an TCH and is mainly engaged in project investment, investment management, economic information consulting, and technical services. Zhongxun has not yet commenced operations as of the date of this report. Formation of Yinghua On February 11, 2015, the Company incorporated a new subsidiary, Shanghai Yinghua Financial Leasing Co. Formation of Yinghua On February 11, 2015, the Company incorporated a new subsidiary, Shanghai Yinghua Financial Leasing Co. , Ltd (“Yinghua”) with registered capital of $30,000,000, to be paid within 10 years from the date the business license is issued. Yinghua is 100% owned by the Company and is mainly engaged in financial leasing, purchase of financial leasing assets, disposal and repair of financial leasing assets, consulting and ensuring of financial leasing transactions, and related factoring business. Yinghua has not yet commenced operations as of the date of this report. 18 Industry and Market Overview Overview of Waste-to-Energy Industry The waste energy recycling industry concentrates mostly on power-intensive manufacturing and production processes, such as iron, steel and nonferrous metal production, cement production, and coal and petrochemical plants. Industry and Market Overview Overview of Waste-to-Energy Industry The waste energy recycling industry concentrates mostly on power-intensive manufacturing and production processes, such as iron, steel and nonferrous metal production, cement production, and coal and petrochemical plants. Our waste energy recycling projects allow customers to recapture previously wasted pressure, heat, and gas from their manufacturing and production processes and use this waste to generate electricity. Waste energy recycling projects are installed at a customer’s facility and the electricity produced can be used on-site to lower energy costs and create a more efficient production process. The industry verticals at the vanguard of this trend are metallurgical production (including iron & steel), cement, coal mining, coke production and petrochemicals. The industry also includes the conversion of biomass to electricity. For thousands of years, biomass, biological material derived from living organisms like plants and their byproducts, was burned to produce heat so as to convert it to energy. A number of non- combustion methods are now available to convert raw biomass into a variety of gaseous, liquid, or solid fuels that can be used directly in a power plant to generate electricity. Waste-to-Energy Industry Growth China has experienced rapid economic growth and industrialization in recent years, increasing the demand for electricity. In the PRC, growth in energy consumption has exceeded growth in gross domestic product, causing a shortage of electricity with blackouts and brownouts over much of the country. Much of the energy demand has been due to the expansion of energy intensive industrial sectors such as steel, cement, and chemicals. China’s increasing modernization and industrialization has made it the world’s largest consumer of energy. One result of this massive increase in electric generation capacity has been the rise of harmful emissions. China has surpassed the United States to become the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases, and the country faces enormous challenges from the pollution brought about by its consumption of conventional energy. On September 12, 2013, the State Council released the Action Plan for Air Pollution Prevention and Control. The action plan proposed that in five years, China will witness the overall improvement of air quality and dramatic drop of seriously polluted days. China will strive to gradually eliminate the seriously polluted weather and notably better the national air quality in another five years or longer. 19 Description of WGPG (Waste Gas Power Generation) During the process of industrial production, some by-products, such as blast furnace gas, coke furnace gas, oil gas, and others are created with certain high intensive thermal energy. Description of WGPG (Waste Gas Power Generation) During the process of industrial production, some by-products, such as blast furnace gas, coke furnace gas, oil gas, and others are created with certain high intensive thermal energy. The waste gas can be collected and used as a fuel by gas turbine system to generate power energy. Gas turbines are a set of hi-tech equipment and devices that is crucial to the energy development strategy of China. Gas turbine, which uses flammable gas as fuel and combines with recycling power generating technology, has many merits. These include high efficiency power generation, low investment, short construction periods, small land usage, water savings, environment protection and more. We believe the market prospect of the gas turbine industry is promising. Through years of research, development and experimental applications, this gas-to-energy system has started to be applied into some high energy intensive industrial plants, such as in the course of iron-smelting in metallurgy plants. 19 Through years of research, development and experimental applications, this gas-to-energy system has started to be applied into some high energy intensive industrial plants, such as in the course of iron-smelting in metallurgy plants. Metallurgical enterprises, as the biggest industrial energy user in China, consume 13%–15% of the nation’s electricity. Electricity consumed by the iron-smelting industry accounts for 40% of that consumed by metallurgical enterprises. If all top furnaces in the iron-smelting industry are equipped with gas recovery systems, electricity consumption may decrease by 30–45%. Furthermore, environmental pollution will be reduced while energy efficiency is improved in those heavy industries. Stringent Environmental Standards and Increasing Government Supports Since energy is a major strategic issue affecting the development of the Chinese economy, the Chinese government has