Risk Factors Dashboard

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Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. “Risk Factors” and Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

ITEM 1.
BUSINESS

General

Broadway Financial Corporation (the “Company”) was incorporated under Delaware law in 1995 for the purpose of acquiring and holding all of the outstanding capital stock of Broadway Federal Savings and Loan Association as part of the bank’s conversion from a federally chartered mutual savings association to a federally chartered stock savings bank. In connection with the conversion, the bank’s name was changed to Broadway Federal Bank, f. In connection with the conversion, the Bank’s name was changed to Broadway Federal Bank, f. s.b. (“Broadway Federal”). The conversion was completed, and the Broadway Federal became a wholly‑owned subsidiary of the Company, in January 1996.

On April 1, 2021, the Company completed its merger (the “Merger”) with CFBanc Corporation (“CFBanc”), with the Company continuing as the surviving entity. Immediately following the Merger, Broadway Federal merged with and into City First Bank of D. Immediately following the Merger, Broadway Federal Bank, f. C, National Association with City First Bank of D.C., National Association continuing as the surviving entity (combined with Broadway Federal, “City First” or the “Bank”). Concurrently with the Merger, the Bank changed its name to City First Bank, National Association. Concurrently with the Merger, the Bank changed its name to City First Bank, National Association.

Concurrently with the completion of the Merger, the Company converted to become a public benefit corporation. The Company works to spur equitable economic development with a mission to strengthen the overall well-being of historically excluded communities and has deployed loans and investments in the communities we serve that we believe has helped close funding gaps, preserved or increased access to affordable housing, created and preserved jobs, and expanded critical social services. The Company works to spur equitable economic development with a mission to strengthen the overall well-being of historically excluded communities and has deployed loans and investments in the communities we serve that we believe has helped close funding gaps, preserved or increased access to affordable housing, created and preserved jobs, and expanded critical social services. We believe our status as a Delaware public benefit corporation aligns our business model of creating social, economic, and environmental value for underserved communities with a stakeholder governance model that allows us to give careful consideration to the impact of our decisions on workers, customers, suppliers, community, the environment, and our impact on society; and to align further our mission and values to our organizational documents. We believe our status as a Delaware public benefit corporation aligns our business model of creating social, economic, and environmental value for underserved communities with a stakeholder governance model that allows us to give careful consideration to the impact of our decisions on workers, customers, suppliers, community, the environment, and our impact on society; and to align further our mission and values to our organizational documents.

On June 7, 2022, the Company closed a private placement (the “Private Placement”) of shares of the Company’s Senior Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series C (the “Series C Preferred Stock”), pursuant to a Letter Agreement (collectively with the annexes, exhibits and schedules thereto, including the Securities Purchase Agreement - Standard Terms, the “Purchase Agreement”), dated as of June 7, 2022, with the United States Department of the Treasury (the “Purchaser”). The Purchase Agreement was entered into pursuant to the Purchaser’s Emergency Capital Investment Program.

Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, the Purchaser acquired an aggregate of 150,000 shares of Series C Preferred Stock, for an aggregate purchase price equal to $150.0 million in cash. The liquidation value of the Series C Preferred Stock is $1,000 per share.

In June 2022, the Company down streamed $75.0 million of the proceeds from the Private Placement to the Bank to enhance capital of the Bank.

Reverse Stock Split

On October 31, 2023, the Company effected a reverse stock split of the Company’s outstanding shares of Class A common stock, Class B common stock, and Class C common stock, par value $0.01 per share, at a ratio of 1-for-8 (the “Reverse Stock Split”). The shares of Class A Common Stock listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market commenced trading on The Nasdaq Capital Market on a post-Reverse Stock Split adjusted basis at the open of business on November 1, 2023. As a result of the Reverse Stock Split, the number of issued and outstanding shares of common stock immediately prior to the Reverse Stock Split was reduced such that every 8 shares of common stock held by a stockholder immediately prior to the Reverse Stock Split were combined and reclassified into one share of common stock. All common stock share amounts and per share numbers discussed herein have been retroactively adjusted, as applicable, for the Reverse Stock Split.

Share Repurchase

On October 31, 2023 the Company purchased 244,771 shares of its Class A (voting) Common Stock (adjusted for the 1-for-8 reverse stock split effective November 1, 2023) from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”), which obtained the shares when it was appointed receiver for First Republic Bank upon its closure earlier in 2023. The purchased shares represented just under 4.0% of the Company’s total voting shares prior to the purchase, and over 2.6% of the Company’s total common equity. The Company purchased the shares at a price of $7.2760 per share (adjusted for the 1-for-8 reverse stock split effective November 1, 2023), which represented the 20-day volume weighted average price for the Class A shares over the period ended October 24, 2023. The purchase was financed from cash on hand and the shares were retired.

The Company is currently regulated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “FRB”). The Bank is currently regulated by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (the “OCC”) and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”). The Bank is currently regulated by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (the “OCC”) and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”). The Bank’s deposits are insured up to applicable limits by the FDIC. The Bank is also a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Atlanta (the “FHLB”). See “Regulation” for further descriptions of the regulatory systems to which the Company and the Bank are subject. See “Regulation” for further descriptions of the regulatory systems to which the Company and the Bank are subject.

Available Information

Our internet website address is www.cityfirstbank.com. Our annual reports on Form 10‑K, quarterly reports on Form 10‑Q, current reports on Form 8‑K and all amendments to those reports are available on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such material with, or furnish such material to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) and can be obtained free of charge by sending a written request to Broadway Financial Corporation, 4601 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 150, Los Angeles, California 90010 Attention: Audrey Phillips. Our annual reports on Form 10‑K, quarterly reports on Form 10‑Q, current reports on Form 8‑K and all amendments to those reports are available on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such material with, or furnish such material to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) and can be obtained free of charge by sending a written request to Broadway Financial Corporation, 4160 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 150, Los Angeles, California 90010 Attention: Audrey Phillips. The SEC also maintains an internet site at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information filed electronically by us with the SEC.

