Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - NAHD

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$NAHD Risk Factor changes from 00/05/15/23/2023 to 00/05/16/24/2024

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS. Certain factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Investors should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and other reports we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), including our historical and financial statements and related notes. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that adversely affect our business. If any of the following risks or uncertainties actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, cash flows and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. As a result, the price of our common stock could decline significantly, and an investor could lose all or part of its investment in our common stock. The risks discussed below include forward-looking statements, and our actual results may differ substantially from those discussed in these forward-looking statements. Risk Related to Our Business and Our Industry General Risks The use of the Company's software ("Software") were subjected to different degrees of economic, political, foreign exchange, interest rates, liquidity, repatriation, volatility default and regulatory risks, depending on each relevant model. General Risks The use of the Company's software ("Software") were subjected to different degrees of economic, political, foreign exchange, interest rates, liquidity, repatriation, volatility default and regulatory risks, depending on each relevant model. NAHD's proprietary trainable trading algorithm software signals generated were based on factual inputs and information from the market and are not deemed as financial advice. Past results are not necessarily indicative of future results. Notwithstanding the use of our Proprietary Trainable Trading Algorithms ("Series of Algorithms"), the value of investments may fall as well as rise and a holder may not recoup its capital. There can be no assurance that the performance of a Series of Algorithms will be profitable. There can be no assurance that 9 the performance of a Series of Algorithms will be profitable. On establishment, a Series of Algorithms did not have any operating history upon which stockholders may base an evaluation of performance. On establishment, a Series of Algorithms did not have any operating history upon which stockholders may base an evaluation of performance. Change in Strategies The strategies, approaches and techniques discussed herein may evolve over time due to, among other things, market developments and trends, the emergence of new or enhanced products, changing industry practice and/or technological innovation. As a result, these strategies, approaches and techniques may not reflect the strategies, approaches and techniques actually employed by NAHD or its Software. Nevertheless, the strategies employed in the Software will be consistent with the NAHD's objective. Fundamental Strategies Fundamental analysis, which posits that markets are imperfect and that mispricings can be identified between prevailing market prices and those indicated by underlying fundamental data, is subject to the risk of inaccurate or incomplete market information, as well as the difficulty of predicting prices based on such information. Furthermore, even if an analyst is able to successfully identify mispricings on the basis of fundamental factors, there is the additional uncertainty of predicting the duration or degree of such mispricings and, accordingly, when or whether to enter so as to profit from them. Positions made based on fundamental analysis are subject to significant losses when market sentiment leads to the market price of the Software being materially discounted from the level indicated by Software fundamental analysis or technical factors, such as price momentum or option expirations, dominate the market. Model and Data Risk NAHD relies heavily on quantitative models ("Models") and information and data ("Data"). Models and Data are used to construct sets of transactions, to evaluate potential opportunities, to provide risk management insights and to assist in hedging the Software's trades. Models and Data are known to have errors, omissions, imperfections and malfunctions (collectively, "System Events"). System Events in third-party Models are generally entirely outside of the control of NAHD. 9 NAHD sought to reduce the incidence and impact of System Events through a certain degree of internal testing and real-time monitoring, and the use of independent safeguards in the overall portfolio management system and often, with respect to proprietary models, in the software code itself. NAHD sought to reduce the incidence and impact of System Events through a certain degree of internal testing and real-time monitoring, and the use of independent safeguards in the overall portfolio management system and often, with respect to proprietary models, in the software code itself. Despite such testing, monitoring and independent safeguards, System Events will result in, among other things, the execution of unanticipated trades, the failure to execute anticipated trades, delays in the execution of anticipated trades, the failure to properly allocate trades, the failure to properly gather and organize available data, the failure to take certain hedging or risk reducing actions and/or the taking of actions which increase certain risk(s)—all of which may have materially negative effects on the Software and/or its returns. The strategies of the Software are highly reliant on the gathering, cleaning, culling and analysis of large amounts of Data. Accordingly, Models rely heavily on appropriate Data inputs. However, it is not possible or practicable to factor all relevant, available Data into forecasts and/or trading decisions of the Models. NAHD uses its discretion to determine what Data to gather with respect to each Strategy and what subset of that Data the Models take into account to produce forecasts which may have an impact on ultimate trading decisions. In addition, due to the automated nature of Data gathering, the volume and depth of Data available, the complexity and often manual nature of Data cleaning, and the fact that the substantial majority of Data comes from third-party sources, it is inevitable that not all desired and/or relevant Data will be available to, or processed by, NAHD (the "Manager") at all times. If incorrect Data is fed into even a well-founded Model, it may lead to a System Event subjecting the Software to loss. Further, even if Data is input correctly, "model prices" anticipated by the Data through the Models may differ substantially from market prices. Where incorrect or incomplete Data is available, NAHD may, and often did, continue to generate forecasts and make trading decisions based on the Data available to it. Additionally, it may determine that certain available Data, while potentially useful in generating forecasts and/or making trade decisions, is not cost effective to gather due to either the technology costs or third-party vendor costs and, in such cases, the Manager will not utilize such Data. There is no guarantee that any specific Data or type of Data will be utilized in generating forecasts or making trading decisions with respect to the Models, nor is there any guarantee that the Data actually utilized in generating forecasts or making trading decisions underlying the Models will be the most accurate data available. It is assumed that the Data set used in connection with the Models is limited and should understand that the foregoing risks associated with gathering, cleaning, culling and analysis of large amounts of Data are an inherent part of the development with a process-driven, systematic adviser such as the Manager. When Models and Data prove to be incorrect, misleading or incomplete, any decisions made in reliance thereon expose the Software to potential losses. For example, by relying on Models and Data, the system may be induced to trade at positions that are too