promoted the development of recycling and encouraged enterprises to use waste energy recycling projects of the type we sell and service. Similar to previous five year periods, the China National Environment Protection Plan, for the 14th Five-Year period (2021-2025), under the goal of “carbon neutrality and carbon peak,” proposes to accelerate green and low-carbon development, continuously improve environmental quality, enhance the quality and stability of ecosystems, and comprehensively improve the efficiency of resource utilization. Given the worsening environment and insufficient energy supply in China, the Chinese government has implemented policies to curb pollution and reduce wasteful energy usage. From 2020 to 2025, China will reduce energy consumption per unit of GDP by 13.5% and carbon dioxide emission per unit of GDP by 18%. The Renewable Energy Law, strict administrative measures to restrict investment and force consolidation in energy wasting industries, and the requirement to install energy-saving and environment protecting equipment whenever possible are just some ways the government is emphasizing the need to reduce emissions and to maximize energy creation. Local government officials, who sometimes flout central government policies for the sake of local GDP growth, are now required to tie emission, energy usage and pollution to GDP growth. If local emissions of pollutants grow faster than the local GDP, these local officials face the risk of losing their jobs. Such determination and strict enforcement by the central and local governments provide a good backdrop and growth opportunity for CREG’s business activities. In recent years, China attaches great importance to the problem of environmental pollution, and has invested a lot of manpower and capital cost in air pollution control. It is estimated that the output value of China’s energy conservation and environmental protection industry will exceed RMB 10 trillion by 2022 and reach RMB 12.3 trillion by 2023. 20 According to the “14th Five-Year Plan for Modern Energy System”, by 2025, China’s comprehensive annual energy production capacity will reach over 4. According to the “14th Five-Year Plan for Modern Energy System”, by 2025, China’s comprehensive annual energy production capacity will reach over 4. 6 billion tons of standard coal, the annual output of crude oil will rise and stabilize at 200 million tons, the annual output of natural gas will reach over 230 billion cubic meters, and the total installed power generation capacity will reach about 3 billion kilowatts. By 2025, carbon dioxide emissions per unit of industrial added value will be cut by 18%. China aims to peak carbon dioxide emissions by 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. The scale of China’s energy conservation and environmental protection industry will continue to expand under the impetus of a series of goals and plans of “carbon neutrality and carbon peak” and the “14th Five-Year Plan.” According to forward-looking analysis, the output value of China’s energy conservation and environmental protection industry is expected to exceed RMB19 trillion by 2027.” According to forward-looking analysis, the output value of China’s energy conservation and environmental protection industry is expected to exceed RMB19 trillion by 2027. Waste-to-Energy is a Cost-Effective Means to Meet Rising Energy Needs According to the International Energy Agency, China will need to increase its electricity generating capacity to meet its future needs. 20 Waste-to-Energy is a Cost-Effective Means to Meet Rising Energy Needs According to the International Energy Agency, China will need to increase its electricity generating capacity to meet its future needs. This demand may mean price increases for electricity in China. With the need for more energy, in particular energy that does not cause additional emissions, and the relative low price of the waste-to-energy production we provide, we believe that our markets will continue to expand. Since China has been experiencing a dramatic surge in its energy consumption as well as widespread energy shortages, recycling energy is not only an attractive alternative to other sources of energy as part of a national diversification strategy to avoid dependence on any one energy source or politically sensitive energy supplies, but also a proven solution to make the use of energy more efficient. Under current economic conditions and current tax and regulatory regimes, waste energy recycling projects generally can create price- competitive electricity compared to electricity generated from fossil fuels or other renewable sources. Our customers can reduce energy costs significantly by installing our waste energy recycling projects. Compared to electricity from the national grid, the generating cost from recycling energy is lower, which means our customers can leverage the waste-to-energy projects to generate low-cost electricity, reducing energy costs for the manufacturing process. The current national grid electricity rate ranges from RMB 0.45-0.50/kWh and our operated recycling rate ranges from 0.35-0.45/kWh subject to project type, generating scale and local situation. 