Business Overview

The Company is headquartered in Los Angeles, California and our principal business is the operation of our wholly‑owned subsidiary, City First, which has three offices: two in California (in Los Angeles and the nearby city of Inglewood) and one in Washington, D.C. City First’s principal business consists of attracting deposits from the general public in the areas surrounding our branch offices, loan customers, large non-profit entities, local municipalities, and depositors who believe in the Bank’s mission-driven focus. City First’s principal business consists of attracting deposits from the general public in the areas surrounding our branch offices and investing those deposits, together with funds generated from operations and borrowings, primarily in mortgage loans secured by residential properties with five or more units (“multi‑family”) and commercial real estate. These deposits, together with funds generated from operations and borrowings, primarily in loans secured by residential properties with five or more units (“multi‑family”) and commercial real estate. Our assets also include loans secured by commercial business assets as well as residential properties with one‑to‑four units (“single-family”). In addition, we invest in securities issued by federal government agencies, residential mortgage‑backed securities and other investments. In addition, we invest in securities issued by federal government agencies, residential mortgage‑backed securities and other investments.

Our revenue is derived primarily from interest income on loans and investments. Our principal costs are interest expenses that we incur on deposits and borrowings, together with general and administrative expenses. Our earnings are significantly affected by general economic and competitive conditions, particularly monetary trends, and conditions, including changes in market interest rates and the differences in market interest rates for the interest-bearing deposits and borrowings that are our principal funding sources and the interest yielding assets in which we invest, as well as government policies and actions of regulatory authorities. Our earnings are significantly affected by general economic and competitive conditions, particularly monetary trends, and conditions, including changes in market interest rates and the differences in market interest rates for the interest bearing deposits and borrowings that are our principal funding sources and the interest yielding assets in which we invest, as well as government policies and actions of regulatory authorities.

Lending Activities

General

Our loan portfolio is comprised primarily of mortgage loans which are secured by multi‑family residential properties, single-family residential properties and commercial real estate, including charter schools, community facilities, and churches. The remainder of the loan portfolio consists of commercial business loans, loans guaranteed by the Small Business Administration (the “SBA”) and construction-to-permanent loans. At December 31, 2023, our net loan portfolio totaled $880.5 million, or 64.0% of total assets.

We emphasize the origination of adjustable‑rate loans, most of which are hybrid loans (loans having an initial fixed rate period which are initially 5 years, followed by an adjustable rate period), for our portfolio of loans held for investment. We originate these loans in order to maintain a high percentage of loans that have provisions for periodic repricing, thereby reducing our exposure to interest rate risk. At December 31, 2023, more than 82% of our loans had adjustable rate features. At December 31, 2021, more than 69% of our mortgage loans had adjustable rate features. However, most of our adjustable rate loans behave like fixed rate loans for periods of time because the loans may still be in their initial fixed‑rate period or may be subject to interest rate floors.

The types of loans that we originate are subject to federal laws and regulations. The interest rates that we charge on loans are affected by the demand for such loans, the supply of money available for lending purposes and the rates offered by competitors. These factors are in turn affected by, among other things, economic conditions, monetary policies of the federal government, including the FRB, and legislative tax policies. See “Regulation” for more information on the government regulations to which we are subject.

The following table details the composition of our portfolio of loans held for investment by type, dollar amount and percentage of loan portfolio at the dates indicated:


The following table presents loan categories by maturity for the period indicated. Actual repayments historically have, and will likely in the future, differ significantly from contractual maturities because individual borrowers generally have the right to prepay loans, with or without prepayment penalties.


Multi‑Family and Commercial Real Estate Lending

Our primary lending emphasis has been on the origination of loans for multi-family with five or more units. These multi‑family loans amounted to $561.4 million and $502.1 million at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. These multi‑family loans amounted to $393.7 million and $272.4 million at December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Multi‑family loans represented 63.33% of our gross loan portfolio at December 31, 2023 compared to 65.08% of our gross loan portfolio at December 31, 2022. Most of our multi‑family loans amortize over 30 years. Multi‑family loans represented 60.36% of our gross loan portfolio at December 31, 2021 compared to 75.24% of our gross loan portfolio at December 31, 2020. The vast majority of our multi‑family loans amortize over 30 years. As of December 31, 2023, our single largest multi‑family credit had an outstanding balance of $11.6 million, was current, and was collateralized by a 53-unit apartment complex in Downey, California. At December 31, 2023, the average balance of a loan in our multi‑family portfolio was $1.3 million. At December 31, 2021, the average balance of a loan in our multi‑family portfolio was $1.1 million.

Our commercial real estate loans amounted to $119.4 million and $114.6 million at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Commercial real estate loans represented 13.47% and 14.85% of our gross loan portfolios at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Commercial real estate loans represented 14.29% and 6.71% of our gross loan portfolios at December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Most commercial real estate loans are originated with principal repayments on a 25- to 30-year amortization schedule but are due in 5 years or 10 years. As of December 31, 2023, our single largest commercial real estate credit had an outstanding principal balance of $10.6 million, was current, and was collateralized by a charter school located in Washington, D. As of December 31, 2021, our single largest commercial real estate credit had an outstanding principal balance of $9.7 million, was current, and was secured by a charter school building located in Washington, D. C. At December 31, 2023, the average balance of a loan in our commercial real estate portfolio was $2.0 million. At December 31, 2021, the average balance of a loan in our non-real estate commercial loan portfolio was $1.0 million.

The interest rates on multi‑family and commercial adjustable-rate mortgage loans (“ARM Loans”) are based on the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”). The interest rates on commercial real estate loans are based on a variety of indices, including two-year Treasury, five-year Treasury, seven-year Treasury and ten-year Treasury and the 5-year FHLB (Federal Home Loan Bank of Atlanta).
All loans previously indexed to LIBOR were converted to SOFR as of December 31, 2022. We currently offer adjustable rate loans with interest rates that adjust either semi‑annually or semi‑annually upon expiration of an initial three‑ or five‑year fixed rate period. Borrowers are required to make monthly payments under the terms of such loans.