high, to sell at positions that are too low, or to miss favorable opportunities altogether. In addition, Models may incorrectly forecast future behavior, leading to potential losses and/or a mark-to-market basis. Furthermore, in unforeseen or certain low-probability scenarios (often involving a market disruption of some kind), Models may produce unexpected results which may or may not be System Events. Errors in Models and Data are often extremely difficult to detect, and, in the case of proprietary models and third-party models, the difficulty of detecting System Events may be exacerbated by the lack of design documents or specifications. Regardless of how difficult their detection appears in retrospect; some System Events will go undetected for long periods of time and some may never be detected. The degradation or impact caused by these System Events can compound over time. Finally, NAHD will detect certain System Events that it chooses, in its sole discretion, not to address or fix, and the third-party software will lead to System Events known to the Manager that it chooses, in its sole discretion, not to address or fix. The Company believed that the testing and monitoring performed on its models and third-party models would enable it to identify and address those System Events that a prudent person managing a process-driven, systematic and computerized software program would identify and address by correcting the underlying issue(s) giving rise to the System Events or limiting the use of proprietary and third party models, generally or in a particular application. The Company believes that the testing and monitoring performed on its models and third-party models will enable it to identify and address those System Events that a prudent person managing a process-driven, systematic and computerized software program would identify and address by correcting the underlying issue(s) giving rise to the System Events or limiting the use of proprietary and third party models, generally or in a particular application. Holders should assume that System Events and their ensuing risks and impact are an inherent part of development with a process-driven, systematic investment manager such as NAHD, as the Manager. Accordingly, NAHD does not expect to disclose discovered System Events to the Software or to Holders. 10 The Software will bear the risks associated with the reliance on Models and Data including that the Software will bear all losses related to System Events other than in relation to losses arising from the Manager's willful default, fraud or gross negligence. The Software will bear the risks associated with the reliance on Models and Data including that the Software will bear all losses related to System Events other than in relation to losses arising from the Manager's willful default, fraud or gross negligence. Involuntary Disclosure Risk The ability of the system to achieve its goals for the Software is dependent in large part on its ability to develop and protect its models and proprietary research. The models and proprietary research and the Models and Data are largely protected by NAHD through the use of policies, procedures, agreements, and similar measures designed to create and enforce robust confidentiality, non-disclosure, and similar safeguards. However, aggressive position-level public disclosure obligations (or disclosure obligations to exchanges or regulators with insufficient privacy safeguards) could lead to opportunities for competitors to reverse-engineer the Manager's models, and thereby impair the relative or absolute performance of the Software. Specific Risks Liquidity Risk Liquidity represents the volume of Forex transactions that can be executed for a certain currency pair at a certain time. The liquidity depends on the number of Forex market participants and the size of the market participants' offers. The major currencies which are the most traded usually offer a better liquidity than any other currencies. The liquidity is subject to sharp fluctuations depending on the currency, the economic or political events and news such as financial crisis, or to any other events which are beyond the control of NAHD. A market with low liquidity would increase the risk associated with Forex trading significantly. In a case of low liquidity, the Holder may not be able to buy or sell orders or may need to liquidate all or parts of its positions at high losses. Volatility Risk As Forex market is subject to high degree of volatility, the currency prices would also be subjected to extensive fluctuations in response to numerous factors which are often beyond the control of NAHD. The market can move acutely in favor or against the Holder's positions. A drop in market liquidity, any unanticipated changes in economic or political conditions, a financial crisis or any other event can (though it may not) accelerate the market conditions in which currency price could move sharply and unexpectedly higher or lower in a volatile pattern. Market and Price Risks The Software's strategy is subject to some dimension of market risk: directional price movements, deviations from historical pricing relationships, changes in the regulatory environment, changes in market volatility, "flights to quality", "credit squeezes", etc. The NAHD style of alternative trading may be no less speculative than traditional strategies. On the contrary, due in part to the degree of leverage embedded in software in which the Software may invest, the Software may from time to time incur sudden and dramatic losses. The particular or general types of market conditions in which the Software may incur losses or experience unexpected performance volatility cannot be predicted, and the Software may materially under-perform. The Holder's position on various transactions may be liquidated at a loss where the Holder will then be liable for any resulting deficit. Under certain circumstances, it may be difficult to liquidate an existing position, assess the value, determine a fair price or assess its exposure to risk. Foreign Exchange Risk Transactions involving currencies would incur risks including, but not limited to, the potential for changing political and/or economic conditions that may substantially affect the price or liquidity of a currency. Foreign exchange speculation may also be susceptible to sharp rises and falls as the relevant market values fluctuate. 11 Leverage Risk The Software makes use of leverage on relatively small margin deposits. Leverage Risk The Software makes use of leverage on relatively small margin deposits. Trading on margin and leverage means that the Holder can buy and sell assets that represent more value than the capital in the Holder's account. A leverage of 50 times means the Holder can buy or sell up to $1,000,000 worth with only a capital of $20,000. High leverage or low margin can result in significant losses as a relatively small price movement may cause a proportionately larger impact on participating placements. The leveraged nature of the Software means that the Holder would increase his exposure risk the volatility of the market and a change in the market would result in greater change in the position taken by the Holder ("leverage effect"). Holders may get back less than placed and, in the case of higher risk strategies, Holders may lose the entirety of their placement. Currency Risk Currency trading presents unique risks. The interbank market consists of a direct dealing market, in which a participant trades directly with a participating bank or dealer, and a brokers' market. The brokers' market differs from the direct dealing market in that the banks or financial institutions serve as intermediaries rather than principals to the transaction. In the brokers' market, brokers may add a commission to the prices they communicate to their customers, or they may incorporate a fee into the quotation of price. Arbitrage and Spread Trading Risks Arbitrage and spread strategies attempt to take advantage of perceived price discrepancies of identical or similar financial instruments, on different markets or in different forms. To the extent the price