Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - ALOT

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$ALOT Risk Factor changes from 00/04/18/22/2022 to 00/04/12/24/2024

Item 1A. Risk Factors.” We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

The reader is cautioned not to unduly rely on such forward-looking statements when evaluating the information presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. 1 PART I Item 1. PART I Item 1.

Business General Unless otherwise indicated, references to “AstroNova,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K refer to AstroNova, Inc. Business General Unless otherwise indicated, references to “AstroNova,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K refer to AstroNova, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. We design, develop, manufacture, and distribute a broad range of specialty printers and data acquisition and analysis systems, including both hardware and software, which incorporate advanced technologies to acquire, store, analyze, and present data in multiple formats. Target markets for our hardware and software products include aerospace, apparel, automotive, avionics, chemicals, computer peripherals, communications, distribution, food and beverage, general manufacturing, packaging, and transportation. Our products are distributed worldwide through our own sales force, authorized dealers, and independent dealers and representatives. Our products are distributed worldwide through our own sales force, authorized dealers, and independent dealers and representatives. Our business consists of two segments, Product Identification (“PI”) and Test & Measurement (“T&M”). Our business consists of two segments, Product Identification (“PI”) and Test & Measurement (“T&M”). The PI segment includes specialty printing systems and related supplies sold under the QuickLabel®, TrojanLabel®, and GetLabels™ brand names. The T&M segment includes our line of aerospace printers, ethernet networking products and test and measurement data acquisition systems sold under the AstroNova ® brand name. The T&M segment includes our line of aerospace printers and test and measurement data acquisition systems sold under the AstroNova ® brand name. Refer to Note 16, “Nature of Operations, Segment Reporting and Geographical Information,” in our audited consolidated financial statements elsewhere in this report for financial information regarding our segments. On August 4, 2022, we acquired Astro Machine LLC (“Astro Machine”), an Illinois-based manufacturer of printing equipment, including label printers and related accessories, tabbers, conveyors, and envelope feeders. Astro Machine is reported as a part of our PI segment beginning with the third quarter of fiscal 2023. Refer to Note 2, “Acquisitions,” in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report.

The following description of our business should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following description of our business should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations” on pages 21 through 34 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Description of Business Product Overview We leverage our expertise in data visualization technologies to design, manufacture and market specialty printing systems, test and measurement systems, and related services for select growing markets globally. Description of Business Product Overview We leverage our expertise in data visualization technologies to design, manufacture and market specialty printing systems, test and measurement systems, and related services for select growing markets globally. PI products sold under the QuickLabel, TrojanLabel and GetLabels brands are used in brand owner and commercial applications to provide product packaging, marketing, tracking, branding, and labeling solutions to a wide array of industries. The PI segment offers a variety of digital color label tabletop printers and light commercial label printers, direct-to-package printers, high-volume presses, and specialty original equipment manufacturer (“OEM”) printing systems, as well as a wide range of label, tag and other supplies, including ink and toner, allowing customers to mark, track, protect and enhance the appearance of their products. The PI segment offers a variety of digital color label tabletop printers, direct-to-package printers, high-volume presses and specialty OEM printing systems, as well as a wide range of label, tag and flexible packaging material substrates and other supplies, including ink and toner, allowing customers to mark, track, protect and enhance the appearance of their products. PI products sold under the Astro Machine brand acquired on August 4, 2022, also include a variety of label printers, envelope and packaging printing, and related processing and handling equipment. In the T&M segment, we have a long history of using our technologies to provide networking systems and high-resolution flight deck and cabin printers for the aerospace market. In the T&M segment, we have a long history of using our technologies to provide networking systems and high-resolution light-weight flight deck and cabin printers for the aerospace market. In addition, the T&M segment includes data acquisition recorders, sold under the AstroNova brand, to enable our customers to acquire and record visual and electronic signal data from local and networked data streams and sensors. The recorded data is processed, analyzed, stored and presented in various visual output formats. The recorded data is processed, analyzed and stored and presented in various visual output formats. Product Identification Our PI segment includes three brands: QuickLabel, TrojanLabel, and GetLabels. Product Identification Our PI segment includes three brands: QuickLabel, TrojanLabel, and GetLabels. Additionally, PI also includes the Astro Machine brand that is sold directly to end users though our channel partners and to OEM customers, which generally rebrand these products for sales to their customers. The segment provides a wide array of digital end-to-end product marking and identification solutions including hardware, software, and supplies for OEMs, commercial printers, and brand owners. Our customers typically label or mark products on a short- to mid-size run basis and benefit from the efficiency, flexibility, and cost-savings of digitally printing 2 labels or packaging in their facility, on-demand, with the ability to accommodate multiple SKUs or variable data such as bar codes, lot numbers or expiration dates. Our customers typically label or mark products on a short to mid-size run basis and benefit from the efficiency, flexibility, and cost-savings of digitally printing labels or packaging in their facility, on-demand, with the ability to accommodate multiple SKUs or variable data such as bar codes, lot numbers or expiration dates. QuickLabel brand products include tabletop printers, production-ready digital color label printers, and specialty OEM printing systems for either standalone output or inline integration with existing pre-processing and finishing systems. Customers use our digital printing products in a wide variety of industries, including chemicals, cosmetics, food and beverage, medical products, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and many others. Customers use our digital printing products in a wide variety of industries, including chemical, cosmetics, food and beverage, medical products, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and many others. TrojanLabel expands our customer market by providing a range of higher volume digital color printers, OEM printing systems, and supplies that target the more demanding needs of brand owners, commercial printers, label converters, and packaging manufacturers, giving them the ability to digitally mark or encode products directly or to produce labels for post-printing applications. GetLabels brand products include a full line of media supplies, including label materials, tags, inks, toners, and thermal transfer ribbons designed for optimal performance with our printing hardware, and are also compatible with a wide variety of competitive and third-party printing hardware. GetLabels brand products include a full line of media supplies, including label materials, tags, inks, toners and thermal transfer ribbons designed for optimal performance with our printing hardware, while also being compatible with a wide variety of competitive and third-party printing hardware. Current QuickLabel models include a selection of professional tabletop digital color label printers. Current QuickLabel models include a selection of professional tabletop digital color label printers. We recently introduced the QL-E100, an entry-level, compact, full-color tabletop label printer. It delivers professional-quality output at a lower price point, which we believe is ideal for targeting smaller businesses entering the on-demand label market, and larger enterprises that require multiple on-demand label printers at distributed locations throughout their facilities. The high-speed QL-120X was built on our pioneering and successful Kiaro!