Loans secured by multi‑family and commercial properties are granted based on the income producing potential of the property and the financial strength of the borrower. The primary factors considered include, among other things, the net operating income of the mortgaged premises before debt service and depreciation, the debt service coverage ratio (the ratio of net operating income to required principal and interest payments, or debt service), and the ratio of the loan amount to the lower of the purchase price or the appraised value of the collateral. The primary factors considered include, among other things, the net operating income of the mortgaged premises before debt service and depreciation, the debt service coverage ratio (the ratio of net operating income to required principal and interest payments, or debt service), and the ratio of the loan amount to the lower of the purchase price or the appraised value of the collateral.

We seek to mitigate the risks associated with multi‑family and commercial real estate loans by applying appropriate underwriting requirements, which include limitations on loan‑to‑value ratios and debt service coverage ratios. Under our underwriting policies, loan‑to‑value ratios on our multi‑family and commercial real estate loans usually do not exceed 75% of the lower of the purchase price or the appraised value of the underlying property. We also generally require minimum debt service coverage ratios of 120% for multi‑family loans and commercial real estate loans. We also generally require minimum debt service coverage ratios of 120% for multi‑family loans and commercial real estate loans. Properties securing multi‑family and commercial real estate loans are appraised by management‑approved independent appraisers. Title insurance is required on all loans. Title insurance is required on all loans.

Multi‑family and commercial real estate loans are generally viewed as exposing the lender to a greater risk of loss than single-family residential loans and typically involve higher loan principal amounts than loans secured by single-family residential real estate. Because payments on loans secured by multi‑family and commercial real properties are often dependent on the successful operation or management of the properties, repayment of such loans may be subject to adverse conditions in the real estate market or general economy. Adverse economic conditions in our primary lending market area could result in reduced cash flows on multi‑family and commercial real estate loans, vacancies and reduced rental rates on such properties. We seek to reduce these risks by originating such loans on a selective basis and generally restrict such loans to our general market area. In 2008, Broadway Federal ceased out‑of‑state lending for all types of loans. In 2008, Broadway Federal ceased out‑of‑state lending for all types of loans. As a result of the Merger, in 2021 we resumed out-of-state lending on a selective basis; however, we currently do not have any loans outstanding that are outside of our market area, which consists of Southern California and the Washington, D. As a result of the Merger, in 2021 we resumed out-of-state lending on a selective basis, however we currently do not have any loans outstanding that are outside of our market area, which consists of Southern California and the Washington, D. C. area (including parts of Maryland and Virginia).

Certain multi-family loans have adjustable-rate features based on SOFR but are fixed for the first five years. Depending on interest rate trends, some multi-family loans may pay-off during the first five years, while others continue into the adjustable rate phase. The interest rates on loans that continue into the adjustable rate phase are adjusted semi-annually subject to interest rate caps.

Our church loans totaled $12.7 million and $15.8 million at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, which represented 1.43% and 2.04% of our gross loan portfolio at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Broadway Federal ceased originating church loans in 2010 in Southern California; however, City First originates loans to churches in the Washington, D. Broadway Federal ceased originating church loans in 2010 in Southern California, however City First originates loans to churches in the Washington D. C. area as part of its community development mission. As of December 31, 2023, our single largest church loan had an outstanding balance of $2.2 million, was current, and was collateralized by a church building and parcel of land in Baltimore, Maryland. At December 31, 2023, the average balance of a loan in our church loan portfolio was $636 thousand. At December 31, 2021, the average balance of a loan in our church loan portfolio was $726 thousand.

Single-Family Mortgage Lending

While we have historically been primarily a multi‑family and commercial real estate lender, we also have purchased or originated loans secured by single-family residential properties, including investor‑owned properties, with maturities of up to 30 years. Single-family loans totaled $24.7 million and $30.0 million at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Single family loans totaled $45.4 million and $48.2 million at December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Of the single-family residential mortgage loans outstanding at December 31, 2023, more than 23% had adjustable rate features. Of the single family residential mortgage loans outstanding at December 31, 2021, more than 51% had adjustable rate features. We did not purchase any single-family loans during 2023 and 2022. Of the $24.7 million of single-family loans at December 31, 2023, $17.7 million are secured by investor‑owned properties. We did not purchase any single family loans during 2021 and 2020. Of the $45.4 million of single family loans at December 31, 2021, $23.3 million are secured by investor‑owned properties.

The interest rates for our single-family ARM Loans are indexed to COFI, SOFR, 12‑MTA and 1‑Yr. CMT. All loans previously indexed to LIBOR were converted to SOFR as of December 31, 2022. We currently offer loans with interest rates that adjust either semi‑annually or semi‑annually upon expiration of an initial three‑ or five‑year fixed rate period. All loans previously indexed to LIBOR were converted to SOFR as of December 31, 2021. We currently offer loans with interest rates that adjust either semi‑annually or semi‑annually upon expiration of an initial three‑ or five‑year fixed rate period. Borrowers are required to make monthly payments under the terms of such loans. Most of our single-family adjustable rate loans behave like fixed rate loans because the loans are still in their initial fixed rate period or are subject to interest rate floors. Most of our single family adjustable rate loans behave like fixed rate loans because the loans are still in their initial fixed rate period or are subject to interest rate floors.

We qualify our ARM Loan borrowers based upon the fully indexed interest rate (SOFR or other index plus an applicable margin) provided by the terms of the loan. However, we may discount the initial rate paid by the borrower to adjust for market and other competitive factors. However, we may discount the initial rate paid by the borrower to adjust for market and other competitive factors. The ARM Loans that we offer have a lifetime adjustment limit that is set at the time that the loan is approved. In addition, because of interest rate caps and floors, market rates may exceed or go below the respective maximum or minimum rates payable on our ARM Loans. In addition, because of interest rate caps and floors, market rates may exceed or go below the respective maximum or minimum rates payable on our ARM Loans.