relationships between such positions remain constant, no gain or loss on the positions will occur. If the requisite elements of an arbitrage strategy are not properly analyzed, or unexpected events or price movements intervene, losses can occur which can be magnified to the extent the Software is employing leverage. Arbitrage strategies often depend upon identifying favorable "spreads" which can also be identified, reduced or eliminated by other market participants. In periods of trendless, stagnant markets and/or deflation, many alternative strategies have materially diminished prospects for profitability. Quantitative Trading Quantitative trading strategies are highly complex, and, for their successful application, require relatively sophisticated mathematical calculations and relatively complex computer programs. These trading strategies are dependent upon various computer and telecommunications technologies and upon adequate liquidity in the markets traded. The successful execution of these strategies could be severely compromised by, among other things, a diminution in the liquidity of the markets traded, telecommunications failures, power loss and software-related "system crashes." There are also periods when even an otherwise highly successful system incurs major losses due to external factors dominating the market, such as natural catastrophes and political interventions. Transaction costs incurred by quantitative trading strategies may be significant. In addition, the difference between the expected price of a trade and the price at which a trade is executed, or "slippage," may be significant and may result in losses. Due to the nature of their trading, quantitative trading firms may suffer devastating losses in a very short period of time. For example, in August 2012 Knight Capital accidentally deployed test software code to a production environment, causing a major disruption in the stock prices of over 100 listed companies which in turn resulted in the collapse of Knight Capital's stock price. A similar trading software mistake by the Manager could result in material or even total losses to the Software and NAHD. Reliance on Technology and Electronic Trading NAHD relies heavily on computer hardware and software, online services and other computer-related or electronic technology and equipment to facilitate the Software's activities. Specifically, the Software may trade financial instruments through electronic trading or order routing systems, which differ from traditional open outcry pit trading and manual order routing methods. Such electronic trading exposes the Software to risks associated with system or component failure, which could render NAHD unable to enter new orders, execute existing orders or modify or cancel previously entered orders. System or component failure may also result in loss of orders or order priority. Should 12 events beyond NAHD's control cause a disruption in the operation of any technology or equipment, the Software's program may be severely impaired, causing it to experience substantial losses or other adverse effects. Should events beyond NAHD's control cause a disruption in the operation of any technology or equipment, the Software's program may be severely impaired, causing it to experience substantial losses or other adverse effects. A disaster or a disruption in the infrastructure that supports NAHD's business, including a disruption involving electronic communications or other services used by it or third parties with whom it conducts business, or directly affecting one of its offices or facilities, may have a material adverse effect on its ability to continue to operate the business without interruption. Although the Manager and its affiliates have back-up facilities for their information systems as well as technology and business continuity programs in place, there can be no assurance that these will be sufficient to mitigate the harm that may result from such a disaster or infrastructure disruption. In addition, insurance and other safeguards might only partially mitigate the effects of such a disaster or disruption. Systems Security Despite the implementation of operating controls for detecting unauthorized intrusion, security breach and security attack, NAHD will be unable to prevent all forms of unauthorized access to the systems it operates and the systems it uses which are provided by third-party service providers. 13 Systems Security Despite the implementation of operating controls for detecting unauthorized intrusion, security breach and security attack, NAHD will be unable to prevent all forms of unauthorized access to the systems it operates and the systems it uses which are provided by third-party service providers. NAHD will not be held liable for any trading or personal data leakage and any consequences and will not reimburse the Software for any loss caused by the unauthorized intrusion to its systems which is out of the Manager's control. Technical Analysis and Trading Systems NAHD employs technical analysis and/or technical trading systems. Technical strategies rely on information intrinsic to the market itself to determine trades, such as prices, price patterns, momentum, volume and volatility. As discussed above, these strategies can incur major losses when factors exogenous to the markets themselves, including political events, natural catastrophes, acts of war or terrorism, dominate the markets. Failure of Algorithms NAHD utilized computerized models to automatically determine and execute trade entry and exit conditions and manage risk, consistent with the risk requirements of its clients. NAHD makes efforts to test management and software releases to ensure that these algorithms operate correctly. However, it is possible that a defect in algorithm design or implementation or risk management could unexpectedly manifest and cause sustained long-term or virtually instantaneous catastrophic losses for the Software. Possible Effects of Technical Trading Systems There has been, in recent years, a substantial increase in interest in technical futures trading systems, like NAHD's systems. As the capital under the management of such trading systems based on the same general principles increases, an increasing number of traders may attempt to initiate or liquidate substantial positions at or about the same time as the Software, or otherwise alter historical trading patterns or affect the execution of trades, to the significant detriment of the Software. Cybersecurity Risk NAHD's hardware and software systems are subject to threats from hackers and others, such as a malicious attack, malware or other event that leads to unanticipated interruption or malfunction of such systems. Any interruption of NAHD's hardware or software functionality could lead to material or even complete losses to the Software. Hackers could also theoretically access and steal the Manager's research, models, trading programs or other software or data and implement such programs or software on their own behalf. This could lead to increased competition for, or elimination of, the opportunities sought by the Software or otherwise render the models developed by NAHD obsolete, possibly resulting in material or complete losses to the Software. 13 Failure of Connectivity NAHD's models may trade frequently and may depend on low latency to be profitable. Failure of Connectivity NAHD's models may trade frequently and may depend on low latency to be profitable. As a result, the success of the Manager's models depends on network connectivity. Any disruption or failure of the Manager's network connectivity, or even a delay in transmission speed, could result in substantial or total losses to the Software. Computer Hardware and Software Many components of the Manager's critical computer hardware and software may have flaws, may not be redundant, may be leased rather than owned, or may be provided in whole or in part by another party. Should these components fail or be inaccessible, there is no certainty that the Manager will be able to recover promptly, and the Software may suffer material or total losses as a result. Risks of Ineffective Risk Management Systems NAHD continuously reviewed and refined its risk management techniques, strategies and assessment methods. 