Risk Factors Dashboard

Once a year, publicly traded companies issue a comprehensive report of their business, called a 10-K. A component mandated in the 10-K is the ‘Risk Factors’ section, where companies disclose any major potential risks that they may face. This dashboard highlights all major changes and additions in new 10K reports, allowing investors to quickly identify new potential risks and opportunities.

Risk Factors - PBIO

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, such as statements of our objectives, expectations and intentions. The cautionary statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K should be read as applicable to all forward-looking statements wherever they appear in this report. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed herein. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include those discussed below, as well as those discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Risks Related To Our COMPANY

We have received an opinion from our independent registered public accounting firm expressing substantial doubt regarding our ability to continue as a going concern.

The audit report issued by our independent registered public accounting firm on our audited consolidated financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, contains an explanatory paragraph regarding our ability to continue as a going concern. The audit report states that our auditing firm determined that there was substantial doubt in our ability to continue as a going concern due to the risk that we may not have sufficient cash and liquid assets at to cover our operating and capital requirements for the next twelve-month period; and if sufficient cash cannot be obtained, we would have to substantially alter, or possibly even discontinue, operations. The audit report states that our auditing firm determined that there was substantial doubt in our ability to continue as a going concern due to the risk that we may not have sufficient cash and liquid assets at December 31, 2021 to cover our operating and capital requirements for the next twelve-month period; and if sufficient cash cannot be obtained, we would have to substantially alter, or possibly even discontinue, operations. The accompanying consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

Management has developed a plan to continue operations. This plan includes continued control of expenses and obtaining equity or debt financing. Although we have successfully completed equity financings and reduced expenses in the past, we cannot assure you that our plans to address these matters in the future will be successful.

The factors described above could adversely affect our ability to obtain additional financing on favorable terms, if at all, and may cause investors to have reservations about our long-term prospects and may adversely affect our relationships with customers. There can be no assurance that our auditing firm will not issue the same opinion in the future. If we cannot successfully continue as a going concern, our stockholders may lose their entire investment.

Our revenue is dependent upon acceptance of our products by the market. The failure of such acceptance will cause us to curtail or cease operations.

Our revenue comes from the sale of our products. As a result, we will continue to incur operating losses until such time that sales of our products reach a mature level, and we are able to generate sufficient revenue from the sale of our products to meet our operating expenses. As a result, we will continue to incur operating losses until such time as sales of our products reach a mature level and we are able to generate sufficient revenue from the sale of our products to meet our operating expenses. There can be no assurance that customers will adopt our technology and products, or that businesses and prospective customers will agree to pay for our products. In the event that we are not able to significantly increase the number of customers that purchase our products, or if we are unable to charge the necessary prices, our financial condition and results of operations will be materially and adversely affected.

Pressure BioSciences, Inc.December 31, 2023 Form 10K24

Our business could be adversely affected if we fail to implement and maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting.

We concluded that as of December 31, 2023, our disclosure controls and procedures and our internal control over financial reporting were not effective. We have determined that we have limited resources for adequate personnel to prepare and file reports under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 within the required time periods and that material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting exist relating to our accounting for complex equity transactions. If we are unable to implement and maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and remediate the material weaknesses in a timely manner, or if we identify other material weaknesses in the future, our ability to produce accurate and timely financial statements and public reports could be impaired, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition. We identified a lack of sufficient segregation of duties. Specifically, this material weakness is such that the design over these areas relies primarily on detective controls and could be strengthened by adding preventive controls to properly safeguard assets. Specifically, this material weakness is such that the design over these areas relies primarily on detective controls and could be strengthened by adding preventive controls to properly safeguard assets. In addition, investors may lose confidence in our reported information and the market price of our common stock may decline.

We have a history of operating losses, anticipate future losses and may never be profitable.