21 Customers of our energy recycling projects may also qualify for credits from the Clean Development Mechanism (“CDM”). Customers of our energy recycling projects may also qualify for credits from the Clean Development Mechanism (“CDM”). The CDM is an international arrangement under the Kyoto Protocol allowing industrialized countries with a greenhouse gas reduction commitment to invest in ventures that reduce emissions in developing countries as an alternative to more expensive emission reductions in their own countries. In 2005, China’s government promulgated “Measures for Operation and Management of Clean Development Mechanism Projects in China” (“China CDM Measures”) to facilitate the application and operation of CDM project activities in China. Our energy recycling solutions are of a kind which falls into the beneficial categories accredited by the China CDM Measures. If our customers can get approval from the Chinese government and successfully register their projects in the United Nations’ CDM Executive Board, they can receive additional revenue income through exchanging their Certified Emission Reductions (“CER”) credits with investors in industrialized countries. Trends in Industries We Principally Service Iron, Steel and Nonferrous Metal Industry As the biggest iron and steel producer in the world and one of the highest CO2 emission sectors, China’s iron and steel industry is undergoing a low-carbon transition accompanied by remarkable technological progress and investment adjustment, in response to the macroeconomic climate and policy intervention. Environmental pollution, shortage of resources and energy shortage have been identified in China as three major challenges for China’s nonferrous metal industry. China aims to save 1.7 million tons of coal and 6 billion kWh of electricity per year, as well as reduce sulfur dioxide by 850,000 tons annually as part of the industrial upgrading for the nonferrous metallurgy sector and, at the same time, to improve the utilization efficiency for resources. In China, the utilization rate for the nonferrous metal mineral resources is 60%, which is 10 to 15% lower than developed countries. The utilization rate for associated nonferrous metals is only 40%, which is 20% lower than developed nations. In addition, parts of nonferrous mines located in different cities are disorganized with random mining, causing severe wastes of resources. Coal and Petrochemicals Flammable waste gases emitted from industrial production processes, such as blast furnace gas, coke furnace gas, oil or gas can be used to power gas-fired generators to create energy. Two large producers of these waste gases are coal mining and petrochemical refining. The PRC is the largest coal producer and consumer in the world. Coal is the dirtiest fossil fuel and a major cause of methane gas emissions, a greenhouse gas 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide. Methane gas is found naturally in coal beds. In the 1950s, China began recovering methane to make mines safer. Now, as then, most of the captured methane is released into the air but it could be used as a clean energy source using waste energy recycling technologies. Biomass Waste-to-Energy Industry In China, agricultural waste and biogas are two main sources for biomass waste. China has more than 600 million tons of wasted straw produced every year. It also has 19 billion tons of forest biomass, of which 300 million tons can be utilized as an energy source. The straw burning power industry will grow faster in China with supportive policies, development of new technologies and the formation of raw material collection and storage systems, according to the National Development and Reform Commission. Electricity generated from straw has a preferential price of RMB 0.25 per kWh higher than coal-fueled power when sold to the state grid. In addition, straw power plants enjoy a series of preferential policies including tax exemption. Biogas technology captures methane gases emitted from compostable materials and burns it to power a turbine to produce electricity. 21 Biogas technology captures methane gases emitted from compostable materials and burns it to power a turbine to produce electricity. The waste that is usually disposed of in landfills is converted into liquid or gaseous fuels. By utilizing the resource from waste cellulosic or organic materials, biomass energy can be generated through the fermentation process. 22 Our Strategies Maintain Core Verticals to Increase Market Share in China We focus on waste-to-energy projects for specific verticals, such as steel, cement, nonferrous metal and coal mining. Our Strategies Maintain Core Verticals to Increase Market Share in China We focus on waste-to-energy projects for specific verticals, such as steel, cement, nonferrous metal and coal mining. We plan to continue our focus on such core verticals and leverage our expertise to expand our market share. We intend to expand our waste-to-energy power generating capacity rapidly in order to meet the anticipated growth of demand in China’s energy efficiency industrial applications and to gain market share. We continually identify potential customers in our core verticals. Expand to New Business of Energy Storage with Future High Growth Potentials We are in the process of transforming into an energy storage integrated solution provider. We plan to pursue disciplined and targeted expansion strategies for market areas that we currently do not serve. We are actively seeking and exploring opportunities to apply energy storage technologies to new industries or segments with high growth potential, including industrial and commercial complexes, large scale photovoltaic (PV) and wind power stations, remote islands without electricity, and smart energy cities with multi-energy supplies. By supporting and motivating all kinds of the electric power market to participant in resource development and utilization of demand response, we plan to provide services including peak shaving with compensation and frequency modulation. In recent years, electrochemical energy storage technology has maintained a rapid growth trend, the cumulative installed capacity continues to expand. In 2020, the accumulative installed capacity of electrochemical energy storage in China was 3269.2MW. During the 14th Five-Year Plan period, it is an important period for energy storage to explore and realize the “rigid demand” application of the market, to productize the system and to obtain stable commercial interests. It is expected that the electrochemical energy storage market will continue to develop rapidly in 2021, with the accumulative installed capacity reaching 5790.8MW. In April 2021, the