The mortgage loans that we originate generally include due‑on‑sale clauses, which provide us with the contractual right to declare the loan immediately due and payable if the borrower transfers ownership of the property.

Construction Lending

Construction loans totaled $89.9 million and $40.7 million at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and represented 10.14% and 5.27% of our gross loan portfolio at December 31, 2023 and 2022. We provide loans for the construction of quality, affordable single-family, multi‑family and commercial real estate projects and for land development. We generally make construction and land loans at variable interest rates based upon the applicable Treasury Index plus a margin. We generally make construction and land loans at variable interest rates based upon the Prime Rate, or the applicable Treasury Index plus a margin. Generally, we require a loan‑to‑value ratio not exceeding 75% and a loan‑to‑cost ratio not exceeding 85% on construction loans.

Construction loans involve risks that are different from those for completed project lending because we advance loan funds based upon the security and estimated value at completion of the project under construction. If the borrower defaults on the loan, we may have to advance additional funds to finance the project’s completion before the project can be sold. If the borrower defaults on the loan, we may have to advance additional funds to finance the project’s completion before the project can be sold. Moreover, construction projects are affected by uncertainties inherent in estimating construction costs, potential delays in construction schedules due to supply chain or other issues, market demand and the accuracy of estimates of the value of the completed project considered in the loan approval process. Moreover, construction projects are affected by uncertainties inherent in estimating construction costs, potential delays in construction schedules due to supply chain or other issues, market demand and the accuracy of estimates of the value of the completed project considered in the loan approval process. In addition, construction projects can be risky as they transition to completion and lease‑up. In addition, construction projects can be risky as they transition to completion and lease‑up. Tenants who may have been interested in leasing a unit or apartment may not be able to afford the space when the building is completed, or may fail to lease the space for other reasons such as more attractive terms offered by competing lessors, making it difficult for the building to generate enough cash flow for the owner to obtain permanent financing. Tenants who may have been interested in leasing a unit or apartment may not be able to afford the space when the building is completed, or may fail to lease the space for other reasons such as more attractive terms offered by competing lessors, making it difficult for the building to generate enough cash flow for the owner to obtain permanent financing. We specialize in the origination of construction loans for affordable housing developments where rents are subsidized by housing authority agencies. We specialize in the origination of construction loans for affordable housing developments where rents are subsidized by housing authority agencies. During 2023, we originated $40.0 million of construction loans, compared to $29.6 million of construction loan originations during 2022.

Commercial Lending

Our commercial lending portfolio consists of loans and lending activities to businesses in our market area that are secured by business assets including inventory, receivables, machinery, and equipment. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, non-real estate commercial loans totaled $63.5 million and $64.8 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, non-real estate commercial loans totaled $46.5 million and $57 thousand, respectively. Commercial loans represented 7.16% of our loan portfolio as of December 31, 2023. For the year ended December 31, 2023, we originated $43.3 million of commercial loans. As of December 31, 2023, our single largest commercial loan had an outstanding balance of $15.0 million. At December 31, 2023, the average balance of a loan in our non-real estate commercial loan portfolio was $2.0 million. At December 31, 2021, the average balance of a loan in our non-real estate commercial loan portfolio was $1.0 million.

The risks related to commercial loans differ from loans secured by real estate and relate to the ability of borrowers to successfully operate their businesses and the difference between expected and actual cash flows of the borrowers. In addition, the recoverability of our investment in these loans is also dependent on other factors primarily dictated by the type of collateral securing these loans. The fair value of the collateral securing these loans may fluctuate as market conditions change. The fair value of the collateral securing these loans may fluctuate as market conditions change. In the case of loans secured by accounts receivable, the recovery of our investment is dependent upon the borrower’s ability to collect amounts due from customers.

SBA Guaranteed Loans

City First is an approved SBA lender. We originate loans in Washington, D.C, Maryland, and Virginia under the SBA’s 7(a), SBA Express, International Trade and 504(a) loan programs, in conformity with SBA underwriting and documentation standards. SBA loans are similar to commercial business loans but have additional credit enhancement provided by the U.S. Federal Government with guarantees between 50-85%. Certain loans classified as SBA are secured by commercial real estate property. Certain loans classified as SBA are secured by commercial real estate property. All other SBA loans are secured by business assets. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, SBA loans totaled $15.0 million and $3.6 million, respectively. Our December 31, 2023 SBA loans included $2.5 million of loans issued under the Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”) loans. PPP loans have terms of two to five years and earn interest at 1%. PPP loans have terms of two to five years and earn interest at 1%. PPP loans are fully guaranteed by the SBA and have virtually no risk of loss. The Bank expects the vast majority of the PPP loans to be fully forgiven by the SBA. The Bank expects the vast majority of the PPP loans to be fully forgiven by the SBA. SBA loans totaled 1.68% of our total loan portfolio as of December 31, 2023.

Loan Originations, Purchases and Sales

The following table summarizes loan originations, purchases, sales, and principal repayments for the periods indicated:



(1)
Amount is before deferred origination costs, purchase premiums and discounts, and the allowance for credit losses.