® platform. To expand the product line further, the QL-120Xe, a sister product to the dye ink QL-120X, was introduced in 2021 as a lower price point option for price-sensitive customers. To expand the product line further, in 2021, the QL-120Xe, a sister product to the dye ink QL-120X, was introduced in 2021 as a lower price point option for low-volume applications and price-sensitive customers. In 2020, we introduced the QL-120D, which features high-performance pigment inks that can produce durable BS5609-certified labels and labels that can withstand a wide range of demanding environmental conditions from sterilization to cryogenic freezing. In 2020, we introduced the QL-120D which features high-performance pigment inks that can produce durable BS5609 certified labels and labels that can withstand a wide range of demanding environmental conditions from sterilization to cryogenic freezing. Introduced early in 2019, the high-performance QL-300 was the first 5-color toner-based electrophotographic tabletop production label printer in the market. The QL-30 and QL-60 are high-end monochrome printers which print a variety of labels and tags using direct thermal or thermal transfer technology. In fiscal 2024, we introduced the QL-900, a wider format inkjet color label printer. Also in fiscal 2024, we obsoleted the QL-850 and QLS-4100 Xe to rationalize our product lines and manufacturing system, creating a leaner and more efficient business.Our TrojanLabel portfolio includes a range of products from professional digital color label mini-presses to large-scale all-in-one inline specialty printing systems for brand owners, OEMs, and commercial printers. Our TrojanLabel portfolio includes a range of products from professional digital color label mini-presses to large-scale all-in-one inline specialty printing systems for both brand owners, OEMs, and commercial printers. The T2-C, a compact, digital mini-press designed for 24/7 label production, includes numerous differentiating features for several end-use market applications. Beyond label printing, the T3-OPX, the first of its kind direct-to-package printer, which was introduced in late 2020, allows printing directly onto a range of flat products, including cardboard, paper bags, flat wood planks and many other items using pigment inks that are resistant to both water and UV exposure. In fiscal 2024, we launched two new products: the T2-PRO and the T3-PRO, both of which have wide-format print capabilities. GetLabels provides a broad range of high-quality supplies for both our printers and third-party printers, including label and tag materials, inks, toner, and thermal transfer material, all specifically designed and constructed for a wide variety of labeling applications. GetLabels provides a broad range of high-quality supplies for both our printers and third-party printers including label and tag materials, inks, toner and thermal transfer material, all specifically designed and 4 Table of Contents constructed for a wide variety of labeling applications. Label material and substrates are carefully qualified and tested on-site in our Rhode Island Materials Research Laboratory to ensure durability and compatibility with our QuickLabel and TrojanLabel branded products, along with a variety of third-party printers. Label material and substrates are carefully qualified and tested in our Rhode Island Materials Research Laboratory to ensure durability and compatibility with our QuickLabel and TrojanLabel branded products, along with a variety of third-party printers. Astro Machine is a U.S.-based manufacturer and engineering development company providing inkjet printers, conveyors, tabbers, software, and various components to the mail and addressing markets, as well as the label and packaging markets. Astro Machine serves OEMs and value-added resellers. The PI segment provides worldwide training and support as well as develops and licenses various specialized software programs to design and manage labels, print images, manage and operate our printers and presses, and coordinate printing on an automated basis directly over networked systems. The PI segment also develops and licenses various specialized software programs to design and manage labels, print images, manage and operate our printers and presses, and coordinate printing on an automated basis directly over networked systems. Test & Measurement Products sold under our T&M segment are designed and manufactured for airborne printing and networking solutions and data acquisition. Test &Measurement Products sold under our T&M segment are designed and manufactured for airborne printing solutions and data acquisition. Our aerospace products include flight deck printing solutions, networking hardware and specialized aerospace-grade thermal paper. Our data acquisition systems are used in research and development; flight testing; missile/rocket telemetry; and production monitoring and power and maintenance applications. Our data acquisition systems are used in research and development, flight testing, missile/rocket telemetry production monitoring, power and maintenance applications. These products are sold to customers in various industries, including aerospace and defense, automotive, commercial airline, energy, manufacturing and transportation, to meet their need to acquire and record data from local and networked data streams and sensors. These products are sold to customers in various industries, including aerospace & defense, automotive, commercial airline, energy, manufacturing and transportation, to meet their need to acquire and record data from local and networked data streams and sensors. Our airborne printers, which include our flagship ToughWriter® series, are used in the flight decks and cabins of military, commercial, and business aircraft to print hard copies of data to enhance flight safety and reduce pilot workload by providing ready access to many types of critical flight-specific information required for the safe and efficient operation of aircraft. Examples of printed data include navigation maps, arrival and departure information, flight itineraries, weather maps, notice to air missions ("NOTAMs"), 3 performance data, passenger data, and air traffic control data. Examples of printed data include navigation maps, arrival and departure information, flight itineraries, weather maps, performance data, passenger data, and air traffic control data. ToughSwitch® Ethernet switches are used primarily in military aircraft and military vehicles to connect multiple computers or Ethernet devices. Our ToughWriter airborne printers and ToughSwitch ethernet switches are ruggedized to comply with rigorous military and commercial flight-worthiness standards for operation under extreme environmental conditions. The airborne printers and Ethernet switches are ruggedized to comply with rigorous military and commercial flight worthiness standards for operation under extreme environmental conditions. We are currently furnishing ToughWriter printers for various aircraft made by Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier, Lockheed, Gulfstream, and others. We are currently furnishing ToughWriter airborne printers for many aircraft made by Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier, Lockheed, Gulfstream, and others. In addition to our ToughWriter products, we furnish other acquired flight deck printer products, including the TP/NP series, the RTP80 series and the PTA-45B series of airborne printers. In addition to the ToughWriter products, we manufacture other flight deck printers, including the TP/NP series, the RTP80 series and the PTA-45B series of airborne printers. The PTA-45B is subject to an Asset Purchase and License Agreement with Honeywell International, Inc. The PTA-45B is subject to the Asset Purchase and License Agreement with Honeywell International, Inc. (the “Honeywell Agreement”), pursuant to which we acquired an exclusive perpetual worldwide license to manufacture and support Honeywell’s narrow-format flight deck printers for the Boeing B737 and Airbus A320 aircraft. (the “Honeywell Agreement”), pursuant to which in 2017 we acquired an exclusive perpetual world-wide license to manufacture and support Honeywell’s narrow-format flight deck printers for the Boeing 737 and Airbus 320 aircraft. Over time we expect customers to replace the PTA-45B and other acquired printer product lines with the AstroNova designed ToughWriter products because of its numerous technical features, functional advantages and significant weight savings. Over time we expect customers to replace the PTA-45B printers with ToughWriter products because they have numerous technical features and functional advantages and significant weight savings. Currently, approximately one-third of the airborne printers we sell are ToughWriter branded, and we expect the percentage of ToughWriter products to continue to grow over the next several years, and notably in fiscal 2026. Other T&M products include the TMX® all-in-one high-speed data acquisition system for applications requiring high channel counts and acquisition rates; the Daxus® DXS-100 distributed data acquisition platform; the SmartCorder® DDX-100, a portable all-in-one data acquisition system for R&D facility and field testing; and the Everest® EV-5000 digital strip chart recording system used mainly in aerospace and defense applications. Other T&M products include the TMX® all-in-one high-speed data acquisition system for applications requiring high channel counts and acquisition rates; the Daxus® DXS-100 distributed data acquisition platform; the SmartCorder® DDX-100, a portable all-in-one data acquisition system for facility maintenance and field testing; and the Everest® EV-5000 digital strip chart recording system used mainly