We have experienced significant operating losses in each period since we began investing resources in PCT and CP. These losses have resulted principally from research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses associated with the development of our PCT business and more recently our BaroFold and UST business. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we recorded a net loss available to common shareholders of $35,202,434 or ($1.51) per share, as compared with $17,803,953 or ($1.61) per share, for the corresponding period in 2022. We expect to continue to incur operating losses until sales increase substantially. We cannot be certain when, if ever, we will become profitable. Even if we were to become profitable, we might not be able to sustain such profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.

If we are unable to obtain additional financing, business operations will be harmed and if we do obtain additional financing then existing shareholders may suffer substantial dilution.

We need substantial capital to implement our sales distribution strategy for our current products and to develop and commercialize future products using our high-pressure technology products and services across all of our targeted markets. Our capital requirements will depend on many factors, including but not limited to:

We expect the net proceeds from our financing plans, along with our current cash position, will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next 24 months, during which time we expect to achieve profitability. If we do not achieve profitability as planned, we anticipate that we will need to raise additional capital to fund our operations and to otherwise implement our overall business strategy. We currently do not have any contracts or commitments for additional financing. There can be no assurance that financing will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Any additional equity financing may involve substantial dilution to then existing shareholders.

If adequate funds are not available or if we fail to obtain acceptable additional financing, we may be required to:

We have incurred substantial debt, which could impair our flexibility and access to capital and adversely affect our financial position, and our business would be materially adversely affected if we are unable to service our debt obligations.

As described in Note 9 to our audited financial statements, as of December 31, 2023, there were $21.3 million in convertible notes outstanding, some of which are past due. One lender holds approximately $8.9 million of this debt. In addition, as of December 31, 2023 we were making daily payments of $1,550 to service Merchant Agreements. In addition, as of December 31, 2021 we were making daily payments of $1,279 and one payment per week of $11,305 to service Merchant Agreements. As of March 31, 2024 we were making daily payments of $2,000 to service Merchant Agreements. As of March 31, 2022 we were making weekly payments totaling $30,295 to service Merchant Agreements.

We may incur additional indebtedness from time to time to implement our sales distribution strategy for our current products and to develop and commercialize future products using our high-pressure technology products and services across all of our targeted markets.

Our substantial indebtedness may:

In addition, our cash balance is significantly less than the principal amount of our outstanding debt, and we may not generate sufficient cash flow from our operations to pay our substantial debt. Any debt financing that is available could cause us to incur substantial costs and subject us to covenants that significantly restrict our ability to conduct our business.

Pressure BioSciences, Inc.December 31, 2023 Form 10K25

Our financial results depend on revenues from our high-pressure technology products and services, and from government grants.

We currently rely on revenues from PCT, BaroFold, and UST technology products and services, and from revenues derived from grants awarded to us by governmental agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health. Through 2023, we have not yet achieved product readiness for BaroFold and UST, and/or market acceptance of our product offerings, to the extent necessary to achieve revenue growth sufficient to establish profitability. Competition for government grants is very intense, and we can provide no assurance that we will continue to be awarded grants in the future. If we are unable to increase revenues from sales of our high-pressure technology products and services and government grants, our business will fail.

We may be unable to obtain market acceptance of our high-pressure technology products and services.

Many of the initial sales of our pressure cycling technology products and services have been to our collaborators, following their use of our products in studies undertaken in sample preparation for genomics, proteomics, lipidomics, and small molecules studies. Later sales have been to key opinion leaders. Our technology requires scientists and researchers to adopt a method of sample extraction that is different from existing techniques. Our PCT sample preparation system is also more costly than most existing techniques. Our ability to obtain market acceptance will depend, in part, on our ability to demonstrate to our potential customers that the benefits and advantages of our technology outweigh the increased cost of our technology compared with existing methods of sample extraction. Similar early technology introduction, trial and acceptance challenges must be surmounted for the BaroFold and UST products and services, as well. If we are unable to demonstrate the benefits and advantages of our products and technology as compared with existing technologies, we will not gain market acceptance and our business will fail.