Loan originations are derived from various sources including our loan personnel, local mortgage brokers, and referrals from customers. More than 85% of multi-family loan originations during 2023, 2022 and 2021 were sourced from wholesale loan brokers. More than 90% of multi-family loan originations during 2021, 2020 and 2019 were sourced from wholesale loan brokers. All commercial real estate loans, construction loans, commercial loans and SBA loans were derived from our loan personnel, except that we partner with a third-party certified development company to originate and underwrite certain SBA 504 loans. All commercial real estate loans, construction loans, commercial loans and SBA loans were derived from our loan personnel. No single-family or consumer loans were originated during the last three years. No single family or consumer loans were originated during the last three years. For all loans that we originate, upon receipt of a loan application from a prospective borrower, a credit report is ordered, and certain other information is verified by an independent credit agency. For all loans that we originate, upon receipt of a loan application from a prospective borrower, a credit report is ordered, and certain other information is verified by an independent credit agency. If necessary, additional financial information is requested. If necessary, additional financial information is requested. An appraisal of the real estate intended to secure the proposed loan is required to be performed by an independent licensed or certified appraiser designated and approved by us. An appraisal of the real estate intended to secure the proposed loan is required to be performed by an independent licensed or certified appraiser designated and approved by us. The Bank’s Board of Directors (the “Board”) annually reviews our appraisal policy. The Bank’s Board of Directors (the “Board”) annually reviews our appraisal policy. Management reviews annually the qualifications and performance of independent appraisers that we use. Management reviews annually the qualifications and performance of independent appraisers that we use.

It is our policy to obtain title insurance on collateral for all real estate loans. Borrowers must also obtain hazard insurance naming the Bank as a loss payee prior to loan closing. If the original loan amount exceeds 80% on a sale or refinance of a first trust deed loan, we may require private mortgage insurance and the borrower is required to make payments to a mortgage impound account from which we make disbursements to pay private mortgage insurance premiums, property taxes and hazard and flood insurance as required. If the original loan amount exceeds 80% on a sale or refinance of a first trust deed loan, we may require private mortgage insurance and the borrower is required to make payments to a mortgage impound account from which we make disbursements to pay private mortgage insurance premiums, property taxes and hazard and flood insurance as required.

Each loan requires at least two signatures for approval. The Board has authorized loan approval limits for various management team members up to $7 million per individual, and up to $12 million for the Chief Executive. Loans in excess of $7 million require review and approval by members of the Board’s Loan Committee. In addition, it is our practice that all loans approved be reported to the Loan Committee no later than the month following their approval and be ratified by the Board.

From time to time, we purchase loans originated by other institutions based upon our investment needs and market opportunities. The determination to purchase specific loans or pools of loans is subject to our underwriting policies, which consider, among other factors, the financial condition of the borrowers, the location of the underlying collateral properties and the appraised value of the collateral properties. The determination to purchase specific loans or pools of loans is subject to our underwriting policies, which consider, among other factors, the financial condition of the borrowers, the location of the underlying collateral properties and the appraised value of the collateral properties. We did not purchase any loans during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 or 2021.

During 2023 and 2022, we did not originate or sell any loans that were classified as held for sale.

Asset Quality

General

The underlying credit quality of our loan portfolio is dependent primarily on each borrower’s ability to continue to make required loan payments and, in the event a borrower is unable to continue to do so, the value of the collateral securing the loan, if any. A borrower’s ability to pay, in the case of single-family residential loans and consumer loans, typically is dependent primarily on employment and other sources of income. A borrower’s ability to pay, in the case of single family residential loans and consumer loans, typically is dependent primarily on employment and other sources of income. Multi‑family and commercial real estate loan borrowers’ ability to pay is typically dependent on the cash flow generated by the property, which in turn is impacted by general economic conditions. Multi‑family and commercial real estate loan borrowers’ ability to pay is typically dependent on the cash flow generated by the property, which in turn is impacted by general economic conditions. Commercial business and SBA loan borrowers’ ability to pay is typically dependent on the successful operation of their businesses or their ability to collect amounts due from their customers. Commercial business and SBA loan borrowers’ ability to pay is typically dependent on the successful operation of their businesses or their ability to collect amounts due from their customers. Other factors, such as unanticipated expenditures or changes in the financial markets, may also impact a borrower’s ability to make loan payments. Other factors, such as unanticipated expenditures or changes in the financial markets, may also impact a borrower’s ability to make loan payments. Collateral values, particularly real estate values, are also impacted by a variety of factors, including general economic conditions, demographics, property maintenance and collection or foreclosure delays.

Delinquencies

We perform a weekly review of all delinquent loans and a monthly loan delinquency report is made to the Internal Asset Review Committee of the Board of Directors. When a borrower fails to make a required payment on a loan, we take several steps to induce the borrower to cure the delinquency and restore the loan to current status. When a borrower fails to make a required payment on a loan, we take several steps to induce the borrower to cure the delinquency and restore the loan to current status. The procedures we follow with respect to delinquencies vary depending on the type of loan, the type of property securing the loan, and the period of delinquency. In the case of residential mortgage loans, we generally send the borrower a written notice of non‑payment promptly after the loan becomes past due. In the event payment is not received promptly thereafter, additional letters are sent, and telephone calls are made. In the event payment is not received promptly thereafter, additional letters are sent, and telephone calls are made. If the loan is still not brought current and it becomes necessary for us to take legal action, we generally commence foreclosure proceedings on all real property securing the loan. In the case of commercial real estate loans, we generally contact the borrower by telephone and send a written notice of intent to foreclose upon expiration of the applicable grace period. In the case of commercial real estate loans, we generally contact the borrower by telephone and send a written notice of intent to foreclose upon expiration of the applicable grace period. Decisions not to commence foreclosure upon expiration of the notice of intent to foreclose for commercial real estate loans are made on a case‑by‑case basis. Decisions not to commence foreclosure upon expiration of the notice of intent to foreclose for commercial real estate loans are made on a case‑by‑case basis. We may consider loan workout arrangements with commercial real estate borrowers in certain circumstances.

The following table shows our loan delinquencies by type and amount at the dates indicated:


Non‑Performing Assets

Non‑performing assets (“NPAs”) include non‑accrual loans and real estate owned through foreclosure or deed in lieu of foreclosure (“REO”). We had no NPAs at December 31, 2023 compared to $144 thousand, or 0.01% of total assets, at December 31, 2022.