National Development and Reform Commission and the National Energy Administration issued Guiding Opinions on Accelerating the Development of New Type Energy Storage. This is the second national comprehensive policy document on the energy storage industry since the National Energy Administration, together with five ministries and commissions, issued the Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Development of China’s Energy Storage Technology and Industry in 2017 (the “New Energy Storage Guidance”). The New Energy Storage Guidance establishes a “double carbon” goal, providing a development goal and direction for the industry. The New Energy Storage Guidance, for the first time, explicitly quantified the development “double carbon” goals of the energy storage industry at the national level, and it is estimated that more than 30 million kilowatts (30GW+) of new energy storage projects will be installed by 2025. From 3.28GW at the end of 2020 to 30GW in 2025, the scale of the new energy storage market is expected to expand 10 times the current level in the next five years, with an annual compound annual growth rate of more than 55%, as a consequence of the New Energy Storage Guidance. Continually Enhance Research and Development Efforts We plan to devote resources to research and development to enhance our waste-to-energy design and engineering capabilities. We anticipate that our in-house design and engineering team will provide additional competitive advantages, including flexibility to quickly design and evaluate new technologies or applications in response to changing market trends. Our Business Models We have sold our products to our customers under two models: the BOT model and the operating lease model, although we emphasize the BOT model which we believe is more economically beneficial to us and to our customers. 22 Our Business Models We have sold our products to our customers under two models: the BOT model and the operating lease model, although we emphasize the BOT model which we believe is more economically beneficial to us and to our customers. 23 BOT Model We primarily engage in the BOT model to provide waste-to-energy solutions to our customers: “Build” We work directly with customers for each of our waste-to-energy projects. BOT Model We primarily engage in the BOT model to provide waste-to-energy solutions to our customers: “Build” We work directly with customers for each of our waste-to-energy projects. Our working process starts with a team of engineers that assesses and analyzes the specific needs of the customer to establish the design layout, equipment procurement list and capital expenditure budget for the project. Our sales team works closely with our engineering staff to present and negotiate the model with the customer. After signing a contract, we finance the entire capital expenditure budget ourselves and commence the construction and installation of the project. We do not manufacture the equipment and materials that are used in the construction of the waste-to-energy power generation facility. Rather, we incorporate standard power generating equipment into a fully integrated on-site waste energy recycling project for our customer. The construction and installation period ranges from three to 12 months subject to the project type, size and complexity. We usually engage an EPC general contractor, which experienced in power plant and waste energy recycling project construction, to take charge of equipment procurement, project construction and installation. Our team of five engineers participates in and monitors the equipment purchase process; this team also oversees the construction and installation activities to ensure that they are completed on time and meet our rigorous standards and specifications. “Operate” After the project has been installed at the customer site and passed a series of stringent tests, we, currently, outsource the operation to a third-party vendor. The operation period ranges from five to 20 years subject to the terms of each contract. During the operation period, the customer can purchase all the electricity at a below-market price. We collect energy-saving- based lease payments from the customer; the lease term is equivalent to the operation period, ranging from five to 20 years, and the payments are based on the sale by us as lessor to our customers as lessee of energy generated by the waste energy recycling project at below-market rates. The customer’s payments are based on a minimum operation schedule agreed upon by us with our customer, and are collateralized by assets of the customer and/or third party guarantees. To reduce risk, we offer leasing services across a wide variety of industries and only target larger manufacturers or state-owned enterprises. Operation in excess of the minimum schedule enables us to receive additional revenues from the excess energy generated and sold to the customer. “Transfer” Based on the specific terms for each project, we eventually transfer the waste energy recycling project to the customer at no cost or a nominal cost upon the completion of the operation/lease period. For example, Tongchuan Shengwei Cement Power Generation project signed a 5-year lease starting from the first quarter of 2009 to the end of 2013. After the lease term was up, we transferred the station to the owner at no cost pursuant to the contract terms, which vary based on industries and the type of power generation stations. Why BOT Waste-to-energy projects are capital intensive, which requires the manufacturers to invest a considerable amount of cash to purchase equipment during the construction period. 