in telemetry applications. The Daxus DXS-100 can be connected to the SmartCorder to increase channel count or networked as part of a distributed measurement system spanning vast distances. Technology Our core technologies are data visualization technologies that relate to (1) acquiring data; (2) conditioning the data; (3) displaying or printing the data on hard copy, visual displays or electronic storage media; and (4) analyzing the data. Technology Our core technologies are data visualization technologies that relate to (1) acquiring data, (2) conditioning the data, (3) displaying or printing the data on hard copy, monitor or electronic storage media, and (4) analyzing the data. To support our data visualization technology, we maintain technological core competencies and trade secret know-how concerning the subject matter peculiar to each business unit. To service data visualization, we maintain technological core competencies and trade know-how concerning the subject matter peculiar to each business unit. The technological disciplines are diverse and include electronic, software, mechanical and industrial engineering aspects. Additionally, we possess engineering expertise in digital signal processing, image processing, fluidics, color theory, high-speed material handling, and airworthiness design. Intellectual PropertyWe rely on a combination of copyright, patent, trademark, and trade secret laws in the United States and other jurisdictions to protect our technology and brand names. We rely on a combination of copyright, patent, trademark, and trade secret laws in the United States and other jurisdictions to protect our 5 Table of Contents technology and brand names. While we consider our intellectual property to be important to the operation of our business, other than our Honeywell license agreement, we do not believe that any existing patent, trademark, or other intellectual property right is of such significance that its loss or termination would have a material adverse effect on our business taken as a whole Manufacturing and Supplies We manufacture many of the products that we design and sell. Raw materials and supplies are typically available from a wide variety of sources. We manufacture many sub-assemblies and parts in-house, including certain specialty printed circuit board assemblies and harnesses, and we have extensive electronic and mechanical final assembly and test operations. Many parts that are not manufactured in-house are standard electronic items available from multiple sources. Many parts not manufactured in-house are standard electronic items available from multiple sources. Other printers and parts are designed or modified by us and manufactured by outside vendors according to our specifications. We also purchase certain components, assembled products, and supplies used to manufacture or to be sold with our products, from single-or limited- source suppliers. We purchase certain components, assembled products, and supplies used to manufacture our products from a single source or limited supplier sources. Although we believe the majority of these sole or limited source components, assembled products, and supplies could be sourced elsewhere with appropriate changes in the design of our products, the required design changes might not be feasible on a timely basis, and any interruption in these components, products or supplies could adversely affect our business. Although we believe the majority of these sole or limited source components, assembled products, and supplies could be sourced elsewhere with appropriate changes in the design of our products, such design might not be feasible on a timely basis, and any interruption in these components, products or supplies could adversely affect our business. When circumstances cause us to anticipate that we may not be able to acquire such components, products or supplies on a timely basis, our practice is to procure a sufficient quantity in advance. In the past, we have made such advanced purchases primarily for aerospace products and in quantities that we anticipate will suffice for the life of the aircraft program for which those printers are designed. Marketing and Competition We compete worldwide in multiple markets. Marketing and Competition We compete worldwide in multiple markets. Through our existing network of manufacturing, sales and support facilities, during fiscal 2024, we sold our products to customers in approximately 100 countries. 4 We believe we are a market leader in tabletop digital color label printing technology in the specialty on-demand printing field, the market leader in flight deck printers, and an innovator in digital color mini-press systems. We believe we are a market leader in tabletop digital color label printing technology in the specialty printing field, a market leader in flight deck printers, and an innovator in digital color mini-press systems. In the data acquisition area, we are one of the leaders in general-purpose, portable, high-speed data acquisition systems. We retain our leadership position in the markets we serve by virtue of our proprietary technology, product reputation, delivery, our channels to market, technical assistance, and service to customers. We retain our leadership position by virtue of our proprietary technology, product reputation, delivery, our channels to market, technical assistance and service to customers. The number of competitors we face in any given market varies by product line. The number of competitors varies by product line. Key competitive factors vary among our product lines but include technology, quality, service and support, distribution network and breadth of product and service offerings. Key competitive factors vary among our product lines, but include technology, quality, service and support, distribution network and breadth of product and service offerings. Our PI products are sold by direct field salespersons, OEMs, and independent dealers and representatives, while our T & M products are sold predominantly through direct sales and independent representatives. In the United States, we have factory-trained direct-field salespeople located throughout the country specializing in PI products. In the United States, we have factory-trained direct field salespeople located throughout the country specializing in Product Identification products. We also have direct field sales or service centers in Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Malaysia, Mexico, Singapore, and the United Kingdom staffed by our own employees and dedicated third-party contractors. Additionally, we utilize over 100 independent dealers and representatives selling and marketing our products in over 60 countries. Additionally, we utilize approximately 200 independent dealers and representatives selling and marketing our products in 60 countries. No single customer accounted for 10% or more of our net revenue in any of the last three fiscal years. No single customer accounted for 10% or more of our net revenue in any of the last three fiscal years. Order Backlog Our order backlog is predominantly but not exclusively for products that will be delivered within twelve months, and backlog scheduled for beyond twelve months is predominantly within the T&M segment. However, backlog varies regularly and is not a highly reliable predictive indicator of near-term future sales trends, primarily due to the frequent longer-term original equipment and supplies orders within the T&M segment. In the PI segment, we have multi-period (but typically not multi-year) blanket order arrangements with many customers for labels and other supplies. Printer hardware in the PI segment is typically shipped within a short period of time after orders are booked. Manufacturing production is designed to meet forecasted demands and built-to-order customer requirements. Backlog at January 31, 2024 and 2023 was $31. Backlog at January 31, 2022 and 2021 was $27. 4 million and $35.8 million and $22. 8 million, respectively. Government Regulation We are subject to a wide variety of laws, rules, mandates, and regulations, some of which apply or may apply to us as a result of our business, particularly with respect to our aircraft cockpit printer business which sells in a highly regulated industry. For example, material modifications to an airborne printer cannot be made without having progressed through an extensive series of product qualification and certification steps that are technically complicated, expensive to execute, typically slow the pace of product development in that industry and can constrain our ability to quickly respond to pricing fluctuations or disruptions to our supply chain for products. Other applicable and potentially applicable regulations and laws include regulations and laws regarding taxation, accounting and U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) reporting, privacy, data protection, pricing, content, distribution, energy consumption, environmental regulation, competition, consumer protection, employment, import and export matters, information reporting requirements, access to our services and facilities, the design and operation of websites, health, safety, and sanitation standards, the characteristics and quality of products and services, product labeling and unfair and deceptive trade practices. Applicable and potentially applicable regulations and laws include regulations and laws regarding taxation, privacy, data