Non-accrual loans consist of delinquent loans that are 90 days or more past due and other loans, including loans modified in response to a borrower’s financial difficulty, that do not qualify for accrual status. The $144 thousand decrease in non‑accrual loans during the year ended December 31, 2023 was the result of the payoff of one non-accrual loan.

The following table provides information regarding our non‑performing assets at the dates indicated:


There were no accrual loans that were contractually past due by 90 days or more at December 31, 2023 or 2022. We had no commitments to lend additional funds to borrowers whose loans were on non‑accrual status at December 31, 2023.

We discontinue accruing interest on loans when the loans become 90 days delinquent as to their payment due date (three missed payments). In addition, we reverse all previously accrued and uncollected interest for those loans through a charge to interest income. In addition, we reverse all previously accrued and uncollected interest for those loans through a charge to interest income. While loans are in non‑accrual status, interest received on such loans is credited to principal, until the loans qualify for return to accrual status. Loans are returned to accrual status when all the principal and interest amounts contractually due are brought current and future payments are reasonably assured. Loans are returned to accrual status when all the principal and interest amounts contractually due are brought current and future payments are reasonably assured.

Classification of Assets

Federal regulations and our internal policies require that we utilize an asset classification system as a means of monitoring and reporting problem and potential problem assets. We have incorporated asset classifications as a part of our credit monitoring system and thus classify potential problem assets as “Watch” and “Special Mention,” and problem assets as “Substandard,” “Doubtful” or “Loss. We have incorporated asset classifications as a part of our credit monitoring system and thus classify potential problem assets as “Watch” and “Special Mention,” and problem assets as “Substandard,” “Doubtful” or “Loss”. ” An asset is considered “Watch” if the loan is current but temporarily presents higher than average risk and warrants greater than routine attention and monitoring. An asset is considered “Watch” if the loan is current but temporarily presents higher than average risk and warrants greater than routine attention and monitoring. An asset is considered “Special Mention” if the loan is current but there are some potential weaknesses that deserve management’s close attention. An asset is considered “Substandard” if it is inadequately protected by the current net worth and paying capacity of the obligor or the collateral pledged, if any. “Substandard” assets include those characterized by the “distinct possibility” that the insured institution will sustain “some loss” if the deficiencies are not corrected. “Substandard” assets include those characterized by the “distinct possibility” that the insured institution will sustain “some loss” if the deficiencies are not corrected. Assets classified as “Doubtful” have all the weaknesses inherent in those classified “Substandard” with the added characteristic that the weaknesses make “collection or liquidation in full,” on the basis of currently existing facts, conditions, and values, “highly questionable and improbable. Assets classified as “Doubtful” have all the weaknesses inherent in those classified “Substandard” with the added characteristic that the weaknesses make “collection or liquidation in full,” on the basis of currently existing facts, conditions, and values, “highly questionable and improbable. ” Assets classified as “Loss” are those considered “uncollectible” and of such little value that their continuance as assets without the establishment of a specific loss allowance is not warranted.” Assets classified as “Loss” are those considered “uncollectible” and of such little value that their continuance as assets without the establishment of a specific loss allowance is not warranted. Assets which do not currently expose us to sufficient risk to warrant classification in one of the aforementioned categories, but that are considered to possess some weaknesses, are designated “Special Mention. Assets which do not currently expose us to sufficient risk to warrant classification in one of the aforementioned categories, but that are considered to possess some weaknesses, are designated “Special Mention. ” Our Internal Asset Review Department reviews and classifies our assets and independently reports the results of its reviews to the Internal Asset Review Committee of our Board of Directors monthly.

The following table provides information regarding our criticized loans (Watch and Special Mention) and classified assets (Substandard) at the dates indicated:


Criticized assets increased to $130.0 million at December 31, 2023, from $82.3 million at December 31, 2022. City First has historically classified all newly originated construction loans as Watch loans until a history of loan performance can be established or until the construction project is complete, which is the main driver for the increase in total criticized loans of $47.7 million during 2023. In addition, certain loans were downgraded as part of the internal review process, which also caused the increase in substandard loans of $15.9 million.

Allowance for Credit Losses

In originating loans, we recognize that losses may be experienced on loans and that the risk of loss may vary as a result of many factors, including the type of loan being made, the creditworthiness of the borrower, general economic conditions and, in the case of a secured loan, the quality of the collateral for the loan. Effective January 1, 2023, the Company accounts for the ACL on loans in accordance with ASC 326. ASC 326 requires the Company to recognize estimates for lifetime losses on loans and off-balance sheet loan commitments at the time of origination or acquisition. The recognition of losses at origination or acquisition represents the Company’s best estimate of the lifetime expected credit loss associated with a loan, given the facts and circumstances associated with the particular loan, and involves the use of significant management judgment and estimates, which are subject to change based on management’s on-going assessment of the credit quality of the loan portfolio and changes in economic forecasts used in the model. The Company uses the weighted-average remaining maturity (“WARM”) method when determining estimates for the ACL for each of its portfolio segments. The weighted average remaining life, including the effect of estimated prepayments, is calculated for each loan pool on a quarterly basis. The Company then estimates a loss rate for each pool using both its own historical loss experience and the historical losses of a group of peer institutions during the period from 2004 through the most recent quarter.

The Company’s ACL model also includes adjustments for qualitative factors, where appropriate. Qualitative adjustments may include, but are not limited to, factors such as: (i) changes in lending policies and procedures, including changes in underwriting standards and collections, charge offs, and recovery practices; (ii) changes in international, national, regional, and local conditions; (iii) changes in the nature and volume of the portfolio and terms of loans; (iv) changes in the experience, depth, and ability of lending management; (v) changes in the volume and severity of past due loans and other similar conditions; (vi) changes in the quality of the organization’s loan review system; (vii) changes in the value of underlying collateral for collateral dependent loans; (viii) the existence and effect of any concentrations of credit and changes in the levels of such concentrations; and (ix) the effect of other external factors (i.e., competition, legal and regulatory requirements) on the level of estimated credit losses. These qualitative factors incorporate the concept of reasonable and supportable forecasts, as required by ASC 326.