Our business may be harmed if we encounter problems, delays, expenses, and complications that often affect companies that have not achieved significant market acceptance.

Our high-pressure technology businesses will continue to face challenges in achieving market acceptance. If we encounter problems, delays, expenses and complications, many of which may be beyond our control or may harm our business or prospects. These include:

The sales cycle of our high-pressure technology products is lengthy. We have incurred and may continue to incur significant expenses and we may not generate any significant revenue related to those products.

Many of our current and potential customers have required between three and six months or more to test and evaluate our high-pressure technology products. This increases the possibility that a customer may decide to cancel its order or otherwise change its plans, which could reduce or eliminate our sales to that potential customer. As a result of this lengthy sales cycle, we have incurred and may continue to incur significant research and development, selling and marketing, and general and administrative expense related to customers from whom we have not yet generated any revenue from our products, and from whom we may never generate the anticipated revenue if a customer is not satisfied with the results of the evaluation of our products or if a customer cancels or changes its plans.

Our business could be harmed if our products contain undetected errors or defects.

We are continuously developing new and improving our existing, high-pressure technology products and we expect to do so across many areas of life sciences applications depending upon the availability of our resources. Newly introduced products can contain undetected errors or defects. In addition, these products may not meet their performance specifications under all conditions or for all applications. If, despite internal testing and testing by our collaborators, any of our products contain errors or defects or fail to meet customer specifications, then we may be required to enhance or improve those products or technologies. We may not be able to do so on a timely basis, if at all, and may only be able to do so at considerable expense. In addition, any significant reliability problems could result in adverse customer reaction, negative publicity or legal claims and could harm our business and prospects.

Our success may depend on our ability to manage growth effectively.

Our failure to manage growth effectively could harm our business and prospects. Given our limited resources and personnel, growth of our business could place significant strain on our management, information technology systems, sources of manufacturing capacity and other resources. To properly manage our growth, we may need to hire additional employees and identify new sources of manufacturing capabilities. Failure to effectively manage our growth could make it difficult to manufacture our products and fill orders, as well as lead to declines in product quality or increased costs, any of which would adversely impact our business and results of operations.

Our success is substantially dependent on the continued service of our senior management.

Our success is substantially dependent on the continued service of our senior management, specifically our Chief Executive Officer, Richard T. Schumacher. The loss of the services of any of our senior management could make it more difficult to successfully operate our business and achieve our business goals. In addition, our failure to retain existing engineering, research and development, operations, and marketing/sales personnel could harm our product development capabilities and customer and employee relationships, delay the growth of sales of our products, and result in the loss of key information, expertise, or know-how.

Pressure BioSciences, Inc.December 31, 2023 Form 10K26

We may not be able to hire or retain the number of qualified personnel, particularly engineering and sales personnel, required for our business, which would harm the development and sales of our products and limit our ability to grow.

Competition in our industry for senior management, technical, sales, marketing, finance and other key personnel is intense. If we are unable to retain our existing personnel, or attract and train additional qualified personnel, either because of competition in our industry for such personnel or because of insufficient financial resources, our growth may be limited. Our success also depends in particular on our ability to identify, hire, train and retain qualified engineering and sales personnel with experience in design, development and sales of laboratory equipment.

Our failure to manage current or future alliances or joint ventures effectively may harm our business.

We have entered business relationships with four distribution partners and one co-marketing partner, and we may enter into additional alliances, joint ventures or other business relationships to further develop, market and sell our pressure cycling technology product line. We may not be able to:

Furthermore, any alliance, joint venture or other business relationship may divert management time and resources. Entering into a disadvantageous alliance, joint venture or business relationship, failing to manage an alliance, joint venture or business relationship effectively, or failing to comply with any obligations in connection therewith, could harm our business and prospects.

We may not be successful in growing our international sales.