14 Risks of Ineffective Risk Management Systems NAHD continuously reviews and refines its risk management techniques, strategies and assessment methods. However, such risk management techniques and strategies may not fully mitigate the risk exposure of the Software in all economic or market environments, or against all types of risk, including risks that the Manager might fail to identify or anticipate. Any failures in the Manager's risk management techniques and strategies to accurately quantify such risk exposure could limit its ability to manage risks in the Software or to seek adequate risk-adjusted returns. Accidental, Erroneous and Fraudulent Trades; Slippage The transactions the Software executes are intended to be based on the bid and ask prices presented to the traders of NAHD by each counterparty. It is anticipated that the prices may be displayed on a computer monitor and that contracts may be executed electronically. The Software has no assurance that the prices displayed will be accurate. Various flaws in communications systems, such as data entry errors and transmission errors, can result in corrupted or inaccurate data. Moreover, the Software has no assurance that a continuous display of electronic connectivity between the Software and its counterparties can be maintained. Communication failures such as electrical outages, computer failures and hard drive failures can result in an inability of the systems to initiate or complete a transaction. There can be no assurance that errors in communication would not lead to erroneously executed transactions or a failure to execute transactions that would have been intended to hedge the Software's positions. The performance of the Software can be affected by data transmissions that are delayed. This phenomenon is sometimes also called latency. The Software has no assurance that performance will not be adversely affected by latency. The Software's counterparties have not made any representation to the Software that any particular level of latency will be maintained, nor that the counterparty would not deliberately degrade latency. Execution of a contract at an erroneous price can therefore affect the performance of the Software. Impacts of Recent Geopolitical Events COVID-19, volatility of commodity prices, the current state of the US and global economies and other actions and heightened measures in response to these threats, and the potential for instability in the markets may cause disruptions to commerce, reduced economic activity and continued volatility in markets throughout the world. Such systemic risks may have an adverse impact on some of the assets in the Software's portfolio in the event that such risks result in a decline in the securities markets and economic activity. NAHD cannot predict at this time the extent and timing of any decreased commercial and economic activity resulting from the above factors, or how any such decrease might affect the value of the Software. The aforementioned factors could also result in incidents or circumstances that would disrupt the normal operations of the Manager and the Partners, which could also have negative effects on the performance of the Software. Disclosure of System Portfolio The statements of the Software will not include a detailed listing of positions held by the Software. Such confidentiality is maintained to prevent third parties from using information concerning the Managers or the Software's positions to its detriment. Examples of ways in which such information could be used adversely to the Software include: (a) to "front run" the Software on sales, or additional purchases, of such positions; (b) to make it more difficult for the 14 Software to protect its positions by withholding, or causing others to withhold, prospective trades; (c) to make it difficult to acquire or borrow securities; or (d) otherwise to interfere with the Software's objectives. Examples of ways in which such information could be used adversely to the Software include: (a) to "front run" the Software on sales, or additional purchases, of such positions; (b) to make it more difficult for the Software to protect its positions by withholding, or causing others to withhold, prospective trades; (c) to make it difficult to acquire or borrow securities; or (d) otherwise to interfere with the Software's objectives. For this reason, NAHD believes it is important to take extra precautions to maintain the confidentiality of the positions in the Software's portfolio. However, NAHD, in its sole discretion, may permit such disclosure on a selective basis to certain Holders, if it determines that there are sufficient confidentiality agreements and procedures in place. Disaster Recovery NAHD has only limited disaster recovery plans for our operations, and we rely on outside parties, including the Partners, for some key accounting and operational functions, that in turn may also have limited disaster recovery plans. There is no assurance that any of these disaster recovery plans will work, which could result in significant losses to the Software. Risk Management and Compliance Control Risk management is about the selection and sizing of exposures, to maximize returns for a given level of risk. The function of risk management in the system process is to determine whether it is more prudent to eliminate or limit the size of each kind of risk exposure and to provide the input into the portfolio construction model. Reducing risk almost always comes with the cost of reducing return. Risk management activities is focused on reducing or eliminating exposure to unnecessary risks but also taking on risks that offer expected attractive payoffs. The Managers uses a risk model in order to controls and deals with the size of unnecessary risk exposures. Each Series of Algorithms and its models were tested to be resilient during major financial events as they were backtested for a minimum of 3 years. Risks from past major financial event/crisis were also applied to test the resilience of these Models. Back-testing is a specific type of historical testing that determines the performance of the Model if it had been employed during past periods and market conditions. While back-testing does not allow one to predict how a Model will perform under future conditions, its primary benefit lay in understanding the vulnerabilities of a Model through a simulated encounter with real-world conditions of the past. This enables the Managers to "learn from history" without having to make them with actual money. The Forex markets can move fast, with gains turning into losses in a matter of minutes therefore making it critical for the NAHD Team to properly manage Holder's capital. NAHD makes use of the following methods to control the risk and protect Holders' profits. Capping Losses Risk must be predetermined. It is the best way to make sure one's losses are controlled and the most rational time to consider risk is during the design of the model. It is acceptable to sustain a drawdown of 10% if it was the result of five consecutive losing trades that were stopped out at 2% loss each. However, it is inexcusable to lose 10% on one trade. High Probability Profit Targets The NAHD Team aims that each Series of Algorithms has a winning percentage of above 50%. It means that there would be at least 50% worth of profit trades in total. High Probability Set Up The Manager ensures that each Series of Algorithms has a set up percentage of above 70%. It means that there would be at least 70% probability of each Series of Algorithms achieving its objective. Tight Money Management Half of trading is about strategy; the other half is about money management. In order to manage the risk and profits, the Manager needs to ensure that a maximum of 2% of the capital is used per trade. 