protection, pricing, content, distribution, energy consumption, environmental regulation, competition, consumer protection, employment, import and export matters, information reporting requirements, access to our services and facilities, the design and operation of websites, health, safety, and sanitation standards, the characteristics and quality of products and services, product labeling and unfair and deceptive trade practices. Our business outside of the U. Our business outside of the U. S. exposes us to foreign and additional U.S. laws and regulations, including but not limited to, laws and regulations relating to taxation, business licensing or certification requirements, consumer protection, intellectual property rights, consumer and data protection, privacy, encryption, restrictions on pricing or discounts, and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other applicable U.S. and foreign laws prohibiting corrupt payments to government officials and other third parties. Environmental Matters We believe that we are in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local laws concerning the discharge of material into the environment or otherwise relating to the protection of the environment. Environmental Matters We believe that we are in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local laws concerning the discharge of material into the environment, or otherwise relating to the protection of the environment. We have not experienced any material costs in connection with environmental compliance and do not believe that such compliance will have any material effect on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or competitive position. We have not experienced any material costs in connection with environmental compliance, and do not believe that such compliance will have any material effect upon the financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or competitive position of the Company. 5 Employees As of January 31, 2024 we employed 365 full-time employees. Employees As of January 31, 2022, we employed 339 full-time employees. Of our full-time employees, 276 were in the United States, 69 were in Europe, 11 were in Canada, seven were in Asia, and two were in Mexico. Of our full-time employees, 238 were in the United States, 80 in Europe, 10 in Canada, nine in Asia and two in Mexico. None of our employees are represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement, except for employees in France, where local regulations generally require collective bargaining agreements. None of our employees are represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement; except for our employees in France, where local regulations generally require collective bargaining agreements. Successful execution of our business strategy depends on our ability to retain several key employees in both individual contributor and management roles. Successful execution of our business strategy depends on our ability to retain several key employees in both individual contributor and management roles. We continuously assess the risk of losing our key employees through regular communications, engagement surveys and assessments of the labor market. Our retention strategy is focused on ensuring competitive compensation packages, career and professional development, leadership coaching and other initiatives to improve overall engagement with our key employees. Culture We are deeply committed to and invest substantial resources in maintaining and improving a strong and definable company culture that shapes how we operate and engage with stakeholders and employees. Our culture consists of four key components: •A powerful set of core values: Customer First, One Global Team, Innovation, Continuous Improvement and Building Shareholder Value. Our culture consists of four key components: • A powerful set of core values: Customer First, One Global Team, Innovation, Continuous Improvement and Building Shareholder Value. •The AstroNova Operating System (AOS), the comprehensive business management process which helps us manage the business in pursuit of continuous improvements in quality, delivery, cost, and growth. • The AstroNova Operating System (AOS), the comprehensive business management process which helps us manage the business to achieve continuous improvements in quality, delivery, cost, and growth. •A commitment to operating with integrity and compliance to ensure our business is conducted in an honest, legal, and environmentally responsible manner. • A commitment to operating with integrity and compliance to ensure our business is conducted in an honest, legal, and environmentally responsible manner. •A passionate commitment to quality that drives our goal to achieve zero defects and understand our customers’ changing needs and expectations. • A passionate commitment to quality that drives our goal to achieve zero defects and understand our customers’ changing needs and expectations. Our objective is for these core values to guide our employees’ behavior and direct how we conduct our business. These core values are reinforced during new hire orientation, ongoing engagement surveys, leadership development, and team development activities and are also demonstrated through teamwork, leadership, and everyday interactions. Diversity and Inclusion We believe that our culture and core values are strengthened through diversity and inclusion. Diversity and Inclusion We believe that our culture and core values are strengthened through diversity and inclusion. Our diversity initiatives include—but are not limited to—our practices and policies on recruitment and selection; compensation and benefits; professional development and training; promotions; transfers; social and recreational programs; layoffs; terminations; and the ongoing development of a work environment built on the premise of gender and diversity equity. These initiatives include targeted recruitment of women in technical, engineering and sales roles, leadership development programs for women, periodic evaluation of our workforce demographics as compared to the demographics in the workforce market, and an affirmative effort to attract, recruit, retain and train a diverse workforce that is representative of the populations in the regions in which we do business. Metrics that track performance against these goals are regularly reported to and monitored by the Human Capital and Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors. Other Information Our business is not seasonal in nature. Other Information Our business is not seasonal in nature. However, our revenue is impacted by the variable size of certain individual customer revenue transactions, which can cause fluctuations in revenue from quarter to quarter and which may be inconsistent with the underlying business or general economic trends. For example, in our T&M segment, government procurement and contracting practices can result in material fluctuations in our backlog and revenues. Information about Our Executive Officers The following sets forth certain information with respect to all executive officers of the Company. All officers serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors. 6 Mr. Woods has served as Chief Executive Officer of the Company since February 1, 2014. Mr. Woods joined the Company in September 2012 as Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer and was appointed President and Chief Operating Officer on August 29, 2013. Mr. Smith was appointed Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer of the Company effective January 22, 2018. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Smith served as Managing Partner of S.C. Advisors LLC, a financial management consultancy firm from 2008 through January 2018. Mr. Petrarca was appointed Vice President—Operations in 1998. He has previously held positions as General Manager of Manufacturing, Manager of Grass Operations and Manager of Grass Sales. He has been with the Company since 1980.Mr. Natalizia was appointed Vice President and Chief Technology Officer of the Company on March 9, 2012. Prior to this appointment, Mr. Natalizia had held the position of Director of Product Development of the Company since 2005.Mr. Carll joined the Company in 1989 and has held the position of Vice President and General Manager—Aerospace since 2011. Previously, Mr. Carll was Product Manager and National Sales Manager of the AstroNova Test & Measurement product group and, from its formation in 2004, the AstroNova Aerospace business group. Code of Ethics We have adopted a Code of Conduct which applies to all of our directors, officers and employees of the Company, including our Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”), Chief Financial Officer (“CFO”), and principal accounting officer which meets the requirements of a “code of ethics” as defined in Item 406 of Regulation S-K. A copy of the Code of Conduct will be provided to shareholders, without charge, upon request directed to Investor Relations or can be obtained on our website, (www.astronovainc.com), under the heading “Investors—Corporate Governance—Governance Documents.” We intend to disclose any amendment to, or waiver of, a provision of the Code of Conduct for the CEO, CFO, principal accounting officer, or persons performing similar functions by posting such information on our website. Available Information We make available on our website (www. Available Information We make available on our website (www. astronovainc.