We cannot guarantee that we will successfully develop our international sales channels to enable us to generate significant revenue from international sales. We currently have four international distribution agreements that cover 24 countries in Europe, Asia and Australia. We have generated limited sales to date from international sales and cannot guarantee that we will be able to increase our sales. As we expand, our international operations may be subject to numerous risks and challenges, including:

Pressure BioSciences, Inc.December 31, 2023 Form 10K27

Our operating results are subject to quarterly variation. Our operating results may fluctuate significantly from period to period depending on a variety of factors, including but not limited to the following:

Our instrumentation operates at high pressures and may therefore become subject to certain regulations in the European Community. Regulation of high-pressure equipment may limit or hinder our development and sale of future instrumentation.

Our Barocycler instruments operate at high pressures. If our Barocycler instruments exceed certain pressure levels, our products may become subject to the European Pressure Equipment Directive, which requires certain pressure equipment to meet certain quality and safety standards. We do not believe that we are subject to this directive because our Barocycler instruments are currently below the threshold documented in the text of the directive. If our interpretation were to be challenged, we could incur significant costs defending the challenge, and we could face production and selling delays, all of which could harm our business.

We expect that we will be subject to regulation in the United States, such as by the Food and Drug Administration, and overseas, if and when we begin to invest more resources in the development and commercialization of PCT in applications outside of sample preparation for the research field.

Our current pressure cycling technology products in sample preparation for the research field are not regulated by the FDA. Certain applications in which we intend to develop and commercialize pressure cycling technology, such as protein purification, pathogen inactivation and immunodiagnostics, are expected to require regulatory approvals or clearances from regulatory agencies, such as the FDA, prior to commercialization, when we expand our commercialization activities outside of the research field. We expect that obtaining these approvals or clearances will require a significant investment of time and capital resources and there can be no assurance that such investments will receive approvals or clearances that would allow us to commercialize the technology for these applications.

If we are unable to protect our patents and other proprietary technology relating to our pressure cycling technology products, our business will be harmed.

Our ability to further develop and successfully commercialize our products will depend, in part, on our ability to enforce our patents, preserve our trade secrets, and operate without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties. To date, we have been awarded 26 total United States and foreign patents related to our PCT technology platform, and one US patent and two additional patents in China related to our Ultra Shear Technology. We also received eight patents with our purchase of the assets of BaroFold in December 2017.

There can be no assurance that (a) any patent applications filed by us will result in issued patents; (b) patent protection will be secured for any particular technology; (c) any patents that have been or may be issued to us will be valid or enforceable; (d) any patents will provide meaningful protection to us; (e) others will not be able to design around our patents; and (f) our patents will provide a competitive advantage or have commercial value. The failure to obtain adequate patent protection would have a material adverse effect on us and may adversely affect our ability to enter into, or affect the terms of, any arrangement for the marketing or sale of any product.

Our patents may be challenged by others.

We could incur substantial costs in patent proceedings, including interference proceedings before the United States Patent and Trademark Office, and comparable proceedings before similar agencies in other countries, in connection with any claims that may arise in the future. These proceedings could result in adverse decisions about the patentability of our inventions and products, as well as about the enforceability, validity, or scope of protection afforded by the patents.

Pressure BioSciences, Inc.December 31, 2023 Form 10K28

If we are unable to maintain the confidentiality of our trade secrets and proprietary knowledge, others may develop technology and products that could prevent the successful commercialization of our products.

We rely on trade secrets and other unpatented proprietary information in our product development activities. To the extent we rely on trade secrets and unpatented know-how to maintain our competitive technological position, there can be no assurance that others may not independently develop the same or similar technologies. We seek to protect our trade secrets and proprietary knowledge, in part, through confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, advisors and contractors. These agreements may not be sufficient to effectively prevent disclosure of our confidential information and may not provide us with an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of such information. If our employees, consultants, advisors, or contractors develop inventions or processes independently that may be applicable to our products, disputes may arise about ownership of proprietary rights to those inventions and processes. Such inventions and processes will not necessarily become our property but may remain the property of those persons or their employers. Protracted and costly litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights. Failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection, for any reason, could harm our business.