15 Other Risks We will need additional capital to sustain our operations and will likely need to seek further financing to accelerate our growth, which we may not be able to obtain on acceptable terms or at all. Other Risks We will need additional capital to sustain our operations and will likely need to seek further financing to accelerate our growth, which we may not be able to obtain on acceptable terms or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital, as needed, the future growth of our business and operations would be severely limited. A factor limiting our growth, including our ability to enter our proposed markets, attract customers, and deliver our proprietary trading software to the financial community, is our limited capitalization overall and as compared to other companies in the industry. We will need additional capital to bring our operations to a sustainable level over the next twelve months. In 2022, we raised approximately $32,500 from advances from our principal shareholder, in 2023 our principal shareholder, ,Lin Kok Peng, advanced the Company $83,000. In 2022, we raised approximately $32,500 from advances from our principal shareholder. We believe that, in addition to the capital raised thus far, we will require up to an additional $200,000 for the next 12 months to satisfy our operating cash needs for the current business, however, additional capital may be required for the implementation of the expanded new business opportunities (as described above). However, given the status of current business operations within the next 12 months, we will need to seek additional financing. We may also seek additional financing to accelerate our growth. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities, the percentage ownership of the Company held by existing shareholders will be reduced and our shareholders may experience significant dilution. In addition, new securities may contain rights, preferences or privileges that are senior to those of our common stock. If we raise additional capital by incurring debt, this will result in increased interest expense. There can be no assurance that acceptable financing necessary to further implement our plan of operation can be obtained on suitable terms, if at all. Our ability to develop our business could suffer if we are unable to raise additional funds on acceptable terms, which would have the effect of limiting our ability to generate and increase our revenues, develop our products, attain profitable operations, or even may result in our business filing for bankruptcy protection or otherwise ending our operations which could result in a significant or complete loss of your investment. We have incurred significant losses in prior periods, and losses in the future could cause the trading price of our stock to decline or have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, our ability to pay our debts as they become due and on our cash flows. We have incurred significant losses in prior periods. Our accumulated deficit at December 31, 2023 was $12,833,573. Our accumulated deficit at December 31, 2022 was $12,646,034. We incurred a net loss in 2023 of $187,739 and a net loss in 2022 of $154,070. We incurred a net loss in 2022 of $154,070 and a net loss in 2021 of $153,781. If we are not able to attain profitability in the near future and long-term future, the trading price of our stock could decline and our financial condition could deteriorate as we could, among other things, deplete our cash, incur additional indebtedness and issue additional equity that could cause significant dilution, all of which could have a material adverse impact on our business and prospects and result in a significant or complete loss of your investment. We have unsecured loans that are overdue, and we will likely need to raise capital to repay the loan or will need to convert the loan to our common stock at the discretion of our principal shareholder. During 2015, we received interest free loans from Lin Kok Peng, our principal shareholder, in the aggregate principal amount of $316,533 to pay for operating expenses and investments of the Company that were due to be repaid on October 31, 2015. However, if the Company was unable to repay these loans by such date, New Asia Holdings Ltd, at its sole discretion, would have the option to extend the repayment deadline or convert all or a portion of the above Advances into Common Stock at a conversion price of $0.02 per share. There were advances of $83,000 and $32,500 from Lin Kok Peng, the Company’s principal shareholder, during the twelve-month period ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. There were advances of $32,500 and nil from Lin Kok Peng, the Company’s principal shareholder, during the twelve-month period ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The total advances due are $1,028,704 and $945,704 from our principal shareholder as of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. The total advances due are $945,704 and $916,452 from our principal shareholder as of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. As of December 31, 2023, and 2022, the advances constitute unsecured interest-free loans to the Company. 16 On August 14, 2020, the Company signed an Agreement with NAHL, a British Virgin Island Corporation (“NAHL”), which is solely owned and controlled by the Company’s Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Dr. Lin Kok Peng and is thus considered a related party to the Company. All funds advanced to the Company by NAHL up to the Effective Date (the “Prior Advances”) will continue to constitute an interest-free loan to the Company, which was due and payable by the Company to NAHL on or before September 15, 2020 (as the same was to be extended as set forth below, the “Prior Advance Repayment Date”). If the Company does not repay the Prior Advances by the Prior Advance Repayment Date, NAHL, at its sole discretion, will have the option to extend the Prior Advance Repayment Date or convert all or a portion of the Prior Advances into Common Stock at a conversion price of $0.003 per share (the “Prior Advance Conversion Price”), subject to adjustment as set forth in the Agreement. NAHL’s election to extend the Prior Advance Repayment Date or to convert the Prior Advances into Common Stock shall be made on the first business day following the Prior Advance Repayment Date. The Parties acknowledge and agree that the Prior Advances shall not be convertible into Common Stock prior to the Prior Advance Repayment Date. Following August 14, 2020, Lin Kok Peng will endeavor, on a best efforts’ basis, to continue to advance operating funds to the Company as may be required and requested by the Company for its operations, for a period of at least through December 31, 2020 (such additional advances, as funded, the “Additional Advances” and, together with the Prior Advances, the “Advances”). Any such Additional Advances were due and payable by the Company to NAHL on or before January 31, 2021 (the “Additional Advance Repayment Date”, which could be extended as set forth below). Any Additional Advances that have and will be made and are not repaid by the Additional Advance Repayment Date, NAHL, at its sole discretion, will have the option to extend the Additional Advance Repayment Date or convert all or a portion of the Additional Advances into Common Stock at a conversion price of $0.003 per share (the “Additional Advance Conversion Price”), subject to adjustment as set forth in the Agreement. NAHL’s election to extend the Additional Advance Repayment Date or to convert the Additional Advances into Common Stock shall be made on the first business day following the Additional Advance Repayment Date. The Parties acknowledge and agree that any Additional Advances shall not be convertible into Common Stock prior to the Additional Advance Repayment Date. On January 5, 2021, Dr. Lin Kok Peng, the owner of the Company’s principal shareholder NAHL, decided to convert the name of all his Company shares from NAHL to his name directly. Consequently, and consistent with a Board Resolution executed on December 28, 2020, all advances made to the Company by NAHL are due and owing directly to Dr. Lin Kok Peng. As of December 31, 2023, Dr. Lin Kok Peng had not exercised its option to convert the advances into