The Company has a credit portfolio review process designed to detect problem loans. Problem loans are typically those of a substandard or worse internal risk grade, and may consist of loans on nonaccrual status, loans that have recently been modified in response to a borrower’s deteriorating financial condition, loans where the likelihood of foreclosure on underlying collateral has increased, collateral dependent loans, and other loans where concern or doubt over the ultimate collectability of all contractual amounts due has become elevated. Such loans may, in the opinion of management, be deemed to no longer possess risk characteristics similar to other loans in the loan portfolio, because the specific attributes and risks associated with the loan have likely become unique as the credit quality of the loan deteriorates. As such, these loans may require individual evaluation to determine an appropriate ACL for the loan. When a loan is individually evaluated, the Company typically measures the expected credit loss for the loan based on a discounted cash flow approach, unless the loan has been deemed collateral dependent. Collateral dependent loans are loans where the repayment of the loan is expected to come from the operation of and/or eventual liquidation of the underlying collateral. The ACL for collateral dependent loans is determined using estimates of the fair value of the underlying collateral, less estimated selling costs.

The estimation of the appropriate level of the ACL requires significant judgment by management. Although management uses the best information available to make these estimates, future adjustments to the ACL may be necessary due to economic, operating, regulatory, and other conditions that may extend beyond the Company’s control. Changes in management’s estimates of forecasted net losses could materially change the level of the ACL. Additionally, various regulatory agencies, as an integral part of their examination process, periodically review the Company’s ACL and credit review process. Such agencies may require the Company to recognize additions to the ACL based on judgments different from those of management.

The Company has segmented the loan portfolio according to loans that share similar attributes and risk characteristics. Each segment possesses varying degrees of risk based on, among other things, the type of loan, the type of collateral, and the sensitivity of the borrower or industry to changes in external factors such as economic conditions. The Company determines the ACL for loans based on this more detailed loan segmentation and classification. These segments, and the risks associated with each segment, are as follows:

Real Estate: Single-Family – Subject to adverse employment conditions in the local economy leading to increased default rate, decreased market values from oversupply in a geographic area and incremental rate increases on adjustable-rate mortgages which may impact the ability of borrowers to maintain payments.

Real Estate: Multi‑Family – Subject to adverse various market conditions that cause a decrease in market value or lease rates, changes in personal funding sources for tenants, oversupply of units in a specific region, population shifts and reputational risks.

Real Estate: Commercial Real Estate – Subject to adverse conditions in the local economy which may lead to reduced cash flows due to vacancies and reduced rental rates, and decreases in the value of underlying collateral.

Real Estate: Church – Subject to adverse economic and employment conditions, which may lead to reduced cash flows from members’ donations and offerings, and the stability, quality, and popularity of church leadership.

Real Estate: Construction – Subject to adverse conditions in the local economy, which may lead to reduced demand for new commercial, multi‑family, or single-family buildings or reduced lease or sale opportunities once the building is complete.

Commercial and SBA Loans – Subject to industry and economic conditions including decreases in product demand.

Consumer – Subject to adverse employment conditions in the local economy, which may lead to higher default rates.

We determined that an ACL of $7.3 million, or 0.84% of net loans held for investment, was appropriate at December 31, 2023, compared to the allowance for loan and lease losses “ALLL”) of $4.4 million, or 0.57% of loans held for investment at December 31, 2022.

Prior to the Company’s adoption of ASC 326 on January 1, 2023, the Company maintained an ALLL in accordance with ASC 310 and ASC 450 that covered estimated credit losses on individually evaluated loans that were determined to be impaired, as well as estimated probable incurred losses inherent in the remainder of the loan portfolio.

Beginning on January 1, 2023, the Company evaluates loans collectively for purposes of determining the ACL in accordance with ASC 326. Collective evaluation is based on aggregating loans deemed to possess similar risk characteristics. In certain instances, the Company may identify loans that it believes no longer possess risk characteristics similar to other loans in the loan portfolio. These loans are typically identified from those that have exhibited deterioration in credit quality, since the specific attributes and risks associated with such loans tend to become unique as the credit deteriorates. Such loans are typically nonperforming, downgraded to substandard or worse, and/or are deemed collateral dependent, where the ultimate repayment of the loan is expected to come from the operation of or eventual sale of the collateral. Loans that are deemed by management to no longer possess risk characteristics similar to other loans in the portfolio, or that have been identified as collateral dependent, are evaluated individually for purposes of determining an appropriate lifetime ACL. The Company uses a discounted cash flow approach, using the loan’s effective interest rate, for determining the ACL on individually evaluated loans, unless the loan is deemed collateral dependent, which requires evaluation based on the estimated fair value of the underlying collateral, less estimated selling costs. The Company may increase or decrease the ACL for collateral dependent loans based on changes in the estimated fair value of the collateral.

Prior to the adoption of ASC 326 on January 1, 2023, the Company classified loans as impaired when, based on current information and events, it was probable that the Company would be unable to collect all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement or it was determined that the likelihood of the Company receiving all scheduled payments, including interest, when due was remote. Credit losses on impaired loans were determined separately based on the guidance in ASC 310. Beginning January 1, 2023, the Company accounts for credit losses on all loans in accordance with ASC 326, which eliminates the concept of an impaired loan within the context of determining credit losses, and requires all loans to be evaluated for credit losses collectively based on similar risk characteristics. Loans are only evaluated individually when they are deemed to no longer possess similar risk characteristics with other loans in the loan portfolio. At December 31, 2022, impaired loans totaled $1.7 million and had an aggregate specific allowance allocation of $7 thousand. At December 31, 2021, impaired loans totaled $2.3 million and had an aggregate specific allowance allocation of $7 thousand.