If we infringe on the intellectual property rights of others, our business may be harmed.

It is possible that the manufacture, use or sale of our pressure cycling technology products or services may infringe patent or other intellectual property rights of others. We may be unable to avoid infringement of the patent or other intellectual property rights of others and may be required to seek a license, defend an infringement action, or challenge the validity of the patents or other intellectual property rights in court. We may be unable to secure a license on terms and conditions acceptable to us, if at all. Also, we may not prevail in any patent or other intellectual property rights litigation. Patent or other intellectual property rights litigation is costly and time-consuming, and there can be no assurance that we will have sufficient resources to bring any possible litigation related to such infringement to a successful conclusion. If we do not obtain a license under such patents or other intellectual property rights, or if we are found liable for infringement, or if we are unsuccessful in having such patents declared invalid, we may be liable for significant monetary damages, may encounter significant delays in successfully commercializing and developing our pressure cycling technology products, or may be precluded from participating in the manufacture, use, or sale of our pressure cycling technology products or services requiring such licenses.

We may be unable to adequately respond to rapid changes in technology and the development of new industry standards.

The introduction of products and services embodying new technology and the emergence of new industry standards may render our existing pressure cycling technology products and related services obsolete and unmarketable if we are unable to adapt to change. We may be unable to allocate the funds necessary to improve our current products or introduce new products to address our customers’ needs and respond to technological change. In the event that other companies develop more technologically advanced products, our competitive position relative to such companies would be harmed.

We may not be able to compete successfully with others that are developing or have developed competitive technologies and products.

Several companies have developed, or are expected to develop, products that compete or will compete with our products. We compete with companies that have existing technologies for the extraction of nucleic acids, proteins and small molecules from cells and tissues, including but not limited to methods such as mortar and pestle, sonication, rotor-stator homogenization, French press, bead beating, freezer milling, enzymatic digestion, and chemical dissolution.

We are aware that there are additional companies pursuing new technologies with similar goals to the products developed or being developed by us. Some of the companies with which we now compete, or may compete in the future, have or may have more extensive research, marketing, and manufacturing capabilities, more experience in genomics and proteomics sample preparation, protein purification, pathogen inactivation, immunodiagnostics, and DNA sequencing and significantly greater technical, personnel and financial resources than we do, and may be better positioned to continue to improve their technology to compete in an evolving industry. To compete, we must be able to demonstrate to potential customers that our products provide improved performance and capabilities. Our failure to compete successfully could harm our business and prospects.

Pressure BioSciences, Inc.December 31, 2023 Form 10K29

We will need to increase the size of our organization and may experience difficulties in managing growth.

We are a small company with a minimal number of employees. We expect to experience a period of expansion in headcount, facilities, infrastructure and overhead and anticipate that further expansion will be required to address potential growth and market opportunities. Future growth will impose significant added responsibilities on members of management, including the need to identify, recruit, maintain and integrate new managers. Our future financial performance and its ability to compete effectively will depend, in part, on its ability to manage any future growth effectively.

Provisions in our articles of organization and bylaws may discourage or frustrate stockholders’ attempts to remove or replace our current management.

Our articles of organization and bylaws contain provisions that may make it more difficult or discourage changes in our management that our stockholders may consider to be favorable. These provisions include:

These provisions could prevent or frustrate attempts to make changes in our management that our stockholders consider to be beneficial and could limit the price that our stockholders might receive in the future for shares of our common stock.

The costs of compliance with the reporting obligations of the Exchange Act, and with the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, may place a strain on our limited resources and our management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns.

As a result of the regulatory requirements applicable to public companies, we incur legal, accounting, and other expenses that are significant in relation to the size of our Company including expenses related to complying with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and OTC Markets Group, Inc. These requirements have placed and will continue to place a strain on our systems and on our management and financial resources.