shares of common stock. Accordingly, the total of $1,028,704 in advances remained as an unsecured interest-free loan to the Company as of December 31, 2023. Through December 31, 2023, NAHL has continued to advance operating funds to the Company totaling $1,028,704 and is expected to continue to advance such operating funds in the future. Through December 31, 2022, NAHL has continued to advance operating funds to the Company totaling $945,704 and is expected to continue to advance such operating funds in the future. In August, 2020, Dr. Lin Kok Peng, the owner of NAHL, informed the Company that the previous terms of the prior agreement had not reflected the level of risk that NAHL has taken in effecting these advances over the years. Therefore, on August 14, 2020, the Company and NAHL entered into an Agreement on Advances (the “Agreement”) wherein the Company and NAHL agreed as follows: ·All funds that have been advanced to the Company by NAHL up to August 14, 2020 (the “Prior Advances”) will continue to constitute an interest-free loan to the Company, which will be due and payable by the Company to NAHL on or before September 15, 2020. If the Company does not repay the Prior Advances by that date NAHL will have the right to extend that date for repayment or to convert all or a portion of the Prior Advances into Common Stock at a conversion price of $0.003 per share. ·Following August 14, 2020, NAHL will endeavor, on a best efforts’ basis, to continue to advance operating funds to the Company as may be required and requested by the Company for its operations, for a period of at least through December 31, 2020 (such additional advances, as funded, the “Additional Advances”). Any such Additional Advances will be due and payable by the Company to NAHL on or before January 31, 2021. In the event that any Additional Advances are made and are not repaid by such date, NAHL will have the right to extend that date for repayment or convert all or a portion of the Additional Advances into Common Stock at a conversion price of US $0.003 per share. 17 ·In the event that NAHL determines not to fund any Additional Advances, then conversion price for any Prior Advances made prior to January 1, 2020 will remain $0. ·In the event that NAHL determines not to fund any Additional Advances, then conversion price for any Prior Advances made prior to January 1, 2020 will remain $0. 003 per share but the conversion price with respect to any Prior Advances made after January 1, 2020 will be $0.01 per share. ·The conversion prices as set forth above are subject to customary adjustments for stock splits, stock dividends, recapitalizations and other customary events which occur following August 14, 2020. As per the change in the name of the shares owned by NAHL to the name of Dr. Lin Kok Peng, that occurred on January 5, 2021, all the agreements signed on August 14, 2020 with NAHL will revert to agreements between the Company and Dr. Lin Kok Peng. If New Asia Holdings Ltd coverts the loan and/or we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities to pay off the loan, the percentage ownership of the Company held by existing shareholders will be reduced and our shareholders may experience significant dilution. In addition, new securities may contain rights, preferences or privileges that are senior to those of our common stock. If we raise additional capital by incurring debt, this will result in increased interest expense. There can be no assurance that acceptable financing necessary to further implement our plan of operation can be obtained on suitable terms, if at all. Our ability to develop our business could suffer if we are unable to raise additional funds on acceptable terms, which would have the effect of limiting our ability to increase our revenues, develop our products, attain profitable operations, or even may result in our business filing for bankruptcy protection or otherwise ending our operations which could result in a significant or complete loss of your investment. We have a limited operating history, which may make it difficult for investors to predict future performance based on current operations. We have limited operating history upon which investors may base an evaluation of our potential future performance. As a result, there can be no assurance that we will be able to develop consistent revenue sources, or that our operations will be profitable. Our prospects must be considered considering the risks, expenses, and difficulties frequently encountered by companies in early stage of development. Any forecasts we make about our operations, including, without limitation, sales and plans for raising capital, may prove to be inaccurate. We must, among other things, determine appropriate risks, rewards, and level of investment in each project, respond to economic and market variables outside of our control, respond to competitive developments and continue to attract, retain and motivate qualified employees. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in meeting these challenges and addressing such risks and the failure to do so could have a materially adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. As a result, the value of your investment could be significantly reduced or completely lost. Our independent auditors’ report for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 is qualified as to our ability to continue as a going concern. Due to the uncertainty of our ability to meet our current operating and capital expenses, in their report on our audited annual financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, our independent auditors included an explanatory paragraph regarding concerns about our ability to continue as a going concern. Recurring losses from operations raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. The presence of the going concern explanatory paragraph may have an adverse impact on the relationships we are developing and plan to develop with third parties as we continue the commercialization of our products and could make it challenging and difficult for us to raise additional financing, all of which could have a material adverse impact on our business and prospects and result in a significant or complete loss of your investment. Our actual operating results may differ significantly from any guidance or estimates we may provide. From time to time, we may release guidance estimates in our quarterly and annual earnings releases, quarterly and annual earnings conference calls, or otherwise, regarding our future performance that represents our management's estimates as of the date of release. Although we believe that any such guidance or estimates would provide investors and analysts with a better understanding of management's expectations for the future and could be useful to our stockholders and potential stockholders, such guidance or estimates would consist of forward-looking statements 18 subject to the risks and uncertainties described in this report and in our other public filings and public statements. Guidance and estimates are necessarily speculative in nature, and it can be expected that some or all of the assumptions underlying the guidance or estimates may not materialize or may vary significantly from actual results. Our actual results may not always be in line with or exceed any guidance or estimates we may provide, especially in times of economic uncertainty. If our financial results for a particular period do not meet our guidance or estimates or the expectations of investors or research analysts, or if we reduce our guidance or estimates for future periods, the market price of our common stock may decline. In light of the foregoing, investors are urged not to unduly rely upon any guidance or estimates in making an investment decision regarding our common stock. We depend on our senior management team and the loss of one or more key members of our management team, the failure of new executive officers to integrate with our management team or our failure to attract and retain other highly qualified personnel in the future, could have a negative impact on our business. Our success