23 Why BOT Waste-to-energy projects are capital intensive, which requires the manufacturers to invest a considerable amount of cash to purchase equipment during the construction period. As a BOT service provider, we fund all contracted projects on our own or jointly with our customers; such financing arrangements can help our customers by removing or reducing the heavy capital expenditure burden required by specific projects, thereby allowing them to concentrate on their core business. While technologically mature in advanced countries, waste-to-energy projects are still new to most of China’s industrial companies and require intensive technology or know-how with respect to energy recycling and power generation. It is time-consuming or not feasible for industrial manufacturers to equip themselves with adequate expertise and technicians. Our specific sector knowledge and rich project experience allow us to construct, operate and maintain the power plants efficiently and to respond to operational issues in a timely and cost-efficient manner. In exchange for upfront capital investment, we require secured power generating capacity during the operation period and guaranteed attractive internal rates of return from each project. Our operation period ranges from five to 20 years, during which we are entitled to sell the recycled electricity to those customers at a predetermined rate. Such electricity sales are secured by long-term electricity production agreements with guarantees, which result in minimum annual payments. We employ a process of stringent and systematic internal scrutiny on new customer development so as to minimize operational and default risk; for some smaller or non-SOE businesses, we require property collateral, management or third party guarantees, and/or prepayment of three months. As such, our cash inflow schedule from each in-operation project is fixed and predictable providing clear financial visibility. Our payback period is generally two to three years, depending on the project size. 24 In our experience, this BOT model is well received by our existing and potential customers in China. In our experience, this BOT model is well received by our existing and potential customers in China. The insufficient supply of BOT vendors to the market is wholly due to the funding limitations of most of the recycling energy solution providers. Not all of our competitors have the ability to access sufficient capital on a timely basis. Operating Lease Model In the past, we also recorded rental income from two separate one-year operating leases. Under the operating leases, we leased waste-energy systems and subleased the systems to a customer for a greater amount. We choose not to renew our lease agreements, and we do not generally expect any revenue in the future through such model. Contractor and Equipment Suppliers We generally conduct our project construction through an EPC general contractor. We select the EPC general contractor for each project through a bidding process; then we sign a contract with the selected contractor for that project. The general contractor may outsource parts of our project construction to subcontractors according to the complexity and economics of the project. The general contractor is responsible for purchasing equipment to satisfy the requirements of the project we design for our customer. We generally do not purchase equipment directly from the equipment suppliers, but our general contractors obtain our consent before selecting the equipment suppliers. Our engineering department is involved in the equipment supplier selection process together with our general contractors and makes sure our stringent standards and requirements have been appropriately applied in selection of the equipment. We currently have engaged Shaanxi Huaxin Energy Engineering Co., Ltd. for our projects under construction, and we also maintain relationships with many other quality general contractors in China, including Wuxi Guolian, CITIC Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., A-Power Energy Generation Systems, Ltd. As mentioned above, we do not manufacture the equipment and materials that are used in the construction of our waste energy recycling projects. Rather, we incorporate standard power generating equipment into a fully integrated onsite system. The key equipment used in our projects are the boilers and turbine generators, which represent the majority of equipment cost for each project. Though we do not place the direct procurement orders, we believe we maintain good relationships with those power generation equipment suppliers, and these relationships help provide cost-effective equipment purchasing by the general contractor for our intended projects and ensure the timely completion of these projects. We have well-established business relationships with most of the suppliers from whom our general contractors procure equipment, including Hangzhou Boiler Plant, Beijing Zhongdian Electric Machinery, Chengdu Engine Group, Shanghai Electric Group, China Aviation Gas Turbine Co. Ltd and Xuji Electric. Therefore, we believe that we have a strong position and support in equipment supply and installation, which benefits us, the general contractors and our customers. Main Customers Our customers are mainly mid- to large-size enterprises in China involving high energy-consuming businesses. 24 Main Customers Our customers are mainly mid- to large-size enterprises in China involving high energy-consuming businesses. Following our selection process described in the next paragraph, we conduct stringent evaluation procedures to identify and qualify potential customers and projects. To lower our investment and operational risk, we target companies with geographic or industry competitive advantages, with strong reputations and in good financial condition. Generally, our targets include steel and nonferrous metal mills with over 3 million tons of production capacity per year, cement plants with over 2 million tons of production capacity per year that utilize new- suspension-line process, and coking plants with over 600 tons production capacity per year. Our existing customers operate in Shanxi, Shaan’xi, Shandong and Jiangsu provinces and the Inner Mongolia Autonomic