Certain of our net deferred tax assets could be substantially limited if we experience an ownership change as defined in the Internal Revenue Code.

Certain of our net operating losses (“NOLs”) give rise to net deferred tax assets. Our ability to utilize NOLs and to offset our future taxable income and/or to recover previously paid taxes would be limited if we were to undergo an “ownership change” within the meaning of Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”). In general, an “ownership change” occurs whenever the percentage of the stock of a corporation owned by “5 percent shareholders,” within the meaning of Section 382 of the Code, increases by more than 50 percentage points over the lowest percentage of the stock of such corporation owned by such “5 percent shareholders” at any time over the preceding three years.

An ownership change under Section 382 of the Code would establish an annual limitation on the amount of NOLs we could utilize to offset our taxable income in any single taxable year to an amount equal to (i) the product of a specified rate, which is published by the U.S. Treasury, and the aggregate value of our outstanding stock plus; and (ii) the amount of unutilized limitation from prior years. The application of these limitations might prevent full utilization of the deferred tax assets attributable to our NOLs. We may have or will have experienced an ownership change as defined by Section 382 through the sale of equity and, therefore, we will consider whether the sale of equity units will result in limitations of our net operating losses under Section 382 when we start to generate taxable income. However, whether a change in ownership occurs in the future is largely outside of our control, and there can be no assurance that such a change will not occur.

Pressure BioSciences, Inc.December 31, 2023 Form 10K30

We continue to face risks related to Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) which could continue to significantly disrupt our research and development, operations, sales, and financial results.

Our business was adversely impacted by the effects of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). In addition to global macroeconomic effects, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak and any other related adverse public health developments could continue to cause disruption to our operations, research and development, and sales activities. Our third-party manufacturers, third-party distributors, and our customers have been and will be disrupted by worker absenteeism, quarantines and restrictions on employees’ ability to work, office and factory closures, disruptions to ports and other shipping infrastructure, border closures, or other travel or health-related restrictions. Depending on the magnitude of such effects on our activities or the operations of our third-party manufacturers and third-party distributors, the supply of our products will be delayed, which could adversely affect our business, operations and customer relationships. In addition, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) or other disease outbreak will in the short-run and may over the longer term adversely affect the economies and financial markets of many countries, resulting in an economic downturn that will affect demand for our products and impact our operating results. There can be no assurance that any decrease in sales resulting from the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) will be offset by increased sales in subsequent periods. Although the magnitude of the impact of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak on our business and operations remains uncertain, the continued spread of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) or the occurrence of other epidemics and the imposition of related public health measures and travel and business restrictions will adversely impact our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows. In addition, we have experienced and will experience disruptions to our business operations resulting from quarantines, self-isolations, or other movement and restrictions on the ability of our employees to perform their jobs that may impact our ability to develop and design our products in a timely manner or meet required milestones or customer commitments.

RISKS RELATED TO OWNERSHIP OF OUR SECURITIES

The holders of our Common Stock could suffer substantial dilution due to our corporate financing practices.

The holders of our common stock could suffer substantial dilution due to our corporate financing practices, which, in the past few years, have included private placements and a registered direct offering. As of December 31, 2023, there were 35,367,663 shares of common stock issued and outstanding. As of December 31, 2023 there were 75 shares of Series D Convertible Preferred Stock issued and outstanding and convertible into 6,250 shares of common stock, 8,645 shares of Series AA Convertible Preferred Stock issued and outstanding convertible into 8,645,000 shares of common stock, 1,219 shares of BB Convertible Preferred Stock and outstanding convertible into 12,190,000 shares of common stock and 401 shares of Series CC Convertible Preferred Stock and outstanding convertible into 4,010,000 shares of common stock.

As of December 31, 2023, we had issued notes and debentures convertible into common stock at $2.50 per common share and outstanding options and warrants to purchase an aggregate of 20,498,108 shares of common stock; and debt convertible into 8,684,223 shares of common stock.