depends largely on the efforts and abilities of the key members of our senior management team, including Lin Kok Peng, PhD, who serves as the Company's Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, and Chairman of the Board as well as a director, Jose Capote, who serves as the Company's Vice President and Secretary and Director, and Allister Lim Wee Sing, who served as a director of the Company, but who resigned as a Director in March 3, 2023 and was replaced as Director by Jose Capote. Our success depends largely on the efforts and abilities of the key members of our senior management team, including Lin Kok Peng, PhD, who serves as the Company's Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, and Chairman of the Board as well as a director, Jose Capote, who serves as the Company's Vice President and Secretary, and Allister Lim Wee Sing, who served as a director of the Company, but who resigned as a Director in March 3, 2023 and was replaced as Director by Jose Capote. Because each member of our senior management team has a different area of specialization, the departure of any one of these individuals could create a deficiency in one of the core aspects of our business. Any failure of our management team to successfully integrate could also have a negative impact on our business. We are also dependent on the efforts of our team of technology professionals, and on our ability to recruit and retain highly skilled and often specialized personnel, particularly in light of the rapid pace of technological advances. The level of competition in the technology industry for individuals with this level of experience or these skills is intense. Significant losses of key personnel, particularly to competitors, could make it difficult for us to compete successfully. In addition, we may be unable to attract and retain qualified management and personnel in the future, including in relation to any diversification of our product and service offerings into new asset classes and/or new geographic locations. RISK FACTORS CONCERNING INVESTMENT IN OUR COMPANY There is currently a limited public market for our shares, and if an active market does not develop, investors may have difficulty selling their shares. RISK FACTORS CONCERNING INVESTMENT IN OUR COMPANY There is currently a limited public market for our shares, and if an active market does not develop, investors may have difficulty selling their shares. Our common stock is currently traded on the over the counter (OTC) market on the OTCQB tier of the OTC Markets, and there is currently only a limited public trading market for our common stock. We cannot predict the extent to which investor interest in the Company and our common stock will lead to the development or continuance of an active trading market or how liquid that trading market for our common stock might become. If an active trading market for our common stock does not develop or is not sustained, it may be difficult for investors to sell shares, particularly large quantities, of our common stock at a price that is attractive or at all. As a result, an investment in our common stock may be illiquid and investors may not be able to liquidate their investment readily or at all when they desire to sell. Regulation of penny stocks. The SEC has adopted a number of rules to regulate "penny stocks." Because the securities of the Company may constitute "penny stocks" within the meaning of the rules (as any equity security that has a market price of less than $5.00 per share or with an exercise price of less than $5.00 per share, other than a security registered on certain national securities exchanges or quoted on the NASDAQ system, provided that current price and volume information with respect to transactions in that security are provided by the exchange or system), the rules would apply to the Company and to its securities. The SEC has adopted Rule 15g-9 which established sales practice requirements for certain low-price securities. Unless the transaction is exempt, it shall be unlawful for a broker or dealer to sell a penny stock to, or to effect the purchase of a penny stock by, any person unless prior to the transaction: (i) the broker or dealer has approved the person's account for transactions in penny stock pursuant to this rule and (ii) the broker or dealer has received from the person a written agreement to the transaction setting forth the identity and quantity of the penny stock to be purchased. In order to approve a person's account for transactions in penny stock, the broker or dealer 19 must: (a) obtain from the person information concerning the person's financial situation, investment experience, and investment objectives; (b) reasonably determine that transactions in penny stock are suitable for that person, and that the person has sufficient knowledge and experience in financial matters that the person reasonably may be expected to be capable of evaluating the risks of transactions in penny stock; (c) deliver to the person a written statement setting forth the basis on which the broker or dealer made the determination (i) stating in a highlighted format that it is unlawful for the broker or dealer to affect a transaction in penny stock unless the broker or dealer has received, prior to the transaction, a written agreement to the transaction from the person; and (ii) stating in a highlighted format immediately preceding the customer signature line that (A) the broker or dealer is required to provide the person with the written statement and (B) the person should not sign and return the written statement to the broker or dealer if it does not accurately reflect the person's financial situation, investment experience, and investment objectives; and (d) receive from the person a manually signed and dated copy of the written statement. In order to approve a person's account for transactions in penny stock, the broker or dealer must: (a) obtain from the person information concerning the person's financial situation, investment experience, and investment objectives; (b) reasonably determine that transactions in penny stock are suitable for that person, and that the person has sufficient knowledge and experience in financial matters that the person reasonably may be expected to be capable of evaluating the risks of transactions in penny stock; (c) deliver to the person a written statement setting forth the basis on which the broker or dealer made the determination (i) stating in a highlighted format that it is unlawful for the broker or dealer to affect a transaction in penny stock unless the broker or dealer has received, prior to the transaction, a written agreement to the transaction from the person; and (ii) stating in a highlighted format immediately preceding the customer signature line that (A) the broker or dealer is required to provide the person with the written statement and (B) the person should not sign and return the written statement to the broker or dealer if it does not accurately reflect the person's financial situation, investment experience, and investment objectives; and (d) receive from the person a manually signed and dated copy of the written statement. It is also required that disclosure be made as to the risks of investing in penny stock and the commissions payable to the broker-dealer, as well as current price quotations and the remedies and rights available in cases of fraud in penny stock transactions. Statements, on a monthly basis, must be sent to the investor listing recent prices for the "penny stock" and information on the limited market. Shareholders should be aware that, according to SEC Release No. 34-29093, the market for penny stocks has suffered in recent years from patterns of fraud and abuse. 