com) our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and, if applicable, amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. These filings are also accessible on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Item 1A. Risk Factors The following risk factors should be carefully considered in evaluating AstroNova, because such factors may have a significant impact on our business, operating results, liquidity and financial condition. Risk Factors The following risk factors should be carefully considered in evaluating AstroNova, because such factors may have a significant impact on our business, operating results, liquidity and financial condition. As a result of the risk factors set forth below, actual results could differ materially from those projected in any forward-looking statements. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us, or that we currently consider to be immaterial, may also impact our business operations. Business and Industry Risks: Our operating results and financial condition could be harmed if the markets into which we sell our products decline or do not grow as anticipated. Our operating results and financial condition could be harmed if the markets into which we sell our products decline or do not grow as anticipated. Any decline in our customers’ markets or their general economic conditions would likely result in a reduction in demand for our products. Any decline in our customers’ markets or their general economic conditions would likely result in a reduction in demand for our products. For example, the 2020 grounding, suspension and subsequent slow restart of the Boeing B737 MAX, coupled with the 7 impact of the COVID-19 pandemic reduced the demand for our airborne printers, as well as for the related repairs and supplies, which negatively affected our business. For example, the 2020 grounding, suspension and subsequent slow restart of production of the Boeing 737 MAX, and then the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the demand for new aircraft, reduced demand for our airborne printers that are installed on that aircraft, as well as the related repairs and supplies, which has negatively affected our results of operations. Although we have experienced a significant recovery in the demand for our airborne printers following the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the demand for new aircraft and travel, demand remains lower than it was pre-pandemic, and currently the outlook is uncertain. While demand for air travel has recently increased, the impact of air-safety incidents or of another viral pandemic or other widespread health emergency could negatively impact this trend in the future. While demand for air travel has recently increased, the impact of another period of COVID-19 infections could negatively impact this trend in the future. Also, we believe that the pandemic negatively impacted our customers’ financial capacity materially enough to alter their strategies and industry dynamics, but the increase in travel demand has caused the industry profitability to rebound. Production or supply chain issues experienced by any aircraft manufacturer may cause aircraft deliveries to grow more slowly or decline, which would reduce demand for our products, and in turn harm our results of operations, financial position and cash flows. Our future revenue growth depends on our ability to develop and introduce new products and services on a timely basis and achieve market acceptance of these new products and services. 9 Table of Contents Our future revenue growth depends on our ability to develop and introduce new products and services on a timely basis and achieve market acceptance of these new products and services. The markets for our products are characterized by evolving technologies which in turn affect our product introduction cycles. The markets for our products are characterized by evolving technologies which in turn effect our product introduction cycles. Our future success depends largely upon our ability to address the rapidly changing needs of our customers by developing and supplying high-quality, cost-effective products, product enhancements and services on a timely basis and by keeping pace with technological developments and emerging industry standards. The success of our new products will also depend on our ability to differentiate our offerings from our competitors’ offerings, price our products competitively, anticipate our competitors’ development of new products, and maintain high levels of product quality and reliability. We spend a significant amount of time and effort on the development of our airborne and color printer products as well as our data acquisition and recorder products. Failure to meet our customers’ changing business needs or to further develop any of our new products and their related markets as anticipated could adversely affect our future revenue growth and operating results. As we introduce new or enhanced products, we must also successfully manage the transition from older products to minimize disruption in customers’ ordering patterns, avoid excessive levels of older product inventories and provide sufficient supplies of new products to meet customer demands. As we introduce new or enhanced products, we must also successfully manage the transition from older products to minimize disruption in customers’ ordering patterns, avoid excessive levels of older product inventories and provide sufficient supplies of new products to meet customer demands. The introduction of new or enhanced products may shorten the life cycle of our existing products, or replace sales of some of our current products, thereby offsetting the benefit of even a successful product introduction and may cause customers to defer purchasing existing products in anticipation of the new products. Additionally, when we introduce new or enhanced products, we face numerous risks relating to product transitions, including the inability to accurately forecast demand, manage excess and obsolete inventories, address new or higher product cost structures, and manage different sales and support requirements due to the type or complexity of the new products. Any customer uncertainty regarding the timeline for rolling out new products or our plans for future support of existing products may cause customers to delay purchase decisions or purchase competing products which would adversely affect our business and operating results. Operational and Business Strategy Risks: We are dependent upon contract manufacturers for some of our products. Operational and Business Strategy Risks: We are dependent upon contract manufacturers for some of our products. If these manufacturers do not meet our requirements, either in volume or quality, then we could be materially harmed. We subcontract the manufacturing and assembly of certain of our products to independent third parties at facilities located in various countries. We subcontract the manufacturing and assembly of certain of our products to independent third parties at facilities located in various countries. Relying on subcontractors involves a number of significant risks, including: •Disruptions in the global supply chain; •Limited control over the manufacturing process; •Potential absence of adequate production capacity; •Potential delays in production lead times; •Unavailability of certain process technologies; •Reduced control over delivery schedules, manufacturing yields, quality and costs; and •Exposure to rapid unplanned cost increases that cannot be adequately recovered by customer price increases due to market competition or contractual constraints. If one of our significant subcontractors becomes unable or unwilling to continue to manufacture or provide these products in required volumes, fails to meet our quality standards, or imposes rapid price increases that we cannot recover in the market, we will have to identify alternate qualified subcontractors, take over the manufacturing ourselves, or redesign our products to use components from other suppliers. Additional qualified subcontractors may not be available or may not be available on a timely or cost-competitive 8 basis. Any interruption in the supply, increase in the cost of the products manufactured by a third-party subcontractor, or failure of a subcontractor to meet quality standards could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. Any interruption in the supply, increase in the cost of the products manufactured by a third-party subcontractor or failure of a subcontractor to meet quality standards could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. For certain components, assembled products and supplies, we are dependent upon single or limited source suppliers. If these suppliers do not meet demand, either in volume or quality, then we could be materially harmed. Although we use standard parts and components for our products where possible, we purchase certain components, assembled products and supplies used in the manufacture of our products from a single source or limited supplier sources. Although we use standard parts and components for our products where possible, we purchase certain components, assembled products and supplies used in the manufacture of our products from a single source or limited supplier sources. If the supply of a key component, assembled products, or certain supplies were to be delayed or curtailed or, in the event a key manufacturing or sole supplier delays shipment of such components or assembled products, our ability to ship products in desired quantities and in a timely manner would be adversely affected. If the supply of a key component, assembled products or certain supplies were to be delayed or curtailed or, in the event a key manufacturing or sole supplier delays shipment of such components or assembled products, our ability to ship products in desired quantities and in a timely manner would be adversely affected. For example, as a result of the global COVID-19 pandemic, there was a disruption to our supply chain due to the delays of component shipments from our vendors in China and other jurisdictions in which normal business operations were disrupted. For example, due to the continued global COVID-19 pandemic, there has been and likely will continue to be disruption to our supply chain due to the delays of component shipments from our vendors in China and other jurisdictions in which normal business operations are disrupted. The supply chain disruption continues to affect our business as it has become difficult to ramp up production as quickly as needed to respond to the post-COVID increase in customer demand. Our business, results of operations and financial position could also be adversely affected, depending on the time required to obtain sufficient quantities from the original source or, if possible, to identify and obtain sufficient quantities from an alternative source as well as incurring higher costs to obtain needed components. Our business, results of operations and financial position could also be adversely affected, depending on the time required to obtain sufficient quantities from the original source or, if possible, to identify and obtain sufficient quantities from an alternative source. Additionally, if any single or limited source supplier becomes unable or unwilling to continue to supply components, assembled products, or supplies in required volumes or at acceptable prices, we will have to identify and qualify acceptable replacements or redesign our products with different components. Additionally, if any single or limited source supplier becomes unable or unwilling to continue to supply these components, assembled products