If all of the outstanding shares of Series D Convertible Preferred Stock, Series AA Convertible Preferred Stock, Series BB Convertible Preferred Stock and Series CC Convertible Preferred Stock were converted into shares of common stock and all outstanding options and warrants to purchase shares of common stock were exercised and all convertible notes and debentures were converted, each as of December 31, 2023 an additional 54,033,581 shares of common stock would be issued and outstanding, summing to a total dilution of 89,401,244 common shares.. This additional issuance of shares of common stock would cause immediate and substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and could cause a significant reduction in the market price of our common stock.

From time to time, we also may increase the number of shares available for issuance in connection with our equity compensation plan, we may adopt new equity compensation plans, and we may issue awards to our employees and others who provide services to us outside the terms of our equity compensation plans. Our board of directors may fix and determine the designations, rights, preferences or other variations of each class or series of preferred stock and may choose to issue some or all of such shares to provide additional financing in the future.

The issuance of any securities for acquisition, licensing or financing efforts, upon conversion of any preferred stock or exercise of warrants, pursuant to our equity compensation plans, or otherwise may result in a reduction of the book value and market price of the outstanding shares of our common stock. If we issue any such additional securities, such issuance will cause a reduction in the proportionate ownership and voting power of all current stockholders. Further, such issuance may result in a change in control of our Company.

Pressure BioSciences, Inc.December 31, 2023 Form 10K31

Sales of a significant number of shares of our common stock in the public market or the perception of such possible sales, could depress the market price of our common stock.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public markets, which include an offering of our preferred stock or common stock could depress the market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity or equity-related securities. We cannot predict the effect that future sales of our common stock or other equity-related securities would have on the market price of our common stock.

Our share price could be volatile and our trading volume may fluctuate substantially.

The price of common stock has been and may in the future continue to be extremely volatile. Many factors could have a significant impact on the future price of our shares of common stock, including:

A decline in the price of our shares of common stock could affect our ability to raise further working capital and adversely impact our ability to continue operations.

The relatively low price of our shares of common stock, and a decline in the price of our shares of common stock, could result in a reduction in the liquidity of our common stock and a reduction in our ability to raise capital. Because a significant portion of our operations have been and will continue to be financed through the sale of equity securities, a decline in the price of our shares of common stock could be especially detrimental to our liquidity and our operations. Such reductions and declines may force us to reallocate funds from other planned uses and may have a significant negative effect on our business plans and operations, including our ability to continue our current operations. If the price for our shares of common stock declines, it may be more difficult to raise additional capital. If we are unable to raise sufficient capital, and we are unable to generate funds from operations sufficient to meet our obligations, we will not have the resources to continue our operations.

The market price for our shares of common stock may also be affected by our ability to meet or exceed the expectations of analysts or investors. Any failure to meet these expectations, even if minor, may have a material adverse effect on the market price of our shares of common stock.

Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) sales practice requirements may also limit a stockholder’s ability to buy and sell our common stock.

FINRA has adopted rules that require that in recommending an investment to a customer, a broker-dealer must have reasonable grounds for believing that the investment is suitable for that customer. Prior to recommending speculative low-priced securities to their non-institutional customers, broker-dealers must make reasonable efforts to obtain information about the customer’s financial status, tax status, investment objectives and other information. Under interpretations of these rules, FINRA believes that there is a high probability that speculative low-priced securities will not be suitable for at least some customers. FINRA requirements make it more difficult for broker-dealers to recommend that their customers buy our common stock, which may limit your ability to buy and sell our common stock and have an adverse effect on the market for our shares.

Pressure BioSciences, Inc.December 31, 2023 Form 10K32

Our Common Stock is subject to the “Penny Stock” rules of the SEC and the trading market in our securities is limited, which makes transactions in our stock cumbersome and may reduce the value of an investment in our stock.