34- 21 29093, the market for penny stocks has suffered in recent years from patterns of fraud and abuse. Such patterns include: (i) control of the market for the security by one or a few broker-dealers that are often related to the promoter or issuer; (ii) manipulation of prices through prearranged matching of purchases and sales and false and misleading press releases; (iii) "boiler room" practices involving high pressure sales tactics and unrealistic price projections by inexperienced sales persons; (iv) excessive and undisclosed bid ask differential and markups by selling broker-dealers; and (v) the wholesale dumping of the same securities by promoters and broker dealers after prices have been manipulated to a desired level, along with the resulting inevitable collapse of those prices and with consequent investor losses. The Company's management is aware of the abuses that have occurred historically in the penny stock market. Although the Company does not expect to be in a position to dictate the behavior of the market or of broker-dealers who participate in the market, management will strive within the confines of practical limitations to prevent the described patterns from being established with respect to the Company's securities. There is limited liquidity in our common stock, which may adversely affect your ability to sell your shares of common stock. The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly in response to a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control. These factors include, but are not limited to: ●the announcement of new products or product enhancements by us or our competitors; ●developments concerning intellectual property rights and regulatory approvals relating to us; ●quarterly variations in our results or the results of our competitors; ●the ability or inability of us to generate sales; ●developments in our industry and target markets; ●the number of market makers who are willing to continue to make a market in our stock and the market or exchange on which they decide to make a market in our stock, which may, among other things, result in our stock being traded on the exchanges that may be unattractive to investors such as "pink sheets"; and ●general market conditions and other factors, including factors unrelated to our own operating performance. In recent years, the stock market in general has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. Continued market fluctuations could result in extreme volatility in the price of shares of our common stock, which could cause a decline in the value of our shares. Price volatility may be accentuated if trading volume of our common stock is low. The volatility in our stock may be combined with low trading volume. Any or all of these above factors could adversely affect your ability to sell your shares or, if you are able to sell your shares, to sell your shares at a price that you determine to be fair or favorable. 20 Dependence upon outside advisors. Dependence upon outside advisors. To supplement the business experience of its officers and directors, the Company may be required to employ accountants, technical experts, appraisers, attorneys, or other consultants or advisors. The selection of any such advisors will be made by the Company's officers, without any input by shareholders. Furthermore, it is anticipated that such persons may be engaged on an as needed basis without a continuing fiduciary or other obligation to the Company. In the event the officers of the Company consider it necessary to hire outside advisors, he may elect to hire persons who are affiliates, if those affiliates are able to provide the required services. We may issue additional shares of common stock or preferred stock in the future, which could cause significant dilution to all shareholders. We have a large amount of authorized but unissued common stock and preferred stock which our Board of Directors may issue without shareholder approval. We will need additional capital to bring our operations to a sustainable level over the next twelve months and may seek this capital in the form of equity financing. We may also seek to raise additional equity capital in the future to fund business alliances, develop new prototypes, and grow our services, manufacturing and sales capabilities organically or otherwise. In addition to additional issuances of our common stock or preferred stock in private placements or public offerings, we may issue shares as part or all of the consideration in any merger, acquisition, joint venture or other strategic alliance that we enter. 22 In addition to additional issuances of our common stock or preferred stock in private placements or public offerings, we may issue shares as part or all of the consideration in any merger, acquisition, joint venture or other strategic alliance that we enter. Any issuance of additional shares of our common stock or preferred stock will dilute the percentage ownership interest of all shareholders and may dilute the book value per share of our common stock and may negatively impact the market price of our common stock. We have not in the past and we do not currently intend to pay cash dividends on our common stock. We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend on retaining any future earnings to fund our operations and growth and do not expect to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future of the common stock. Future dividends, if any, will be determined by our board of directors, based upon our earnings, financial condition, capital resources, capital requirements, charter restrictions, contractual restrictions, and such other factors as our board of directors deem relevant. ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS. Not Applicable. ITEM 1C. ITEM 1B. CYBERSECURITY. Cybersecurity Risk Management and Strategy The cybersecurity risk management program, processes and strategy described in this section are limited to the personal and business information belonging to or maintained by the Company (collectively, “Confidential Information”), our own third-party critical systems and services supporting or used by the Company (collectively, “Critical Systems”), and service providers. We expect to develop and implement a cybersecurity risk management program intended to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our Confidential Information and Critical Systems. Our cybersecurity risk management program will be integrated into our overall enterprise risk management program and is expected to include a cybersecurity incident response plan. 21 Our cybersecurity risk management program is expected to include: ·risk assessments designed to help identify material cybersecurity risks to our Confidential Information, Critical Systems and the broader enterprise IT environment; ·a security team principally responsible for managing (i) our cybersecurity risk assessment processes, (ii) our security controls, and (iii) our response to cybersecurity incidents; ·cybersecurity awareness and spear-phishing resistance training of our employees, and senior management; ·a cybersecurity incident response plan that includes procedures for responding to cybersecurity incidents; and ·a vendor management policy for service providers. We have not identified risks from known cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any prior cybersecurity incidents, that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect us, including our operations, business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. We face risks from cybersecurity threats that, if realized, could have a material adverse effect on us including an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Cybersecurity Governance Our executive management team, along with our managed information technology service provider, is responsible for assessing and managing risks from cybersecurity threats to the Company, including our Confidential Information and Critical Systems. Our Board considers cybersecurity risk as part of its risk oversight function and oversight of cybersecurity and other information technology risks. Our Board oversees management’s implementation of our planned cybersecurity risk management program. Our executive management team is responsible for updating the Board, as necessary, regarding significant cybersecurity incidents. Our Board shall also receive periodic reports from management on our cybersecurity risks and cybersecurity risk management program. .
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