A federally chartered bank’s determination as to the classification of its assets and the amount of its valuation allowances is subject to review by the OCC. The OCC, in conjunction with the other federal banking agencies, provides guidance for financial institutions on the responsibilities of management for the assessment and establishment of adequate valuation allowances, as well as guidance for banking agency examiners to use in determining the adequacy of valuation allowances. The OCC, in conjunction with the other federal banking agencies, provides guidance for financial institutions on the responsibilities of management for the assessment and establishment of adequate valuation allowances, as well as guidance for banking agency examiners to use in determining the adequacy of valuation allowances. It is required that all institutions have effective systems and controls to identify, monitor and address asset quality problems, analyze all significant factors that affect the collectability of the portfolio in a reasonable manner and establish acceptable allowance evaluation processes that meet the objectives of the guidelines issued by federal regulatory agencies. It is required that all institutions have effective systems and controls to identify, monitor and address asset quality problems, analyze all significant factors that affect the collectability of the portfolio in a reasonable manner and establish acceptable allowance evaluation processes that meet the objectives of the guidelines issued by federal regulatory agencies. While we believe that the ACL has been established and maintained at adequate levels, future adjustments may be necessary if economic or other conditions differ materially from the conditions on which we based our estimates at December 31, 2023. In addition, there can be no assurance that the OCC or other regulators, as a result of reviewing our loan portfolio and/or allowance, will not require us to materially increase our ACL, thereby affecting our financial condition and earnings. While we believe that the ALLL has been established and maintained at adequate levels, future adjustments may be necessary if economic or other conditions differ materially from the conditions on which we based our estimates at December 31, 2021. In addition, there can be no assurance that the OCC or other regulators, as a result of reviewing our loan portfolio and/or allowance, will not require us to materially increase our ALLL, thereby affecting our financial condition and earnings.

The following table details our allocation of the ACL/ALLL to the various categories of loans held for investment and the percentage of loans in each category to total loans at the dates indicated:


The following table shows the activity in our ACL/ALLL related to our loans held for investment for the years indicated:



(1)
The ACL/ALLL as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 does not include any ACL/ALLL for the remaining balance of loans acquired in the City First Merger, which totaled $126.8 million and $146.3 million, respectively.

Investment Activities

The main objectives of our investment strategy are to provide a source of liquidity for deposit outflows, repayment of our borrowings and funding loan commitments, and to generate a favorable return on investments without incurring undue interest rate or credit risk. Subject to various restrictions, our investment policy generally permits investments in money market instruments such as federal funds sold, certificates of deposit of insured banks and savings institutions, direct obligations of the U.S. Treasury, securities issued by federal and other government agencies and mortgage‑backed securities, mutual funds, municipal obligations, corporate bonds, and marketable equity securities. Mortgage‑backed securities consist principally of securities issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation and the Government National Mortgage Association which are backed by 30‑year amortizing hybrid ARM Loans, structured with fixed interest rates for periods of three to seven years, after which time the loans convert to one‑year or six‑month adjustable rate mortgage loans. Mortgage‑backed securities consist principally of securities issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation and the Government National Mortgage Association which are backed by 30‑year amortizing hybrid ARM Loans, structured with fixed interest rates for periods of three to seven years, after which time the loans convert to one‑year or six‑month adjustable rate mortgage loans. At December 31, 2023, our securities portfolio, consisting primarily of federal agency debt, mortgage‑backed securities, bonds issued by the United States Treasury and the SBA, and municipal bonds, totaled $317.0 million, or 23.0% of total assets. At December 31, 2021, our securities portfolio, consisting primarily of federal agency debt, mortgage‑backed securities, bonds issued by the United States Treasury and the SBA, and municipal bonds, totaled $156.4 million, or 14.30% of total assets.

We classify investments as held‑to‑maturity or available‑for‑sale at the date of purchase based on our assessment of our internal liquidity requirements. Securities purchased to meet investment‑related objectives such as liquidity management or mitigating interest rate risk and which may be sold as necessary to implement management strategies, are designated as available‑for‑sale at the time of purchase. Securities purchased to meet investment‑related objectives such as liquidity management or mitigating interest rate risk and which may be sold as necessary to implement management strategies, are designated as available‑for‑sale at the time of purchase. Securities in the held‑to‑maturity category consist of securities purchased for long‑term investment in order to enhance our ongoing stream of net interest income. Securities in the held‑to‑maturity category consist of securities purchased for long‑term investment in order to enhance our ongoing stream of net interest in0come. Securities deemed held‑to‑maturity are classified as such because we have both the intent and ability to hold these securities to maturity. Held‑to‑maturity securities are reported at cost, adjusted for amortization of premium and accretion of discount. Available‑for‑sale securities are reported at fair value. We currently have no securities classified as held‑to‑maturity securities. We currently have no securities classified as held‑to‑maturity securities.

The Company’s assessment of available-for-sale investment securities as of December 31, 2023, indicated that an ACL was not required. The Company analyzed available-for-sale investment securities that were in an unrealized loss position and determined the decline in fair value for those securities was not related to credit, but rather related to changes in interest rates and general market conditions. As such, no ACL was recorded for available-for-sale securities as of December 31, 2023.

The following table sets forth the amortized cost and fair value of available-for-sale securities by type as of the dates indicated. At December 31, 2023, our securities portfolio did not contain securities of any issuer with an aggregate book value in excess of 10% of our equity capital, excluding those issued by the United States Government or its agencies. At December 31, 2021, our securities portfolio did not contain securities of any issuer with an aggregate book value in excess of 10% of our equity capital, excluding those issued by the United States Government or its agencies.


The table below presents the carrying amount, weighted average yields and contractual maturities of our securities as of December 31, 2023. The table reflects stated final maturities and does not reflect scheduled principal payments or expected payoffs.


Sources of Funds

General

Deposits are our primary source of funds for supporting our lending and other investment activities and general business purposes. In addition to deposits, we obtain funds from the amortization and prepayment of loans and investment securities, sales