or supplies in required volumes, we will have to identify and qualify acceptable replacements or redesign our products with different components. Alternative sources may not be available, or product redesign may not be feasible on a timely basis. For example, in fiscal 2023, we experienced increased difficulty in obtaining certain technology-based parts, components and supplies from the largest single supplier of our PI segment at stable or predictable prices. Additionally, we experienced repeated significant quality problems with that supplier. We have responded to these issues by increasing our inventories of those products to mitigate supply risk, negotiating quality related cost reimbursements, and in some cases, accelerating our development of PI products that rely on alternative suppliers. Description of Business Product Overview We leverage our expertise in data visualization technologies to design, manufacture and market specialty printing systems, test and measurement systems, and related services for select growing markets globally. In fiscal 2024, we incurred $0.6 million of incremental expense relating to warranty services and implementation of corrective retrofits resulting from these issues. Any interruption in the supply of or increase in the cost of the components, assembled products and supplies provided by single or limited source suppliers could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Any interruption in the supply of or increase in the cost of the components, assembled products and supplies provided by single or limited source suppliers could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. We face significant competition, and our failure to compete successfully could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. We face significant competition, and our failure to compete successfully could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. We operate in an environment of significant competition, especially in the markets in which we sell our PI printers and T&M data acquisition products. We operate in an environment of significant competition, especially in the markets in which we sell our PI printers and T&M data acquisition products. This competition is driven by rapid technological advances, evolving industry standards, frequent new product introductions and the demands of customers to become more efficient. Our competitors range from large international companies to relatively small firms. We compete based on technology, performance, price, quality, reliability, brand, distribution and customer service and support. Our success in future performance is largely dependent upon our ability to compete successfully in the markets we currently serve and to expand into additional market segments. Additionally, current competitors or new market entrants may develop new products or services with features that could adversely affect the competitive position of our products. To remain competitive, we must develop new products, services and applications and periodically enhance our existing offerings. If we are unable to compete successfully, our customers could seek alternative solutions from our competitors and we could lose market share, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial position. Our profitability is dependent upon our ability to obtain adequate pricing for our products and to control our cost structure. Our profitability is dependent upon our ability to obtain adequate pricing for our products and to control our cost structure. Our success depends on our ability to obtain adequate pricing for our products and services. Our success depends on our ability to obtain adequate pricing for our products and services. For a variety of complex reasons, many of which were triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic, the general economy has been significantly impacted by supply chain disruptions. Examples of some of these impacts on us include reduced availability of certain electronic components and the need to pay premium prices to obtain them, and noticeably higher costs for a wide array of other parts and raw material components in both of our product segments. Additionally, due to supply chain disruptions, it has become more difficult to obtain the needed components for our legacy T&M products, and as a result we have incurred higher costs to obtain these components. The supply chain disruptions have been exacerbated by increases in the cost of transportation to expedite incoming components and supplies. This has been exacerbated by significant increases in the cost of transportation to expedite incoming components and supplies. In many cases, we have had to expedite delivery of critical materials through significantly higher cost airfreight methods. Our ability to offset these effects through pricing actions for our products and services may not prove sufficient to offset these or further cost increases. Attempts to increase prices may not hold in the face of customer resistance and/or competition. If we are unable to obtain adequate pricing for our products and services, our results of operations and financial position could be materially adversely affected. We are also continually reviewing our operations with a view towards reducing our cost structure, including but not limited to reducing our labor cost-to-revenue ratio, improving process and system efficiencies and outsourcing certain internal functions. We are also continually reviewing our operations with a view towards reducing our cost structure, including but not limited to reducing our labor cost-to-revenue ratio, improving process and system efficiencies and 11 Table of Contents outsourcing certain internal functions. In fiscal 2024, we engaged in restructuring actions to reduce our cost structure in our PI segment. However, if these efforts to constrain the cost of our operations are inadequate to offset higher product and employee wage costs, our results of operations and financial position could be materially adversely affected. 9 Our inability to adequately enforce and protect our intellectual property defend against assertions of infringement or the loss of certain licenses could prevent or restrict our ability to compete. Our inability to adequately enforce and protect our intellectual property, defend against assertions of infringement or lose certain licenses could prevent or restrict our ability to compete. We rely on patents, trademarks, licenses, and proprietary knowledge and technology, both internally developed and acquired, in order to maintain a competitive advantage. We rely on patents, trademarks, licenses, and proprietary knowledge and technology, both internally developed and acquired, in order to maintain a competitive advantage. Our competitors may develop technologies that are similar or superior to our proprietary technologies or design technologies around the intellectual property protections or licenses that we currently own. The loss of our Honeywell license agreement could have a material adverse impact on our business. Operating outside the United States also exposes us to additional intellectual property risk. The laws and enforcement practices of certain jurisdictions in which we operate do not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as in the United States. Any diminution in our ability to defend against the unauthorized use of these rights and assets could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. Litigation may be necessary to protect our intellectual property rights or defend against claims of infringement, which could result in significant costs and divert our management’s focus away from operations. We have significant inventories on hand. We have significant inventories on hand. We maintain a significant amount of inventory, and as a result of recent supply chain disruptions and announced or anticipated price increases from suppliers, we have further increased the amount of inventory we maintain on hand to ensure we are able to meet market demand for our products at a reasonable price. These increases have been concentrated in label printing machines and supplies sold by our PI business, as well as in electronic components and assemblies in our T&M business. We maintain allowances for slow-moving and obsolete inventory that we believe are adequate, but any significant unanticipated changes in future product demand or market conditions, could have an impact on the value of inventory and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. We could incur liabilities as a result of installed product failures due to design or manufacturing defects. We could incur liabilities as a result of installed product failures due to design or manufacturing defects. We have incurred and could in the future incur additional liabilities because of product failures due to design or manufacturing defects. We have incurred and could in the future incur additional liabilities because of product failures due to design or manufacturing defects. Our products may have defects despite our internal testing or testing by customers. These defects could result in, among other things, increased warranty provisions, a delay in recognition of sales, loss of sales, loss of market share, failure to achieve market acceptance, or damage to our reputation. These defects could result in among other things, a delay in recognition of sales, loss of sales, loss of market share, failure to achieve market acceptance or damage to our reputation. We could be subject to material claims by customers and may incur substantial expenses to correct any product defects. While in the past, we have successfully obtained partial compensation from suppliers for their contribution to product quality issues, we may not be successful in such a recovery in the future, and these recoveries have not in the past and are not in the future likely to fully offset the full financial impact on us. For example, in fiscal 2023, the quality of products obtained from one of the key suppliers to our PI segment declined and we were unable to detect latent defects in their products in a timely manner, which resulted in our incurring increased technical service and warranty expenses. We obtained partial compensation from that supplier, but this was insufficient to fully cover all of our costs related to this issue. We also believe we have experienced demand declines as a result of customers’ perceptions of the quality defects related to this supplier. In fiscal 2024, we continued to have quality and reliability issues in certain models of our PI printers as a result of faulty ink provided by one of our larger suppliers. During the second quarter of fiscal 2024, we initiated a program to retrofit all of the printers sold to our customers that were affected by the faulty ink at a total cost of $0.6 million. If we continue to experience product failures due to design or manufacturing defects, our business, results of operations and financial position could be materially and adversely affected.In addition, through our acquisitions, we have assumed, and may in the future, assume liabilities related to products previously developed by an acquired company that may not have been subjected to adequate product development, testing and quality control processes, and may have unknown or undetected defects. In addition, through our acquisitions, we have assumed, and may in the future assume, liabilities related to products previously developed by an acquired company that have not been subjected to adequate product development, testing and quality control processes, and may have unknown or undetected defects. Some types of defects may not be detected until the product is installed in a user environment. This may cause us to incur significant warranty, repair, or re-engineering costs. As such, it could also divert the attention of engineering personnel from product development efforts, which may result in increased costs and lower profitability. We could experience a significant disruption in or security breach of our information technology system, which could harm our business and adversely affect our results of operations. We could experience a significant disruption in or security breach of our information technology system which could harm our business and adversely affect our results of operations. We rely on on-premise and cloud-based information technology systems, some of which are managed by or licensed from third parties, to support many critical aspects of our business, as well as to process, transmit and store our own electronic proprietary or confidential information, and confidential information of customers, employees, suppliers and others, including personally identifiable information, credit card data, and other proprietary confidential information. We rely on on-premises and cloud-based information technology systems, some of which are managed by or licensed from third parties, to support many critical aspects of our business, as well as, to process, transmit and 12 Table of Contents store our own electronic proprietary or confidential information, and confidential information of customers, employees, suppliers and others including personally identifiable information, credit card data, and other proprietary confidential information. These systems are vulnerable to damage, disruptions and/or shutdowns due to attacks by cyber-criminals, data breaches, employee error, power outages, computer viruses, telecommunication or utility failures, systems failures, natural disasters, catastrophic events, or other unforeseen events. These systems are vulnerable to damage, disruptions and/or shutdowns due to attack by cyber-criminals, data breaches, employee error, power outages, computer viruses, telecommunication or utility failures, systems failures, natural disasters, catastrophic events or other unforeseen events. These vulnerabilities could interfere with our operations, compromise our data processing capacity and the security of our information and that of our customers and suppliers, and expose us to liability which could adversely impact our business and reputation. We actively manage these risks through a variety of hardware and software-based techniques that we own, license, or otherwise procure from third parties under contract to safeguard our systems, and we own or procure from third parties system data storage redundancy and disaster recovery capability. In particular, we have increased our investment in tools, techniques and training that we believe will reduce our vulnerability to attacks from cyber-criminals. However, due to the complexity of our systems, and especially due to the ever-increasing sophistication of cyber-criminals, there is no assurance that our efforts will be sufficient to prevent cyber-attacks, security 10 breaches, or the other potential exploitation of vulnerabilities or systems failures. However due to the complexity of our systems, and especially due to the ever-increasing sophistication of cyber-criminals, there is no assurance that our efforts will be sufficient to prevent cyber-attacks, security breaches, or the other potential exploitation of vulnerabilities or systems failures. In any such circumstance, our system redundancy and other disaster recovery planning may be ineffective or inadequate. While we have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, these types of threats to our information technology networks and infrastructure, none of them to date has had a material impact. However, in the future, such events could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability or penalties under privacy laws, disruption in operations, and damage to our brand and reputation, all of which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. However, in the future such events could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability or penalties under privacy laws, disruption in operations, and damage to our brand and reputation, all of which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. We maintain insurance for a variety of cybersecurity risks to mitigate their possible impact, but because of the prevalence of claims in the market for cybersecurity insurance, the cost for that insurance has increased and the underwriting criteria to obtain such insurance has become far more demanding. There is no assurance that we will be able to obtain such insurance in the future, despite our substantial investments in cybersecurity, and if we are able to do so, it may be at substantially higher costs. In addition, in response to these higher costs, we may choose to reduce the amount of insurance we maintain because we believe our improvements in our cybersecurity profile have reduced our risk exposure relative to the increased cost of insurance. If our risk assessments prove incorrect and we were to have a loss not fully covered by insurance, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially negatively impacted. We depend on our key employees and other highly qualified personnel and our ability to attract and develop new, talented professionals. We depend on our key employees and other highly qualified personnel and our ability to attract and develop new, talented professionals. Our inability to attract and retain key employees, as well as challenges with respect to the management of human capital resources, could compromise our future success and our business could be harmed. Our future success depends upon our ability to attract and retain, through competitive compensation and benefits programs, professional and executive employees, including sales, operating, marketing, and financial management personnel as well as our ability to manage human capital resources. Our future success depends upon our ability to attract and retain, through competitive compensation and benefits programs, professional and executive employees, including sales, operating, marketing, and financial management personnel as well as our ability to manage human capital resources. There is substantial competition for skilled personnel, and the failure to attract, develop, retain and motivate adequately qualified personnel could negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. There is substantial competition for skilled personnel, and the failure to attract, develop, retain and motivate qualified personnel could negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In order to hire new personnel or retain or replace our key personnel, we must maintain competitive compensation and benefits, and we may also be required to increase compensation, which would decrease net income. Additionally, several key employees have special knowledge of customers, supplier relationships, business processes, manufacturing operations, regulatory and customer quality compliance management, and financial management issues. Additionally, several key employees have special knowledge of customers, supplier relationships, business processes, manufacturing operations, and financial management issues. The loss of any of these employees as the result of competitive compensation pressures or ineffective management of human capital resources could harm our ability to perform efficiently and effectively until their knowledge and skills are replaced, which might be difficult to do quickly, and as a result could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Failure to retain or attract key personnel could impede our ability to grow and could result in our inability to operate our business profitably. Although we have not experienced any material disruptions due to labor shortages to date, we have observed an overall tightening and increasingly competitive labor market, and the demand for qualified individuals is expected to remain strong for the foreseeable future. Although we have not experienced any material disruptions due to labor shortages to date, we have observed an overall tightening and increasingly competitive labor market, and the demand for qualified individuals is expected to remain strong for the foreseeable future. Any sustained labor shortage or increased turnover rates within our employee base, could lead to increased costs and lost profitability and could otherwise compromise our ability to efficiently operate our business. Any sustained labor shortage or increased turnover rates within our employee base, whether caused by COVID-19 or as a result of general macroeconomic factors or wage competition, could lead to increased costs and lost profitability and could otherwise compromise us in efficiently operating our business. We may record future impairment charges, which could materially adversely impact our results of operations. We may record future impairment charges, which could materially adversely impact our results of operations. We test our goodwill balances annually, or more frequently if indicators are present or changes in circumstances suggest that impairment may exist. We test our goodwill balances annually, or more frequently if indicators are present or changes in circumstances suggest that impairment may exist. We assess goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level and monitor the key drivers of fair value to detect events or other changes that would warrant an interim impairment test of our goodwill and intangible assets. We assess goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level 13 Table of Contents and, monitor the key drivers of fair value to detect events or other changes that would warrant an interim impairment test of our goodwill and intangible assets. Declines in the future performance and cash flows of a reporting unit or asset group, changes in our reporting units or in the structure of our business as a result of future reorganizations, acquisitions or divestitures of assets or businesses, or changes in other key assumptions, may result in the recognition of significant asset impairment charges, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations. We also review our long-lived assets including property, plant and equipment, and other intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. We also review our long-lived assets including property, plant and equipment, and other intangibles assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Factors we consider include significant under-performance relative to expected historical or projected future operating results, significant negative industry or economic trends and our market capitalization relative to net book value. We may be required in the future to record a significant charge to earnings in our financial statements during the period in which any impairment of our long-lived assets is determined. Such charges could have a significant adverse impact on our results of operations and our financial condition. Financial and Economic Risks: We face risks related to recession, inflation, stagflation and other economic conditions. Customer demand for our products may be impacted by weak economic conditions, inflation, stagflation, recession, rising interest rates, equity market volatility or other negative economic factors in the U.S. or other nations. For example, under these conditions or the expectation of such conditions, our customers may cancel orders, delay purchasing decisions, or reduce their use of 11 our services. In addition, these economic conditions could result in higher inventory levels and the possibility of additional charges if we request changes in delivery schedules or if suppliers incur additional costs that they pass on to us. Further, in the event of a recession or threat of a recession, our suppliers, distributors, and other third-party partners may suffer their own financial and economic challenges and, as a result, they may demand pricing accommodations, delay payment, or become insolvent, which could harm our ability to meet our customers’ demands or collect revenue or could otherwise harm our business. Similarly, disruptions in financial or credit markets may impact our ability to manage normal commercial relationships with our customers, suppliers and creditors and might cause us to not be able to continue to access preferred sources of liquidity when we would like if at all, and our borrowing costs could increase. Thus, if general macroeconomic conditions continue to deteriorate, our business and financial results could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. In addition, we are subject to risks from inflation and increasing market prices of certain components, supplies, and raw materials, which are incorporated into our end products or used by our suppliers to manufacture our end products. These components, supplies and other raw materials have from time to time become restricted. General market factors and conditions have in the past and may in the future affect pricing of such components, supplies, and commodities. Economic, political and other risks associated with international sales and operations could adversely affect our results of operations and financial position. Because we sell our products worldwide, our business is subject to risks associated with doing business internationally. Because we sell our products worldwide, our business is subject to risks associated with doing business internationally. Revenue from international operations, which includes both direct and indirect sales to customers outside the U.S., accounted for approximately 43% of our total revenue for fiscal 2024, and we anticipate that international sales will continue to account for a significant portion of our revenue., accounted for approximately 40% of our total revenue for fiscal year 2022, and we anticipate that international sales will continue to account for a significant portion of our revenue. In addition, we have employees, suppliers, contractors and facilities located outside the U.S. Accordingly, our business, operating results and financial condition could be harmed by a variety of factors, including: •Interruption to transportation flows for delivery of parts to us and finished goods to our customers; •Customer and vendor financial stability; •Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; •Changes in a specific country’s or region’s environment including political, economic, monetary, regulatory, or other conditions; •Trade protection measures and import or export licensing requirements; •Negative consequences from changes in tax laws; •Difficulty in managing and overseeing operations that are distant and remote from corporate headquarters; •Difficulty in obtaining and maintaining adequate staffing; •Differing labor regulations; •Failure to comply with complex and rapidly changing government economic sanctions against other countries, especially arising from responses to armed conflict; •Unexpected changes in regulatory requirements; and•Geopolitical turmoil, including terrorism, war and public health disruptions, such as that caused by the COVID-19 pandemic or Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. To date, the impact of the Russian invasion of Ukraine and the resulting governmental sanctions and our decision to halt all activities in the affected areas has had an immaterial direct impact on our revenues. To date the impact of the Russian invasion of Ukraine and the resulting governmental sanctions and our decision to halt all activities in the affected areas has had an immaterial impact on revenues. We believe, however, that the impact on the economies of Western Europe, especially Germany, which is the largest non-North American market for our products, has had a negative impact on demand for our products. Changes in our tax rates or exposure to additional income tax liabilities or assessments could affect our profitability. In addition, audits by tax authorities could result in additional tax payments for prior periods. As a global company, we are subject to taxation in numerous countries, states and other jurisdictions. As a global company, we are subject to taxation in numerous countries, states and other jurisdictions. As a result, our effective tax rate is based on the tax rates in effect where we operate. In preparing our financial statements, we estimate the amount of tax that will become payable in each jurisdiction. Our effective tax rate may vary as a result of numerous factors, including changes in the mix of our profitability from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, the results of examinations and audits of our tax filings, whether we secure or sustain acceptable arrangements with tax authorities, adjustments to the value of our uncertain tax positions, changes in accounting for income taxes and changes in tax laws. Any of these factors could cause us to experience an effective tax rate significantly different from previous periods or our current expectations. 12 Changes to tax laws and regulations or changes to the interpretation thereof, the ambiguity of tax laws and regulations, the subjectivity of factual interpretations, uncertainties regarding the geographic mix of earnings in any particular period, and other factors could have a material impact on our estimates of our effective tax rate and our deferred tax assets and liabilities. The impact of these factors may be substantially different from period to period. In addition, the amount of income taxes we pay is subject to ongoing audits by U.S. federal, state, and local tax authorities. If audits result in payments or assessments different from our reserves, our future results may include unfavorable adjustments to our tax liabilities and our financial statements could be adversely affected. Any further significant changes to the tax system in the United States or in other jurisdictions (including changes in the taxation of international income as further described below) could adversely affect our financial statements. We may have exposure to additional tax liabilities, which could negatively impact our income tax expense, net income and cash flow. We may have exposure to additional tax liabilities, which could negatively impact our income tax expense, net income and cash flow. We are subject to income and other taxes in both the U. We are subject to income and other taxes in both the U. S. and the foreign jurisdictions in which we operate. The determination of our worldwide provision for income taxes and current and deferred tax assets and liabilities requires judgment and estimation. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. We are subject to regular review and audit by both domestic and foreign tax authorities and to the prospective and retrospective effects of changing tax regulations and legislation. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the ultimate tax outcome may materially differ from the amounts recorded in our consolidated financial statements and may materially affect our income tax benefit or expense, net loss or income, and cash flows in the period in which such determination is made. Deferred tax assets are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amount for financial reporting purposes and the tax bases of assets and liabilities, and for net operating losses and tax credit carry forwards. Deferred tax assets are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amount for financial reporting purposes and the tax bases of assets and liabilities, and for net operating losses and tax credit carry forwards. In some cases, we may record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to estimated realizable value. We review our deferred tax assets and valuation allowance requirements quarterly. If we are unable to demonstrate that it is more likely than not that we will not be able to generate sufficient future taxable income to realize the net carrying value of deferred tax assets, we will record a valuation allowance to reduce the deferred tax assets to estimated realizable value, which could result in a material income tax charge. As part of our review, we consider positive and negative evidence, including cumulative results of recent years. If we are unable to successfully comply with our credit agreement with Bank of America or secure alternative financing, our business and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. If we are unable to successfully comply with our credit agreement with Bank of America or secure alternative financing, our business and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. Our credit agreement with Bank of America, N.A. requires us, among other things, to satisfy certain financial ratios on an ongoing basis, consisting of a maximum consolidated leverage ratio, a minimum consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio and an asset coverage ratio. Our credit agreement with Bank of America requires us, among other things, to satisfy certain financial ratios on an ongoing basis, consisting of a maximum consolidated leverage ratio and a minimum consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio. We are also required to comply with other covenants and conditions, set forth in the credit agreement, including, among others, limitations on our and our subsidiaries’ ability to incur future indebtedness, to place liens on assets, to pay dividends or distributions on their capital stock, to repurchase or acquire their capital stock, to conduct mergers or acquisitions, to sell assets, to alter their capital structure, to make investments and loans, to change the nature of their business, and to prepay subordinated indebtedness, in each case subject to certain exceptions and thresholds as set forth in the credit agreement. We are also required to comply with other covenants and conditions, set forth in the credit agreement, including, among others, limitations on our and our subsidiaries’ ability to incur future indebtedness, to place liens on assets, to pay dividends or distributions on their capital stock, to repurchase or 15 Table of Contents acquire their capital stock, to conduct mergers or acquisitions, to sell assets, to alter their capital structure, to make investments and loans, to change the nature of their business, and to prepay subordinated indebtedness, in each case subject to certain exceptions and thresholds as set forth in the credit agreement. If we were to violate the terms of the credit agreement and we were unable to renegotiate its terms at that time or secure alternative financing, it could have a material adverse impact on us. The agreements governing our indebtedness subject us to various restrictions that limit our ability to pursue business opportunities. The agreements governing our indebtedness subject us to various restrictions that limit our ability to pursue business opportunities. The credit agreement governing our credit facility with Bank of America, N. The credit agreement governing our credit facility with Bank of America, N. A. contains, and any future debt agreements may include several restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us and our subsidiaries., as amended, contains, and any future debt agreements may include, several re